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Health and Medicine

Policy Issues in the Development of Personalized Medicine in Oncology:Workshop Summary

One of the challenges in treating cancer is the disease's complexity and variation among patients. Cancer manifests differently in each patient, so treatments that are effective in one patient may not be effective in another. As cancer care becomes more ...

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Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Cardiovascular Effects:Making Sense of the Evidence

Data suggest that exposure to secondhand smoke can result in heart disease in nonsmoking adults. Recently, progress has been made in reducing involuntary exposure to secondhand smoke through legislation banning smoking in workplaces, restaurants, and other public places. The effect ...

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A Review of the NIOSH Roadmap for Research on Asbestos Fibers and Other Elongate Mineral Particles

Although asbestos is no longer mined in the United States, prior and ongoing exposures to asbestos continue to contribute to respiratory diseases, including mesothelioma, lung cancer, and asbestosis. To examine ongoing issues and concerns in this field, the National ...

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Assessing and Improving Value in Cancer Care:Workshop Summary

Unlike many other areas in health care, the practice of oncology presents unique challenges that make assessing and improving value especially complex. First, patients and professionals feel a well-justified sense of urgency to treat for cure, and if cure is ...

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Accelerating the Development of Biomarkers for Drug Safety:Workshop Summary

Biomarkers can be defined as indicators of any biologic state, and they are central to the future of medicine. As the cost of developing drugs has risen in recent years, reducing the number of new drugs approved for use, biomarker ...

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Ensuring Quality Cancer Care Through the Oncology Workforce:Sustaining Care in the 21st Century: Workshop Summary

The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) predicts that by 2020, there will be an 81 percent increase in people living with or surviving cancer, but only a 14 percent increase in the number of practicing oncologists. As a result, ...

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Multi-Center Phase III Clinical Trials and NCI Cooperative Groups: Workshop Summary

The NCI-sponsored cooperative groups have made important contributions to improving treatment for many types of cancer, including breast, ovarian, colorectal, and childhood cancers. Cooperative group research has been instrumental in establishing innovative treatments that improve outcomes and quality of life. ...

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Implementing Colorectal Cancer Screening:Workshop Summary

The IOM's National Cancer Policy Board estimated in 2003 that even modest efforts to implement known tactics for cancer prevention and early detection could result in up to a 29 percent drop in cancer deaths in about 20 years. The ...

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Improving the Quality of Cancer Clinical Trials:Workshop Summary

Scientists and clinicians seek a new paradigm that could improve the efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and overall success rate of cancer clinical trials, while maintaining the highest standards of quality. To explore innovative paradigms for cancer clinical trials and other ways to ...

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Cancer Care for the Whole Patient: Meeting Psychosocial Health Needs

Cancer care today often provides state-of-the-science biomedical treatment, but fails to address the psychological and social (psychosocial) problems associated with the illness. This failure can compromise the effectiveness of health care and thereby adversely affect the health of cancer patients. ...

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