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LESLIE SPIER December13, 1893-December3, 1961 BY ROBERT F. SPENCER AQUARTER CENTURY has gone by since Leslie Spier's cleath. Yet he remains a major figure in American an- thropology: references to his scholarship are widely macle, and his influence is still strongly felt. However hesitantly, ~ cannot help but begin this memoir with a personal note. In preparing to write this summary, ~ went of course to the various sources of information on Spier not only the professional obituary appearing shortly after his passing but also to the lecture notes ~ hac! taken as a student in his courses at the University of New Mexico in 1939-40. A seconcl-year graduate student in anthropology, ~ tract enrollee! in his course, "Culture Provinces of Western North America." ~ recall the rather anxious cliscussions, re- flecting then as now gracluate student paranoia, attempts to grasp precisely what it was that Spier was expouncling. House types, craclle boards, clothing and footgear, containers, trans- port, and so through a host of highly factual listings of the elements material, social, and religious that make up the cultural systems of western native American peoples. What were we, as students, expected to clo with such detail? Was it ~ Harry W. Basehart and W. W. Hill, "Obituary: Leslie Spier? 1893-1961," American Anthropologist, 67(165):1258 - 77. 431
432 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS a question of memorizing, of somehow regurgitating this plethora of facts in an examination? But then Spier callec! for an evaluation of the material: in a paper to be written in lieu of an examination, we were asked to provide an analysis, to put forth the perspectives we hac! clerivecT from the course. Well, by the encT of the term something had jelled. Sud- denly it all fell into place. Spier's view of ethnology, his scien- tific concerns, his clelineation of problems and his explana- tory solutions somehow became clear. ~ took back on the paper ~ wrote, at the prizes] comments in the instructor's own hancI, and ~ note with no little sense of pride that he gave me an A+. However remote in time or space, the Indian tribes of aboriginal California, of the Great Basin, the Southwest, or the intermontane Plateau, assumed new significance. It was at this point, as a result of taking Spier's course, that ~ can say ~ became an anthropologist. Spier offered the student a virtual conversion experience. Students might be interested in ethnology, in the varied customs, habits, and practices of aboriginal peoples, but until they experienced the Aujilar- ungthe enlightenmentthat Spier could impart, they had not quite made the gracle. Few students have hacT such gifted teaching. But clearly there is much more to Spier than his superi- ority as a teacher. True, those students like myself retain the most vivid recollections of his classroom presence, but few teachers succeeded so well in wedding teaching with empir- ical research. IncleecI, this was Spier's forte. He is best re- membered for his extensive field work, his descriptive anal- yses of the precontact cultures, those aboriginal forms of American Indian life in western North America. Not that his interests relatect solely to American ethnology: he possessed a profound knowledge of human achievements anct organi- zations across the woricI. Africa, for example, remained one of his strong interests. But it was his firsthand acquisition of
LESLIE SPIER 433 knowledge of the content of the social and cultural systems of native American life that established his ethnographic place. As may be surmised, implicit in Spier's empirical studies of various tribal groups is an underlying body of theory. Yet one cannot call Spier a theorist, at least in terms of his de- veloping a special school or following. His contribution rep- resents a perfecting of a technique of history, one usually identified not wholly accurately with the "school" of American anthropology ascribed to Franz Boas (d. 1942) and his students at Columbia University. The problem to which Spier addressed himself most pointedly concerned a history without documentation, a historicist perspective not so much in terms of a search for origins as in a sense of discovering processes of culture building among comparable peoples. Basically, Spier's interest lay in demonstrating relationships between cultural systems in definable areas and positing in- terrelations and growths. And he carried it off to perfection. Spier's theoretical orientations are perhaps best seen against the period in which he was most active and the climate in anthropological research that was then operative. One can thus see how he arrived at his specific place in the forefront of American ethnographers. Leslie Spier was born in New York City on December 13, IS93, one of the four children of Simon F. Spier and Bertha Adler Spier. He went to school in the city itself, a circum- stance that drew him into urban life and an interest in the burgeoning technology of the day. It is not surprising that he was a student in applied mathematics and engineering, fields in which he took his B.S. degree at the City College of New York. Yet by happy accident in 1913, when he was em- ployed as an engineering assistant for the New York Public Service Commission, he was assigned to the New Jersey Ar- chaeological and Geological Survey. His interest in anthro-
