TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Web-Only Document 222: Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities provides guidance to engineers and planners on the design of roundabouts and channelized turn lanes (CTLs) for accessibility. The accessibility of modern roundabouts and intersections with channelized (right) turn lanes is an important civil rights challenge in the United States that has broad potential implications for engineering practice in this country. This report builds on
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) has released a pre-publication, non-edited version of Synthesis 505: Current Practices and Guidelines for the Reuse of Bridge Foundations. A sustainable option for many bridge replacement and rehabilitation efforts is reusing bridge foundations, which can result in time and cost savings as well as reduced mobility impacts and environmental benefits. However, foundation reuse presents significant challenges, including uncertainties in existing foundation condition, remaining service life, and capacity. This synthesis documents current
On June 16, 2016, the Roundtable on Population Health Improvement held a workshop at the Lutheran Church of the Good Shepherd in Brooklyn, New York, to explore the influence of trauma and violence on communities. The workshop highlighted examples of community-based organizations using trauma-informed approaches to treat violence and build safe and healthy communities. Presentations showcased examples that can serve as models in different sectors and communities and shared lessons learned. This publication summarizes the presentation and discussion of the event.
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 167: Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities provides guidance to airport operators considering providing ramp control services. An accompanying Ramp Control Decision Support Tool assists users through most considerations before providing ramp control services, including facility requirements, staffing, training, and technology and other factors, allowing the user to determine the best way to move forward. The Ramp Control Decision
Because of the role of innovation as a driver of economic productivity and growth and as a mechanism for improving people's well-being in other ways, understanding the nature,determinants, and impacts of innovation has become increasingly important to policy makers. To be effective, investment in innovation requires this understanding, which, in turn, requires measurement of the underlying inputs and subsequent outcomes of innovation processes. In May 2016, at the request of the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics of the National Science Foundation, the Committee on National
TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Research Results Digest 401: Continuing Project to Synthesize Information on Highway Problems is a digest of the progress and status of NCHRP Project 20-5, “Synthesis of Information Related to Highway Problems.”
Significant changes have taken place in the policy landscape surrounding cannabis legalization, production, and use. During the past 20 years, 25 states and the District of Columbia have legalized cannabis and/or cannabidiol (a component of cannabis) for medical conditions or retail sales at the state level and 4 states have legalized both the medical and recreational use of cannabis. These landmark changes in policy have impacted cannabis use patterns and perceived levels of risk. However, despite this changing landscape, evidence regarding the short- and long-term health effects of cannabis
Federal government statistics provide critical information to the country and serve a key role in a democracy. For decades, sample surveys with instruments carefully designed for particular data needs have been one of the primary methods for collecting data for federal statistics. However, the costs of conducting such surveys have been increasing while response rates have been declining, and many surveys are not able to fulfill growing demands for more timely information and for more detailed information at state and local levels. Innovations in Federal Statistics fosters a paradigm shi
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Results Digest 26: Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices is a digest of the progress and status of ACRP Project 11-03, Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices.
The social cost of carbon (SC-CO2) is an economic metric intended to provide a comprehensive estimate of the net damages - that is, the monetized value of the net impacts, both negative and positive - from the global climate change that results from a small (1-metric ton) increase in carbon-dioxide (CO2) emissions. Under Executive Orders regarding regulatory impact analysis and as required by a court ruling, the U.S. government has since 2008 used estimates of the SC-CO2 in federal rulemakings to value the costs and benefits associated with changes in CO2 emissions. In 2010, the Interagency Wo
In the United States, some populations suffer from far greater disparities in health than others. Those disparities are caused not only by fundamental differences in health status across segments of the population, but also because of inequities in factors that impact health status, so-called determinants of health. Only part of an individual’s health status depends on his or her behavior and choice; community-wide problems like poverty, unemployment, poor education, inadequate housing, poor public transportation, interpersonal violence, and decaying neighborhoods also contribute to health in
Recent health care payment reforms aim to improve the alignment of Medicare payment strategies with goals to improve the quality of care provided, patient experiences with health care, and health outcomes, while also controlling costs. These efforts move Medicare away from the volume-based payment of traditional fee-for-service models and toward value-based purchasing, in which cost control is an explicit goal in addition to clinical and quality goals. Specific payment strategies include pay-for-performance and other quality incentive programs that tie financial rewards and sanctions to the qu
The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is responsible for collecting information on marine recreational angling. It does so principally through the Marine Recreational Information Program (MRIP), a survey program that consists of an in-person survey at fishing access sites and a mail survey, in addition to other complementary or alternative surveys. Data collected from anglers through MRIP supply fisheries managers with essential information for assessing fish stocks. In 2006, the National Research Council provided an evaluati
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 820: Framework for a Pavement-Maintenance Database System provides a uniform format for collecting, reporting, and storing information on pavement-maintenance actions. The framework may facilitate usage of the data in cost-benefit analyses, evaluation of the effects of maintenance on pavement performance, selection of maintenance actions, and other related decisions. Accompanying the report, are a DVD and a CD that can be downloaded as ISO images.
