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Science and art were not always two separate entities. Historically, times of great scientific progress occurred during profound movements in art, the two disciplines working together to enrich and expand humanity’s understanding of its place in this cosmos. Only recently has a dividing line been drawn, and this seeming dichotomy misses some of the fundamental similarities between the two endeavors. At the National Academies Keck Futures Initiative Conference on Art, Design and Science, Engineering and Medicine Frontier Collaborations: Ideation, Translation, and Realization, participa
Our world is changing at an accelerating rate. The global human population has grown from 6.1 billion to 7.1 billion in the last 15 years and is projected to reach 11.2 billion by the end of the century. The distribution of humans across the globe has also shifted, with more than 50 percent of the global population now living in urban areas, compared to 29 percent in 1950. Along with these trends, increasing energy demands, expanding industrial activities, and intensification of agricultural activities worldwide have in turn led to changes in emissions that have altered the composition of the
Science, engineering, and technology permeate nearly every facet of modern life and hold the key to solving many of humanity's most pressing current and future challenges. The United States' position in the global economy is declining, in part because U.S. workers lack fundamental knowledge in these fields. To address the critical issues of U.S. competitiveness and to better prepare the workforce, A Framework for K-12 Science Education proposes a new approach to K-12 science education that will capture students' interest and provide them with the necessary foundational knowledge in th
The Future of Nursing explores how nurses' roles, responsibilities, and education should change significantly to meet the increased demand for care that will be created by health care reform and to advance improvements in America's increasingly complex health system.
At more than 3 million in number, nurses make up the single largest segment of the health care work force. They also spend the greatest amount of time in delivering patient care as a profession. Nurses therefore have valuable insights and unique abilities to contribute as partners with other health care p
In June 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine held a public workshop titled "Engaging the Private Sector and Developing Partnerships to Advance Health and the Sustainable Development Goals". Recognizing the importance of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in setting global development priorities for the next 15 years, the centrality of health across all of the goals, and the need for cross-sectoral efforts to make significant progress, the objectives of the workshop were to: (1) clarify the central role of health in sustainable economic and social developmen
In January 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine hosted the Workshop on Data Breach Aftermath and Recovery for Individuals and Institutions. Participants examined existing technical and policy remediations, and they discussed possible new mechanisms for better protecting and helping consumers in the wake of a breach. Speakers were asked to focus on data breach aftermath and recovery and to discuss ways to remediate harms from breaches. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.
First released in the Spring of 1999, How People Learn has been expanded to show how the theories and insights from the original book can translate into actions and practice, now making a real connection between classroom activities and learning behavior. This edition includes far-reaching suggestions for research that could increase the impact that classroom teaching has on actual learning.
Like the original edition, this book offers exciting new research about the mind and the brain that provides answers to a number of compelling questions. When do infants begin to lear
Even as the U.S. population becomes steadily more diverse, minorities and women remain underrepresented in clinical trials to develop new drugs and medical devices. Although progress in increasing minority participation in clinical trials has occurred, participation rates do not fully represent the overall population of minorities in the United States. This underrepresentation threatens the health of both these populations and the general population, since greater minority representation could reveal factors that affect health in all populations. Federal legislation has sought to increase the
An estimated 90 percent of oncology patients in the United States receive treatment in outpatient cancer centers and clinics. This change from the older model of inpatient care has important implications for overall quality of care for oncology patients and nutritional care in particular. Amidst growing concern about access to oncology nutrition services, combined with growing recognition of the importance of providing nutritional care to optimize oncology treatment outcomes and maximize quality of life among both patients and survivors of cancer, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineerin
Experts estimate that as many as 98,000 people die in any given year from medical errors that occur in hospitals. That's more than die from motor vehicle accidents, breast cancer, or AIDS--three causes that receive far more public attention. Indeed, more people die annually from medication errors than from workplace injuries. Add the financial cost to the human tragedy, and medical error easily rises to the top ranks of urgent, widespread public problems.
