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The Earth's Electrical Environment

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Overview

Contributors

Description

This latest addition to the Studies in Geophysics series explores in scientific detail the phenomenon of lightning, cloud, and thunderstorm electricity, and global and regional electrical processes. Consisting of 16 papers by outstanding experts in a number of fields, this volume compiles and reviews many recent advances in such research areas as meteorology, chemistry, electrical engineering, and physics and projects how new knowledge could be applied to benefit mankind.

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Suggested Citation

National Research Council. 1986. The Earth's Electrical Environment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/898.

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Publication Info

279 pages | 8.5 x 11
Paperback
ISBN: 978-0-309-03680-1
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17226/898
Contents

Table of Contents

skim chapter
Front Matter i-xvi
INTRODUCTION 1-1
Lightning 2-3
Cloud Electrification 4-5
Electrical Structure of the Atmosphere 6-7
The Planetary Boundary Layer 8-8
Mesosphere 9-9
Ionosphere and Magnetosphere 10-11
Techniques for Evaluating the Electrical Processes and Structure 12-13
Societal Impact 14-15
Recommendations 16-19
References 20-20
I LIGHTNING 21-22
Optical Detectors 23-24
Intracloud Versus Cloud-to-Ground Lightning 25-26
Lightning Flash and Related Characteristics 27-27
Lightning Location Networks 28-28
References 29-29
INTRODUCTION 30-30
CLOUD-TO-GROUND LIGHTNING 31-31
Time-Domain Fields and Lightning Currents 32-35
Locations of Lightning Radio Sources 36-36
Artificial Triggering of Lightning 37-38
References 39-40
RECENT AND ONGOING STUDIES 41-42
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS 43-44
References 45-45
Shock-Wave Formation and Expansion 46-47
Comparisons with Numerical Simulations and Experiments 48-49
Tortuosity and the Thunder Signature 50-50
PROPAGATION EFFECTS 51-51
Finite-Amplitude Propagation 52-52
Scattering and Aerosol Effects 53-53
Refraction 54-55
Propagation Effects Evaluation 56-56
Acoustic Reconstruction of Lightning Channels 57-57
ELECTROSTATICALLY PRODUCED ACOUSTIC EMISSIONS 58-58
References 59-60
INTRODUCTION 61-61
Mechanisms of Lightning Damage 62-63
New Results on Lightning Characteristics 64-65
Protection Techniques 66-67
FUTURE RESEARCH NEEDED FOR IMPROVEMENTS IN PROTECTION 68-68
References 69-69
INTRODUCTION 70-71
NO PRODUCTION BY LIGHTNING 72-72
The Global Dissipation Rate, R 73-73
The Global NO Production Rate, (NO) 74-74
OTHER TRACE GASES PRODUCED BY LIGHTNING 75-75
References 76-78
II CLOUD AND THUNDERSTORM ELECTRICITY 79-80
VERTICAL CONVECTION AND THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT 81-81
Conditioning the Air for Overturning 82-83
CONDENSATION AND PRECIPITATION IN RELATION TO AIR MOTION 84-84
STRONG CONVECTION 85-85
HAIL 86-86
TORNADOES 87-87
ACKNOWLEDGMENT 88-88
References 89-89
8 The Electrical Structure of Thunderstorms 90-90
ELECTRICAL STRUCTURE AND DEVELOPMENT 91-93
THE MAIN NEGATIVE AND UPPER POSITIVE CHARGES: SOME OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE 94-96
DISCUSSION 97-99
PARTICLE-CHARGE OBSERVATIONS 100-101
CHARGE MOTIONS AND CURRENTS 102-103
LIGHTNING AND THE STORM ELECTRIFICATION 104-106
LIGHTNING EVOLUTION 107-108
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 109-110
References 111-113
INTRODUCTION 114-114
Diffusion Charging 115-115
Drift Charging 116-116
Selective Ion Charging 117-117
Breakup Charging 118-118
Induction Charging 119-119
Induction Charging 120-120
Interface Charging 121-123
Cloud Stage 124-124
Rain Stage 125-125
Hail Stage 126-127
CONCLUSIONS 128-128
References 129-130
INTRODUCTION 131-131
MECHANISMS OF CHARGE SEPARATION 132-132
Inductive Process 133-133
Freezing Potentials 134-134
CHARGING BY ION ATTACHMENT 135-136
Parallel-Plate Models 137-137
One-Dimensional Models 138-139
Two-Dimensional Models 140-141
Three-Dimensional Models 142-142
DISCUSSION 143-143
References 144-146
III GLOBAL AND REGIONAL ELECTRICAL PROCESSES 147-148
INTRODUCTION 149-149
Ionization 150-150
Properties of Ions 151-151
Attachment of Ions to Aerosol Particles 152-152
Effect of the Global Circuit 153-153
Turbulent Transport of Electrical Properties 154-154
PHENOMENOLOGY OF ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRICITY IN THE PLANETARY BOUNDARY LAYER 155-158
MODELING AND THEORY 159-159
The Electrode Effect 160-160
Convection Currents in the Planetary Boundary Layer 161-161
Measurement of Global-Scale Phenomena 162-162
Ion Physics and Balance in the Planetary Boundary Layer 163-163
References 164-165
INTRODUCTION 166-166
ION PRODUCTION IN THE LOWER ATMOSPHERE 167-167
AEROSOLS IN THE LOWER ATMOSPHERE 168-169
ATMOSPHERIC CONDUCTIVITY, SMALL ION CONCENTRATION, AND MOBILITY 170-175
AIR-EARTH CURRENT AND ELECTRIC FIELDS IN THE LOWER ATMOSPHERE 176-179
CONCLUSION 180-180
References 181-182
INTRODUCTION 183-183
SOURCES OF IONIZATION 184-184
Positive Ions 185-185
Negative Ions 186-186
Model Calculations 187-187
CONDUCTIVITY IN THE MIDDLE ATMOSPHERE 188-190
ELECTRIC FIELDS IN THE MIDDLE ATMOSPHERE 191-191
CONCLUSION 192-192
References 193-194
14 Upper-Atmosphere Electric-Field Sources 195-195
ELECTRODYNAMIC PROCESSES IN SPACE 196-196
SOLAR WIND/MAGNETOSPHERE DYNAMO 197-198
IONOSPHERIC WIND DYNAMO 199-200
VARIABILITY 201-202
EFFECTS OF UPPER-ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRIC FIELDS AND CURRENTS 203-203
SOME OUTSTANDING PROBLEMS 204-204
References 205-205
15 The Global Atmospheric-Electrical Circuit 206-206
THUNDERSTORMS AS GENERATORS IN THE GLOBAL CIRCUIT 207-209
Global Thunderstorms 210-211
Current Above Thunderstorms 212-212
Electrical Conductivity, Columnar Resistance, and Global Resistance 213-214
Fair-Weather Vertical Current Density and Total Current 215-215
Ionosphere Potential 216-216
MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRICITY 217-221
Model Improvements 222-222
Regional Modeling 223-223
ELECTRICAL COUPLING BETWEEN THE UPPER AND LOWER ATMOSPHERE 224-226
SOME OUTSTANDING PROBLEMS 227-228
References 229-231
INTRODUCTION 232-233
The Physical Problem: Hydrology, Geology, Geothermics, and Tectonics 234-240
Deep Telluric Currents 241-242
Communication Cables 243-244
Powerlines 245-245
Railways 246-246
Prospecting of Underground Structures 247-247
Earth's Astronomical Motion 248-248
CONCLUSIONS 249-249
References 250-253
APPENDIX: HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT 254-255
Appendix References 256-258
INDEX 259-263
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