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 168: Runway Protection Zones (RPZs) Risk Assessment Tool Users’ Guide helps airport operators evaluate the risk of an aircraft accident within an RPZ. Although runway protection zones (RPZs) are supposed to be clear of structures and people, it is still common for activities to occur within an RPZ for many reasons, and these reasons can be beyond the control of the airport operator. The report is accompanied by a tool used to ass
On September 15–16, 2016, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) — in collaboration with Arizona State University and the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine — organized a workshop in Washington, DC, on Neurotechnology and Society: Strengthening Responsible Innovation in Brain Science. The workshop brought together individuals — representing public and private sectors, research organizations and universities, public and private funders, and civil institutions from around the world — to explore approaches to better integrating societal values, sc
The 2016 Annual Report provides a summary of the Transportation Research Board's (TRB's) programs and activities over the last year and an overview of the individual divisions within TRB. The mission of TRB is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. A 12-page overview of the report accompanies the Annual Report.
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) has released a pre-publication, non-edited version of Research Report 844: Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. The report describes policy, planning, design, and operations practices considering the coexistence of moving goods and services in smart growth environments at both the design and implementation stages as well as retroactively improving existing conditions. This report will help readers understand common issues and conflicts pertaining to Smart Growth, how th
This is the fourth in a series of five letter reports that provide an independent review of the more than 30 evidence reports that NASA has compiled on human health risks for long-duration and exploration spaceflights.This letter report reviews eight evidence reports and examines the quality of the evidence, analysis, and overall construction of each report; identifies existing gaps in report content; and provides suggestions for additional sources of expert input.
TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) has released Research Report 190: Guide to Value Capture Financing for Public Transportation Projects. Value capture is the public recovery of a portion of increased property and other value created as a result of public infrastructure investment. The report identifies the requirements necessary for successful value creation through transportation infrastructure investment and capturing a portion of that value through specific value capture mechanisms. It includes six case studies that provide practical examples of successful value capture from
Over the last decade, several large-scale United States and international programs have been initiated to incorporate advances in molecular and cellular biology, -omics technologies, analytical methods, bioinformatics, and computational tools and methods into the field of toxicology. Similar efforts are being pursued in the field of exposure science with the goals of obtaining more accurate and complete exposure data on individuals and populations for thousands of chemicals over the lifespan; predicting exposures from use data and chemical-property information; and translating exposures betwee
The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) began 40 years ago as a pilot program and has since grown to serve over 8 million pregnant women, and mothers of and their infants and young children. Today the program serves more than a quarter of the pregnant women and half of the infants in the United States, at an annual cost of about $6.2 billion. Through its contribution to the nutritional needs of pregnant, breastfeeding, and post-partum women; infants; and children under 5 years of age; this federally supported nutrition assistance program is integral to
The Roundtable on Obesity Solutions of the Health and Medicine Division of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine held a workshop in Washington, DC, on September 27, 2016, titled "Driving Action and Progress on Obesity Prevention and Treatment." The workshop was designed to (1) review the progress that has been made in obesity prevention and treatment; (2) identify some of the levers that can drive significant future progress; and (3) discuss how gaps in the field can be filled. This Proceedings of a Workshop-in Brief highlights key points made during the presentations a
TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 169: Clean Water Act Requirements for Airports describes the environmental regulations and permitting programs to which airports may be subject in their management of stormwater and other types of water resources. It covers governing federal programs; stormwater discharges associated with industrial activities, construction activities, and municipal separate storm sewer systems; process water or wastewater treatment discharges; industrial wastewater pretreatment discharges; and other relevant permit programs.
