This book reviews a draft report from the federal government that assesses the effects of oxygenated gasoline on public health, air quality, fuel economy, engine performance, and water quality. In addition to evaluating the scientific basis of the report, the book identifies research needed to better understand the impacts of oxygenated fuels. Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), which is intended to reduce carbon monoxide pollution during winter, is the most commonly used additive in the federal oxygenated fuels program. MTBE has been implicated in complaints by the public of headaches, coughs
The public depends on competent risk assessment from the federal government and the scientific community to grapple with the threat of pollution. When risk reports turn out to be overblown--or when risks are overlooked--public skepticism abounds.
This comprehensive and readable book explores how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) can improve its risk assessment practices, with a focus on implementation of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments.
With a wealth of detailed information, pertinent examples, and revealing analysis, the volume explores the "default option" and other basi
Scenic vistas in most U.S. parklands are diminished by haze that reduces contrast, washes out colors, and renders distant landscape features indistinct or invisible.
Protecting Visibility in National Parks and Wilderness Areas describes the current understanding of the nature and extent of haze in various regions of the United States. The book addresses the scientific and legal framework of efforts to protect and improve visibility, as well as methods for assessing the relative importance of anthropogenic emission sources that contribute to haze in national parks and for considering
Despite more than 20 years of regulatory efforts, concern is widespread that ozone pollution in the lower atmosphere, or troposphere, threatens the health of humans, animals, and vegetation. This book discusses how scientific information can be used to develop more effective regulations to control ozone.
Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution discusses:
The latest data and analysis on how tropospheric ozone is formed.
How well our measurement techniques are functioning.
Deficiencies in efforts to date to control the problem.
This book presents working principles for assessing the relative importance of anthropogenic emission sources that contribute to haze in U.S. national parks and wilderness areas and discusses various alternative source control methods.
Haze in the Grand Canyon evaluates and recommends strategies for improving critical scientific and technical gaps in the information and databases on haze. It examines such topics as methods for determining individual source contributions, regional and seasonal factors that affect haze, strategies for improving air quality models, the interactive role
Technology and Environment is one of a series of publications designed to bring national attention to issues of the greatest importance in engineering and technology during the 25th year of the National Academy of Engineering.
A "paradox of technology" is that it can be both the source of environmental damage and our best hope for repairing such damage today and avoiding it in the future. Technology and Environment addresses this paradox and the blind spot it creates in our understanding of environmental crises. The book considers the proximate causes of environmental damage--
This comprehensive book examines the recent research investigating the characteristics and composition of different types of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and discusses possible health effects of ETS. The volume presents an overview of methods used to determine exposures to environmental smoke and reviews both chronic and acute health effects. Many recommendations are made for areas of further research, including the differences between smokers and nonsmokers in absorbing, metabolizing, and excreting the components of ETS, and the possible effects of ETS exposure during childhood and fetal
In a giant step toward managing today's pollution problems more effectively, this report lays out a framework to coordinate an interdisciplinary and international investigation of the chemical composition and cycles of the troposphere. The approach includes geographical surveys, field measurements, the development of appropriate models, and improved instrumentation.