To Err Is Human breaks the silence that has surrounded medical errors and their consequence--but not by pointing fingers at
A new release in the Quality Chasm Series, Priority Areas for National Action recommends a set of 20 priority areas that the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and other groups in the public and private sectors should focus on to improve the quality of health care delivered to all Americans. The priority areas selected represent the entire spectrum of health care from preventive care to end of life care. They also touch on all age groups, health care settings and health care providers. Collective action in these areas could help transform the entire health care system. In addi
The scientific research enterprise is built on a foundation of trust. Scientists trust that the results reported by others are valid. Society trusts that the results of research reflect an honest attempt by scientists to describe the world accurately and without bias. But this trust will endure only if the scientific community devotes itself to exemplifying and transmitting the values associated with ethical scientific conduct.
On Being a Scientist was designed to supplement the informal lessons in ethics provided by research supervisors and mentors. The book describes the
What types of instructional experiences help K-8 students learn science with understanding? What do science educators, teachers, teacher leaders, science specialists, professional development staff, curriculum designers, and school administrators need to know to create and support such experiences? Ready, Set, Science! guides the way with an account of the groundbreaking and comprehensive synthesis of research into teaching and learning science in kindergarten through eighth grade. Based on the recently released National Research Council report Taking Science to School: Learning and
Second in a series of publications from the Institute of Medicine's Quality of Health Care in America project
Today's health care providers have more research findings and more technology available to them than ever before. Yet recent reports have raised serious doubts about the quality of health care in America.
Crossing the Quality Chasm makes an urgent call for fundamental change to close the quality gap. This book recommends a sweeping redesign of the American health care system and provides overarching principles for specific direction for policymakers,
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 158: Deriving Benefits from Alternative Aircraft-Taxi Systems explores approaches that may reduce fuel use, emissions, and costs while aircraft are on the ground. This report explores how alternative approaches to taxiing aircraft in movement areas have the potential to provide an overall net benefit for both the airport and aircraft operator. These systems include, among other alternative systems, an electric motor permanently fixed to the aircraft, or an electric tug. While many of these alternatives may provide energy and environmenta
TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 830: Multi-State, Multimodal, Oversize/Overweight Transportation is a compilation of existing permitting requirements for the transportation of oversize/overweight (OSOW) freight throughout the United States. It identifies and presents information about state-by-state differences in OSOW road transportation regulations and permitting practices, and the challenges these differences may pose for carriers. It discusses factors affecting modal competitiveness in OSOW transportation as well as opportunities for improved modal access
Genetically engineered (GE) crops were first introduced commercially in the 1990s. After two decades of production, some groups and individuals remain critical of the technology based on their concerns about possible adverse effects on human health, the environment, and ethical considerations. At the same time, others are concerned that the technology is not reaching its potential to improve human health and the environment because of stringent regulations and reduced public funding to develop products offering more benefits to society. While the debate about these and other questions related
The indoor environment affects occupants' health and comfort. Poor environmental conditions and indoor contaminants are estimated to cost the U.S. economy tens of billions of dollars a year in exacerbation of illnesses like asthma, allergic symptoms, and subsequent lost productivity. Climate change has the potential to affect the indoor environment because conditions inside buildings are influenced by conditions outside them. Climate Change, the Indoor Environment, and Health addresses the impacts that climate change may have on the indoor environment and the resulting health effects.
Widely regarded as the classic reference work for the nutrition, dietetic, and allied health professions since its introduction in 1943, Recommended Dietary Allowances has been the accepted source in nutrient allowances for healthy people. Responding to the expansion of scientific knowledge about the roles of nutrients in human health, the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, in partnership with Health Canada, has updated what used to be known as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) and renamed their new approach to these guidelines Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Since 19
Adding It Up explores how students in pre-K through 8th grade learn mathematics and recommends how teaching, curricula, and teacher education should change to improve mathematics learning during these critical years.
The committee identifies five interdependent components of mathematical proficiency and describes how students develop this proficiency. With examples and illustrations, the book presents a portrait of mathematics learning:
Research findings on what children know about numbers by the time they arrive in pre-K and the implications f