The continued presence of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in civilian installations such as research reactors poses a threat to national and international security. Minimization, and ultimately elimination, of HEU in civilian research reactors worldwide has been a goal of U.S. policy and programs since 1978. Today, 74 civilian research reactors around the world, including 8 in the United States, use or are planning to use HEU fuel. Since the last National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine report on this topic in 2009, 28 reactors have been either shut down or converted from HEU to low enriched uranium fuel. Despite this progress, the large number of remaining HEU-fueled reactors demonstrates that an HEU minimization program continues to be needed on a worldwide scale. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors assesses the status of and progress toward eliminating the worldwide use of HEU fuel in civilian research and test reactors.
Table of Contents
|1 Background and Study Task||9-20|
|2 Research Reactors Currently Using HEU Fuel||21-36|
|3 Research Reactors and Their Uses||37-54|
|4 Technical Obstacles to Conversion||55-96|
|5 Nontechnical Obstacles to Reactor Conversion||97-106|
|6 Conversion Program: Status and Management||107-122|
|Appendix A: Statement of Task||135-136|
|Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members||137-144|
|Appendix C: Presentations and Visits||145-152|
|Appendix D: Acronyms||153-158|
|Appendix E: Joint International Atomic Energy-Academies Meeting Synopsis||159-184|
|Appendix F: HEU-Fueled Reactors Outside the Scope of the Study||185-188|
|Appendix G: Glossary||189-192|
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