Commercially significant amounts of crude oil and natural gas lie under the continental shelf of the United States. Advances in locating deposits, and improvements in drilling and recovery technology, have made it technically and economically feasible to extract these resources under harsh conditions. But extracting these offshore petroleum resources involves the possibility, however remote, of oil spills, with resulting damage to the ocean and the coastline ecosystems and risks to life and limb of those performing the extraction. The environmental consequences of an oil spill can be more severe underwater than on land because sea currents can quickly disperse the oil over a large area and, thus, cleanup can be problematic.
Bolted connections are an integral feature of deep-water well operations. High-Performance Bolting Technology for Offshore Oil and Natural Gas Operations summarizes strategies for improving the reliability of fasteners used in offshore oil exploration equipment, as well as best practices from other industrial sectors. It focuses on critical bolting—bolts, studs, nuts, and fasteners used on critical connections.
Table of Contents
|1 The Challenges of Subsea Fastener Reliability Improvement||10-16|
|2 Assessment of Critical Subsea Bolting System Design Elements||17-44|
|3 Options for Improving Bolting Reliability||45-55|
|4 Safety Culture and Human Systems Integration||56-65|
|5 Innovation Opportunities||66-91|
|6 Summary of Recommendations||92-97|
|Appendix A: Statement of Task||99-100|
|Appendix B: Mapping of Statement of Task to Report Chapters||101-104|
|Appendix C: Acronym List||105-106|
|Appendix D: Brief History of Subsea Oil Exploration||107-115|
|Appendix E: Selected Subsea Bolt Failures||116-119|
|Appendix F: Recent Industry and Regulator Response to Critical Subsea Bolt Failures||120-124|
|Appendix G: Subsea Environmental Factors for Fastener Design||125-135|
|Appendix H: Bolting Regulations and Standards||136-141|
|Appendix I: Drilling Riser Design||142-159|
|Appendix J: Bolting Preload||160-166|
|Appendix K: Threaded Fastener Failure Modes||167-178|
|Appendix L: Committee Biographies||179-184|
|Appendix M: Disclosure of Conflict of Interest||185-185|
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