Protecting and maintaining water distributions systems is crucial to ensuring high quality drinking water. Distribution systems -- consisting of pipes, pumps, valves, storage tanks, reservoirs, meters, fittings, and other hydraulic appurtenances -- carry drinking water from a centralized treatment plant or well supplies to consumers’ taps. Spanning almost 1 million miles in the United States, distribution systems represent the vast majority of physical infrastructure for water supplies, and thus constitute the primary management challenge from both an operational and public health standpoint. Recent data on waterborne disease outbreaks suggest that distribution systems remain a source of contamination that has yet to be fully addressed. This report evaluates approaches for risk characterization and recent data, and it identifies a variety of strategies that could be considered to reduce the risks posed by water-quality deteriorating events in distribution systems. Particular attention is given to backflow events via cross connections, the potential for contamination of the distribution system during construction and repair activities, maintenance of storage facilities, and the role of premise plumbing in public health risk. The report also identifies advances in detection, monitoring and modeling, analytical methods, and research and development opportunities that will enable the water supply industry to further reduce risks associated with drinking water distribution systems.
Table of Contents
|2 Regulations, Non-Regulatory Approaches, and Their Limitations||47-86|
|3 Public Health Risk from Distribution System Contamination||87-141|
|4 Physical Integrity||142-191|
|5 Hydraulic Integrity||192-220|
|6 Water Quality Integrity||221-268|
|7 Integrating Approaches to Reducing Risk from Distribution Systems||269-315|
|8 Alternatives for Premise Plumbing||316-340|
|Appendix A: Public Water Supply Distribution Systems: Assessing and Reducing Risks, First Report||345-385|
|Appendix B: Committee Biographical Information||386-392|
The National Academies Press and the Transportation Research Board have partnered with Copyright Clearance Center to offer a variety of options for reusing our content. You may request permission to:
For most Academic and Educational uses no royalties will be charged although you are required to obtain a license and comply with the license terms and conditions.
For information on how to request permission to translate our work and for any other rights related query please click here.
For questions about using the Copyright.com service, please contact:
Copyright Clearance Center
22 Rosewood Drive
Danvers, MA 01923
Tel (toll free): 855/239-3415 (select option 1)
Loading stats for Drinking Water Distribution Systems: Assessing and Reducing Risks...