434 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS pology stemmed from this experience, and his early career was marked by a series of publications in archaeology, most notably an evaluation of the prehistoric Trenton Argillite cul- ture of the eastern United States. But archaeology and pre- history were not to be Spier's metier. It was rather that for him this initial field experience opened up uncireamed of horizonsthe continent inhabited by native Americans, as it was before the arrival of the Europeans. Drawn to the powerful personality of Franz Boas, Spier came to Columbia University in 1916 as a graduate student in anthropology. He shared with his mentor an interest in archaeology, to be sure, but he was also attracted by physical anthropology (human biology), linguistics, and ultimately cultural anthropology through the avenue of ethnology. In later years Spier was to demonstrate his command of all branches of the holistic discipline of anthropology, studying native American languages as well as conducting a study of physical changes among the descenciants of Japanese immi- grants. But ethnology remained his first commitment. As an assistant anthropologist at the American Museum of Natural History, he had ample opportunity to become familiar with the artifacts of cultures spread across the world. Ancl with his bent for technology, Spier never lost interest in the ma- terial sicle of human achievements in their respective cul- tures. In 1920 Spier was awarded a doctorate from Columbia. The Ph.D. dissertation that Spier submitted to Boas was es- sentially a library problem combined with some field! re- search. Although he hac! visited the Pueblo of Zuni in New Mexico in 1916 ant! hacI, in 1918 and 1919, begun his sig- nificant work with the Havasupai group in Arizona, he spent some time in the latter year with the Kiowa, Wichita, and Caddo, all peoples of the American Plains. His thesis related
LESLIE SPIER 435 to the Plains area: it was a comparative study of the dramatic Sun Dance, the most important ritual of the American bison hunters. The focus of the study was historical, raising the question of the sources of a ceremonial complex deeply en- trenched in Plains Indian life. Often quoted, Spier's Sun Dance monograph provided a mode} not only for historical inquiries of other scholars but also for his own future work. In 1920 Spier accepted his first teaching post at the Uni- versity of Washington, remaining there until 1929. In New York in 1920 he had married a fellow anthropologist, Dr. Erna Gunther, like himself a student of Boas and a major figure in northwest American anthropology until her death in 1982. The Spiers had two children, Robert and Christo- pher. The latter is still resident in the Seattle area; the former received his Ph.D. from Harvard in 1954 ancTfollowing in his parents' footstepsis professor of anthropology at the University of Missouri. Spier remarried in 1931; his second wife was Dr. Anna H. Gayton, an equally gifted anthropolo- gist trained by A. L. Kroeber anti Robert H. Lowie at the University of California. Dr. Gayton-Spier ctied in 1977. Spier's productivity in teaching and research continued over the next three clecacles. His academic appointments were many: they were often on a visiting basis, but he also held chairs at Yale (1933-39) and at the University of New Mexico (between 1939 and 19551. These appointments often left him free to engage in his extensive fielcl investigations. Other institutions at which he served incluclec! the University of Oklahoma (on leave from Washington in 1927 and 19291; the University of Chicago (1928 and 19301; and Harvard University (1939 and 19491. In addition he was occupied with summer teaching over many years with appointments at Co- lumbia and the University of California at both Berkeley anct Los Angeles. Spier also held research associateships at Cali-
436 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS fornia anct Yale, anct he ctirected fielc! studies at Chaco Can- yon, New Mexico, and fielcl training programs in both the Southwest anc! Northwest. Although Spier's wide range of teaching experience influ- enced many who then mover! into professional anthropology, it was in the ethnographic field that he maple his name as a scientist. His abiding interest in the native peoples of America stemmed, as may be seen, from his initial endeavors in the Plains anc! in the Southwest. One Antis him moving exten- sively through the ctiverse western American Indian cul- tures from the Southwest to the Great Basin anc! California anc! into the intermontane Plateau. In all these regions are to be found a congeries of native peoples, each group or tribe in its own way distinct, and each, at the time Spier contacted them, retaining elements of an aboriginal way of life. Spier saw his