Design Considerations for Evaluating the Impact of PEPFAR is the summary of a 2-day workshop on methodological, policy, and practical design considerations for a future evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) interventions carried out under the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), which was convened by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) on April 30 and May 1, 2007. Participants at the workshop included staff of the U.S. Congress; PEPFAR officials and implementers; major multilateral organizations such as The Global Fund to Fight AID
Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Malaria in Infants (IPTi) is a new strategy which aims to combine the short-term protection of chemoprophylaxis with the long-term protection of naturally-acquired immunity to reduce morbidity from malaria infections during infancy. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation requested that the Institute of Medicine (IOM) conduct an independent assessment of the IPTi efficacy studies using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTi-SP) that have been previously conducted by the IPTi Consortium. The IOM convened a committee to evaluate the evidence concerning IPTi-SP, which
Planning for an influenza pandemic, whether it occurs in the near or distant future, will need to take into account many constantly evolving factors. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) Committee on Implementation of Antiviral Medication Strategies for an Influenza Pandemic was asked by the Department of Health and Human Services, (DHHS) to consider best practices and policies for providing antiviral treatment and prophylaxis during a pandemic event. The committee s report, entitled Antivirals for Pandemic Influenza: Guidance on Developing a Distribution and Dispensing Program, calls for a nati
The current state of science in violence prevention reveals progress, promise, and a number of remaining challenges. In order to fully examine the issue of global violence prevention, the Institute of Medicine in collaboration with Global Violence Prevention Advocacy, convened a workshop and released the workshop summary entitled, Violence Prevention in Low-and Middle-Income Countries.
The workshop brought together participants with a wide array of expertise in fields related to health, criminal justice, public policy, and economic development, to study and articulate s[more]
The influenza pandemics of 1918, 1957, and 1968 offer a warning to the world about the potential dangers of the influenza virus. In 2006, after a series of cases and clusters of the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian virus made clear the threat of a possible pandemic, the U.S. Congress allocated $39 million to the Department of Defense Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (DoD-GEIS) to increase and improve its worldwide influenza surveillance network through upgrades to its domestic and overseas laboratories' capabilities.
Early detection is essential to the control of emerging, reemerging, and novel infectious diseases, whether naturally occurring or intentionally introduced. Containing the spread of such diseases in a profoundly interconnected world requires active vigilance for signs of an outbreak, rapid recognition of its presence, and diagnosis of its microbial cause, in addition to strategies and resources for an appropriate and efficient response. Although these actions are often viewed in terms of human public health, they also challenge the plant and animal health communities.
In 2003, Congress passed the United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act, which established a 5-year, $15 billion initiative to help countries around the world respond to their AIDS epidemics. The initiative is generally referred to by the title of the 5-year strategy required by the act--PEPFAR, or the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief.
PEPFAR Implementation evaluates this initiative's progress and concludes that although PEPFAR has made a promising start, U.S. leadership is still needed in the effort to respond to the HIV/AIDS pandemic.
In recent public workshops and working group meetings, the Forum on Microbial Threats of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) has examined a variety of infectious disease outbreaks with pandemic potential, including those caused by influenza (IOM, 2005) and sever[more]