Since the early 1970s, experts have recognized that petroleum pollutants were being discharged in marine waters worldwide, from oil spills, vessel operations, and land-based sources. Public attention to oil spills has forced improvements. Still, a considerable amount of oil is discharged yearly into sensitive coastal environments.
Oil in the Sea provides the best available estimate of oil pollutant discharge into marine waters, including an evaluation of the methods for assessing petroleum load and a discussion about the concerns these loads represent. Featuring close-up looks at the Exxon Valdez spill and other notable events, the book identifies important research questions and makes recommendations for better analysis of—and more effective measures against—pollutant discharge.
The book discusses:
Providing a needed update on a problem of international importance, this book will be of interest to energy policy makers, industry officials and managers, engineers and researchers, and advocates for the marine environment.
Table of Contents
|2 Understanding The Risk||19-64|
|3 Input of Oil to the Sea||65-88|
|4 Behavior and Fate of Oil||89-118|
|5 Biological Effects of Oil Releases||119-184|
|A Committee and Staff Biographies||185-188|
|B Definitions and Conversions||189-190|
|C Natural Seepage of Crude Oil into the Marine Environment||191-192|
|D Oil and Gas Extraction||193-202|
|E Inputs of Petroleum Hydrocarbons into the Oceans Due to Transportation Activities||203-218|
|F Inputs into the Sea from Recreational Marine Vessels||219-220|
|G Spills from Coastal Facilities||221-222|
|H Atmospheric Deposition and Air-Sea Exchange of Petroleum Hydrocarbons to the Ocean||223-232|
|I Estimating Land-based Sources of Oil in the Sea||233-252|
|J Methods Used To Estimate PAH Loadings to the Marine Environment||253-254|
|K Regulatory Framework||255-258|
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