It is now becoming clear that relatively few U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites will be cleaned up to the point where they can be released for unrestricted use. "Long-term stewardship" (activities to protect human health and the environment from hazards that may remain at its sites after cessation of remediation) will be required for over 100 of the 144 waste sites under DOE control (U.S. Department of Energy, 1999). After stabilizing wastes that remain on site and containing them as well as is feasible, DOE intends to rely on stewardship for as long as hazards persist—in many cases, indefinitely. Physical containment barriers, the management systems upon which their long-term reliability depends, and institutional controls intended to prevent exposure of people and the environment to the remaining site hazards, will have to be maintained at some DOE sites for an indefinite period of time.
Long-Term Institutional Management of U.S. Department of Energy Legacy Waste Sites examines the capabilities and limitations of the scientific, technical, and human and institutional systems that compose the measures that DOE expects to put into place at potentially hazardous, residually contaminated sites.
Table of Contents
|2 Conceptual Framework||18-24|
|3 Contaminant Reduction||25-34|
|4 Contaminant Isolation||35-45|
|5 Stewardship Activities||46-65|
|6 Contextual Factors||66-76|
|7 Fundamental Limits on Technical and Institutional Capabilities||77-92|
|8 Design Principles and Criteria for an Effective Long-Term Institutional Management System: Findings and Recommendations||93-100|
|Appendix A Committee's Statement of Task||107-109|
|Appendix B Closure Plans for Major DOE Sites||110-119|
|Appendix C Committee Information Gathering Meetings||120-124|
|Appendix D Summary of Recent Stewardship Studies||125-132|
|Appendix E Existing Legal Structure for Closure of the Weapons Complex Sites||133-140|
|Appendix F Disposition of the Nevada Site||141-148|
|Appendix G Mathematical Models Used for Site Closure Decisions||149-158|
|Appendix H Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Consultants||159-162|
|Appendix I Definitions of Terms Used in this Report||163-164|
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