Small gasoline-powered aircraft are the single largest emitter of lead in the United States, as other major emission sources such as automobile gasoline have been previously addressed. A highly toxic substance that can result in an array of negative health effects in humans, lead is added to aviation gasoline to meet the performance and safety requirements of a sizable portion of the country’s gasoline-powered aircraft.
Significantly reducing lead emissions from gasoline-powered aircraft will require the leadership and strategic guidance of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and a broad-based and sustained commitment by other government agencies and the nation’s pilots, airport managers, aviation fuel and service suppliers, and aircraft manufacturers, according to a congressionally mandated report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.
While efforts are underway to develop an unleaded aviation fuel that can be used by the entire gasoline-powered fleet, the uncertainty of success means that other steps should also be taken to begin reducing lead emissions and exposures, notes the report, titled TRB Special Report 336: Options for Reducing Lead Emissions from Piston-Engine Aircraft.
Piston-engine aircraft are critical to performing general aviation (GA) functions like aerial observation, medical airlift, pilot training, and business transport. Other GA functions, such as crop dusting, aerial firefighting, search and rescue, and air taxi service, have particular significance to communities in rural and remote locations.
Accompanying the report is a three-page highlight summary that provides a condensed version of the findings.
Table of Contents
|2 Background on the Piston-Engine Aircraft Fleet and Airports||29-42|
|3 General Aviation Lead Emissions and Their Potential Health Impacts||43-70|
|4 Changing Operations and Practices at Airports to Reduce Aviation Lead||71-86|
|5 Existing Fuel Options for Piston-Engine Aircraft to Reduce Lead||87-104|
|6 Potential Future Lead-Free Fuels and Propulsion Systems||105-124|
|Appendix A: Committee Member Biographies||139-144|
|Appendix B: Open-Session Meeting Agendas||145-148|
|Appendix C: Statutory Provisions (42 U.S.C. 7571 7573 and 49 U.S.C. 44714)||149-152|
|Appendix D: Ethylene Dibromide||153-154|
|Appendix E: Occupational Health||155-162|
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