task as eliciting essentially descriptively the com- ponents of these various native cultures. Implicit in his rea- soning as he approached the material anti social content of the groups he stuctie`1 was a sense of historicism, his query being basically clirected to the origins and comparisons of cultural systems. It is at this point that one becomes aware of Spier as a scientific ethnographic fielc! worker. It is by no means an easy task to settle into a remote area (especially given the problems of transport ant] travel in the preflight era), establish rapport with the members of a tribal group, anc! ask the kincis of questions that fielct ethnography requires. Spier's extensive experience, however, macle him a master of ethnographic techniques. He acquired a speaking knowledge of various native languages, interested! himself in all facets of the cul- tural and social system in question, and above all brought a keen and sensitive awareness to bear. Those of us who have sometimes followecl Spier, asking different questions of the same people, retain our amazement that thirty and forty
LESLIE SPIER 437 years later the oldsters in a community recall him with affec- tion and respect: "That man could talk our language." "He court! make a basket just like we used to in the old clays." "He figured out all the people in my family." The lessons that were imparted are not lost today; in Spier's work there is a superb mocle! for gathering information on the human experience in culture. Moreover, none of his collected ciata has required . . revlslon. Like other fielcts, the cliscipline of anthropology has, over the years, had its ups and clowns, problem orientations that may change with each decade, new horizons anct perspec- tives. But, however much the research goals and purposes of cultural and social anthropology become subject to modifi- cation, the fielct remains at base a comparative one, ctepen- clent on an awareness of the human potential for cultural difference. In other words, ethnology still unclerlies the con- clusions of whatever theoretical avenue contemporary an- thropologists elect to follow. Spier's studies restect on an awareness of cultural differ- ence rooted in time, the uniqueness of each system. But such uniqueness is to be seen in the context of historical relation- ships. With other American anthropologists generally active at the time of Boas, Spier rejected any notion of a unilinear evolutionary clevelopment of cultureand thus, ultimately, any Marxist position. He hell! no brief for the so-called "func- tionalist" schools, that of Malinowski, for example, or RacI- cliffe-Brown. He tenclec} instead! to follow Boas's functional approach, which posits relationships between the compo- nents of a culture. Similarly he was generally indifferent to the sense of an all-pervading ethos or configuration, a notion that characterized the famous work of Ruth Benedict. In Spier's work there is a clear idea of what constitutes culture among humans. Because every cultural system depends on time for its growth anct clevelopment, those features that of-
438 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS fer insights into the rise of various cultures are the ones to be analyzecI. Like his mentor Franz Boas, Spier retained throughout his career a strongly definecl sense of caution. He was often impatient with conclusions drawn by his contemporaries, ar- guing that they went too far without sufficient eviclence. It was, in fact, this reserve that heightened Spier's brilliance as a field] worker. Beginning with his analysis of the Plains In- dian Sun Dance, he displayocl a meticulousness that carried into all his later work and became his hallmark. In his view a cultural system was macle up of parts, discernible elements that, taken together, form a total complex. The components of a culture permitted an evaluationnot only of the way in which they interrelatecl within the system but in terms of the comparative ant] implicitly historical relations between cul- tures. An example or two of Spier's empirical approach may serve to highlight his contribution to anthropology-ethnol- ogy and the kinds of concerns with which he was preoccu- pied. As stated earlier, he saw himself as a culture-historian; basically he questioned how a particular cultural system cle- velopec! as it clict. The most striking example of Spier's eth- nographic methoct unquestionably appears in the Sun Dance monograph. But because this ceremonial complex moves so deeply into an area of some esoterica, the theoretical stance perhaps may be more reactily illuminated in more encom- passing studies, such as that of the Havasupai or the KIamath Indians of southern Oregon. Spier worked with the Klamath tribe, a group numbering about 1,500 people, during both 1925 and 1926. His task, as he saw it, was to place the Kla- math in "western"that is, native American culture. To re- solve this issue seeing the Klamath in relation to native Cali- fornia, the rest of the Plateau-Basin, and the Northwest- Spier set about obtaining an inventory of the components of
