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Environment and Environmental Studies

Accident Precursor Analysis and Management: Reducing Technological Risk Through Diligence

In the aftermath of catastrophes, it is common to find prior indicators, missed signals, and dismissed alerts that, had they been recognized and appropriately managed before the event, could have resulted in the undesired event being averted. These indicators ...

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Transmission Pipelines and Land Use:A Risk-Informed Approach -- Special Report 281

TRB Special Report 281: Transmission Pipelines and Land Use: A Risk-Informed Approach calls upon the U.S. Department of Transportation’s Office of Pipeline Safety in the Research and Special Programs Administration to work with stakeholders in developing risk-informed land use guidance ...

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The Oil Spill Recovery Institute:Past, Present, and Future Directions

As a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in Prince William Sound, Congress passed the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90), and within that legislation, the Oil Spill Recovery Institute (OSRI) was born. This report assesses ...

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Oil in the Sea III:Inputs, Fates, and Effects

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Chemical Reference Materials:Setting the Standards for Ocean Science

The accuracy of chemical oceanographic measurements depends on calibration against reference materials to ensure comparability over time and among laboratories. Several key parameters lack reference materials for measurements in seawater, particles in the water column, and sediments. Without reference materials ...

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Spills of Emulsified Fuels:Risks and Responses

Spills of Emulsified Fuels: Risks and Response is part of an evolving body of work conducted by the National Research Council (NRC) to help inform debate and decision-making regarding the ecological consequences of releases associated with the widespread use of ...

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Global Air Quality: An Imperative for Long-Term Observational Strategies

The National Research Council's Committee on Atmospheric Chemistry (NRC/CAC) was established to serve as a focal point for NRC activities on issues related to atmospheric chemical change and its impacts on air quality, climate, stratospheric ozone depletion, and other related ...

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Clean Coastal Waters: Understanding and Reducing the Effects of Nutrient Pollution

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Modeling Mobile-Source Emissions

The Mobile Source Emissions Factor (MOBILE) model is a computer model developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for estimating emissions from on-road motor vehicles. MOBILE is used in air-quality planning and regulation for estimating emissions of carbon monoxide ...

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Watershed Management for Potable Water Supply:Assessing the New York City Strategy

In 1997, New York City adopted a mammoth watershed agreement to protect its drinking water and avoid filtration of its large upstate surface water supply. Shortly thereafter, the NRC began an analysis of the agreement's scientific validity.

The ...

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