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Reducing the Odds: Preventing Perinatal Transmission of HIV in the United States

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Reducing the Odds

Preventing Perinatal Transmission of HIV in the United States(1999)
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Thousands of HIV-positive women give birth every year. Further, because many pregnant women are not tested for HIV and therefore do not receive treatment, the number of children born with HIV is still unacceptably high. What can we do to eliminate this tragic and costly inheritance? In response to a congressional request, this book evaluates the extent to which state efforts have been effective in reducing the perinatal transmission of HIV. The committee recommends that testing HIV be a routine part of prenatal care, and that health care providers notify women that HIV testing is part of the usual array of prenatal tests and that they have an opportunity to refuse the HIV test. This approach could help both reduce the number of pediatric AIDS cases and improve treatment for mothers with AIDS.

Reducing the Odds will be of special interest to federal, state, and local health policymakers, prenatal care providers, maternal and child health specialists, public health practitioners, and advocates for HIV/AIDS patients. January


Suggested Citation

Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 1999. Reducing the Odds: Preventing Perinatal Transmission of HIV in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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Publication Info

416 pages |6 x 9
ISBN: 978-0-309-06286-2

Table of Contents

skim chapter
Front Matter i-xvi
Executive Summary 1-14
1 Introduction 15-20
2 Public Health Screening Programs 21-35
3 Descriptive Epidemiology of the Perinatal Transmission of HIV 36-44
4 Natural History, Detection, and Treatment of HIV Infection in Pregnant Women and Newborns 45-53
5 Context of Services for Women and Children Affected by HIV/AIDS 54-67
6 Implementation and Impact of the Public Health Service Counseling and Testing Guidelines 68-108
7 Recommendations 109-133
References 134-144
Appendixes 145-146
A Committee and Staff Biographies 147-154
B Context of Services for Women and Children Affected by HIV/AIDS 155-189
C Workshop I Summary 190-202
D Workshop II Summary 203-235
E New York/New Jersey Site Visit Summary 236-251
F Alabama Site Visit Summary 252-259
G South Texas Site Visit Summary 260-270
H Florida Conference Summary 271-274
I HIV Testing and Perinatal Transmission: Thoughts from an HIV-Positive Mother 275-285
J Human Immunodeficiency Virus Antibody Testing Among Women 15-44: Results from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth 286-303
K Details of the Committee's Models and Assumptions 304-312
L Passing the Test: New York's Newborn HIV Testing Policy, 1987-1997 313-340
M Excerpts from the Ryan White CARE Act Amendments of 1996 341-346
N 1995 U.S. Public Health Service Recommendations for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Counseling and Testing for Pregnant Women 347-371
O Acronyms and Glossary 372-376
Index 377-397

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