At the request of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine has, since 1959, annually assembled panels of experts from academia, industry, medicine, and other scientific and engineering communities to assess the quality and effectiveness of the NIST measurements and standards laboratories, of which there are now seven, as well as the adequacy of the laboratories’ resources. An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology: Fiscal Year 2016 assesse
The Edwards Aquifer in south-central Texas is the primary source of water for one of the fastest growing cities in the United States, San Antonio, and it also supplies irrigation water to thousands of farmers and livestock operators. It is also is the source water for several springs and rivers, including the two largest freshwater springs in Texas that form the San Marcos and Comal Rivers. The unique habitat afforded by these spring-fed rivers has led to the development of species that are found in no other locations on Earth. Due to the potential for variations in spring flow caused by both
TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Results Digest 25: Graduate Research Award Program on Public-Sector Aviation Issues Update: 2008–2017 provides initial information for the 2016–2017 academic year of the Graduate Research Award Program on Public-Sector Aviation Issues (ACRP Project 11-04). The report also includes abstracts for student papers from the 2015–2016, 2014-2015, and 2013–2014 academic years, and lists papers from prior academic years beginning in 2008–2009. Abstracts for the earlier papers are available in
According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), more than 168 million children are affected by child labor worldwide, with a predominance of child labor occurring in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. ILO estimated in 2012 that 6 million children and more than 15 million adults were victims of forced labor. While strides have been made in understanding the problems of child labor and forced labor, as well as in approaches to reduce the global burden of both issues, additional research could help fill the remaining gaps in knowledge. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medi
On November 16, 2016, the Forum on Synthetic Biology of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine's Committee on Science, Technology, and Law hosted a workshop titled Making the Living World Engineerable: Science, Practice, and Policy. The workshop was organized by an ad hoc planning committee to discuss current trends in synthetic biology, including international scientific and technical developments in synthetic biology; possible risks and benefits related to these developments; and legal, regulatory, and policy concerns. This Proceedings of a Workshop-in Brief highlights
Our world is changing at an accelerating rate. The global human population has grown from 6.1 billion to 7.1 billion in the last 15 years and is projected to reach 11.2 billion by the end of the century. The distribution of humans across the globe has also shifted, with more than 50 percent of the global population now living in urban areas, compared to 29 percent in 1950. Along with these trends, increasing energy demands, expanding industrial activities, and intensification of agricultural activities worldwide have in turn led to changes in emissions that have altered the composition of the
On September 13-14, 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine's Food Forum convened a workshop in Washington, DC, to (1) examine trends and patterns in aging and factors related to healthy aging in the United States with a focus on nutrition; (2) examine how nutrition can sustain and promote healthy aging, not only in late adulthood, but beginning in pregnancy and early childhood and extending throughout the lifespan; (3) highlight the role of nutrition in the aging process at various stages in life; (4) discuss changes in organ systems over the lifespan, including th
NASA operates a large number of space science missions, approximately three-quarters of which are currently in their extended operations phase. They represent not only a majority of operational space science missions, but a substantial national investment and vital national assets. They are tremendously scientifically productive, making many of the major discoveries that are reported in the media and that rewrite textbooks. Extending Science – NASA’s Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process evaluates the scientific benefits of missions extensions, the current pro
In times of rapid change and constrained resources, measures that are important, focused, and reliable are vital. However there is an overabundance of measures available for evaluating various aspects of population health and previous efforts to simplify existing sets to meet the needs of all decision makers have been unsuccessful. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop to explore the status and uses of measures and measurement in the work of improving population health. Participants explored existing and emerging population health metric sets and cha
Genetically engineered (GE) crops were first introduced commercially in the 1990s. After two decades of production, some groups and individuals remain critical of the technology based on their concerns about possible adverse effects on human health, the environment, and ethical considerations. At the same time, others are concerned that the technology is not reaching its potential to improve human health and the environment because of stringent regulations and reduced public funding to develop products offering more benefits to society. While the debate about these and other questions related
Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are “engineered systems that are built from, and depend upon, the seamless integration of computational algorithms and physical components.” CPS can be small and closed, such as an artificial pancreas, or very large, complex, and interconnected, such as a regional energy grid. CPS engineering focuses on managing inter- dependencies and impact of physical aspects on cyber aspects, and vice versa. With the development of low-cost sensing, powerful embedded system hardware, and widely deployed communication networks, the reliance on CPS for system functionality has dr
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 497: Post-Extreme Event Damage Assessment and Response for Highway Bridges reviews the procedures that state departments of transportation and two local authorities, New York City and Los Angeles County, use to assess the damage in bridges in response to extreme events and conduct emergency response activities. Extreme events include those with geological sources (such as earthquakes and landslides), from hydro-meteorological sources (such as hurricanes and floods), or those of man-made origin, either accidental (such as tru
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 835: Guidelines for Implementing Managed Lanes provides guidance for transportation agencies interested in designing, implementing, operating, and maintaining managed lanes. Guidance includes ways to define initial objectives, outline the necessary decision-making process, and address safety concerns, through the process of detailed design configuration and operation. The contractor’s final report, NCHRP Web-Only Document 224
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Legal Research Digest 72: Summary of Federal Law Restricting Use of Highway Safety Data in Tort Litigation explores the origins and provisions of 23 U.S.C. § 409, Discovery and Admission as Evidence of Certain Reports and Surveys, which prohibits the use, in tort litigation, of highway safety data created for purposes related to safety improvements on roads qualifying for federal safety improvement funding. The digest explores the amendments to the law, development of caselaw interpreting and applying the law, a 2003 Supreme Court dec