LESLIE SPIER . 439 the culture. As listed in his monograph, these ranged from all material items houses, clothing, weaponry, transport, containers, and so to economic life generallyon through the array of nonmaterial features settlements, chieftain- ship, warfare, social classes, kinship and family structure, anc! ceremonials. The result is an account of Klamath life, one that involves a description of how the native system was put together. In this stubbly, as indeed in nearly all his works, the ethnography is complete, the intent clear. Spier tells us what is there in native Klamath life. Contemporary critics might argue that this is a "shopping list," an account in which all component elements are given essentially equal weight. A "modern" an- thropologist, fifty years later, might want to stress the ways In which the component elements are put together and so seek to move more deeply into the dynamic aspects of Kla- math life. This does Spier an injustice. He was well aware of the problems inherent in native American systems. To him, for example, a ceremony, a bit of ritual, involvec! a vast num- ber of elements coming together: the locus of the ritual, the participants, their clothing, anct their artifacts- and so to the ultimate meaning of the pattern. Several points obtrude in this regarcl. On the one han(l, Spier felt it important to re- cord the content of those native American cultures he inves- tigated before the cultures themselves disappeared. More- over, he had a rather different concept in mind. The fundamental issue in the Klamath and other studies was the problem of cultural relations. As in his later works- those on the Yuman tribes or the Havasupai, among others- he drew tightly knit comparisons. Consequently, having cle- scribed Klamath c~wellings (both an earth lodge for winter _ _~ ~ . I_ ~ r use ana a mat ~oc~ge tor warmer seasons), he notes the form and general function of these structures. Then, employing comparative ethnographic materials, he traces the clistribu-
440 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS tion of these house types and finds them spread from the middle Columbia to central California. The same procedure is followed with regard to other elements and complexes; Spier notes the points that are characteristic of the Klamath but that are apparent as well among other tribes in both act- jacent and remoter areas. What, then, is the permissible con- clusion? It is that the Klamath share with other peoples over a wide geographic area elements of common culture. In other words, a shared history is inferred. But clearly this is not all. The common elements- whether house types or chieftainship, for example are given different weighting in different local settings, cTiffer- ences that are slight, perhaps, but none the less perceptible. In short, when the distributions of elements in space are ana- lyzed, they reveal a slightly different integration from group to group. Comparison of the overt ctiscernible features sug- gests the presence of a major theme, the spread of an idea or thing over a wicle area. But, however much demonstrably related groups may possess a common history, each one makes of the elements it possesses something peculiarly its own. To employ a musical analogue, each culture offers its own variations on a theme. One cannot, of course, discover the point of origin of such shared or borrowed traits. But when a vast area of aboriginal America is shown to possess features in common, there is the implication of a broad his- torical base. Spier's inductive methodology sheds light on the rise of areas of culture in the native New World anc! indeecI elsewhere. To Spier the concept of culture was primary. His cletailecI penetration of material and societal institutions affirms the proposition that although human cultural entities are distinct from each other, yet they may share a common cultural base. The ultimate conclusion makes for an essentially relativistic
LESLIE SPIER 441 perspective on the nature of culture. Spier's disciplined em- pirical studies are built on a sense of the properties ant] pro- cesses implicit in a concept of culture. But Spier never sought to clevelop any elaborate cultural hypothesis, however much his contemporaries- not to mention anthropologists today agonized over definitions and formulations. Rather than compressing the idea of culture in mankind into some clefin- able ant! limited frame, Spier was content to let the empirical data speak for themselves. Obviously there are propositions ant! assumptions, self-evident truths, that color all of Spier's writings. Culture to him was made up of people; his writings show a concern with the role of the individual in culture. Is the human being free to make choices, or are mocles of behavior that are characteristic of cultural systems deter- mined, ctirectect, and limiter! by the system itself? According to Spier, humans act in their social and natural environments within a framework conditioner! by time, i.e., history. Men are free within the limits of historically clerivect cultural sys- tems. Equally, Spier was much preoccupied with the question of cultural growth as clepenclent on accident. A culture, he notes, is not accidental or ranclom. Provision can be maple for individual choices and their ejects, but at the same time the cultures of mankind are always influenced by what has gone before. The patterns of understanding that are characteristic of members of a given culture derive from the factors that have built it. There are also discernible processes that are operative in the building of culture. Inctiviclually maple inventions clo oc- cur, to be sure, but these given the frequent absence of verifiable circumstances come generally from history. Spier devoted considerable time to an analysis of the Prophet Dance of the American Northwest, a messianic revivalistic movement that marked the tribes of the area. Here Spier
442 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS conic! demonstrate the innovative in a social movement that drew on both the aboriginal context and on the imposition of ideological elements drawn from Christian missionization. Two processes were shown to be at work. On the one hancT, there is the employment of native symbols that gave rise to the Prophet Dance idea; on the other, there is the problem of the spread, the diffusion of the invented rituals from one group to another. It is the latter point the diffusion and integration of cultural elementsthat becomes problematic for Spier. To Spier, traits and features come out of time; they are in- ventec! but always within the limiting context of a given cul- tural system or they are ctiffusect with the same limitation applying. For such reasons, western North America assumed a special place for Spier. The area provider! a living labora- tory in which major related complexes couIc! be shown to exist, where a common history was evident, and where each culture gave its particular twist, its idiosyncratic interpreta- tion, to the things, material and social, clerivect from history. Spier remained impatient with the idea of cultural holism, an idea that in the 1920s and 1930s became a watchword and that still reflects a major preoccupation of many anthropol- ogists. The integration of the elements that make up a system is understandable in terms of history ant! not in terms of a preconceived structure or a psychological bent. By letting the data speak for themselves, Spier's formulations convey a vi- tality, an objective sense of the real woric! of ethnographic analysis. In short, the collected data fall into their own niche, offer their own explanation, and never, as Spier employed them, stray from a scientific historicism. There is one remaining side of Spier's many-facetect ca- reer. He saw it as most important to spread the message of a scientific anthropology. Teaching and research were ex-
LESLIE SPIER 443 panded by his work as an editor. Anct he insisted that every opportunity be given to colleagues and students to publish solic! and informative work. As editor of the American Anthro- pologist (the official organ of the American Anthropological Association) from 1934 to 193S, he took a broad ant! eclectic view: he often published papersif they were well argued- whose perspective clearly might not dovetail with his own. Open to nuance but insistent on the highest scholarly stan- ciards, Spier exerted considerable influence on anthropolog- ical publishing for a long time. Eager to further publications, in ~ 935 he founded a short-livect General Series in Anthropology, which was clesigned to issue monographs on various ethno- graphic topics. Continuing financial support for this venture proved clifEcult to obtain; he was able somewhat later, how- ever, in 1945, to found the Southwestern fournal of Anthropol- ogy, a major journal that Spier continues] to Alit until his cleath. (Although still in existence as the Journal of Anthropo- log~cal Research, after Spier's death the Southwestern journal was never able to recapture the vitality he injectecI.) As an editor, both in his selection of manuscripts and in his treat- ment of them, he was without peer. Every sentence, refer- ence, ant] diagram were carefully combed. Indeed, it was this same meticulous quality that appeared in his teaching. Hav- ing begun his career in engineering, Spier maple full use of his drafting skills and artistic gifts, sometimes going so far as to redraw diagrams and similar items for his contributors. One can recall, as an example, his skills at the blackboard. To illustrate an artifact, he would ciraw it; ant] if it were a pot, a basket, or some other symmetrical object, he wouIct take a piece of chalk in each hand and draw a perfect shape. Lamentably, Spier and the majority of his contemporaries are gone. Quite apart from the sense of loss that must be felt, there is the question of what has happened to the ctiscipline
444 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS of anthropology, and particularly of ethnology/ethnography since those historicist clays. There are some tociay who are still appalled! at the diffuseness of the discipline as it is now practiced and the consequent decline in scholarly excellence. Spier perhaps saw it coming but remained faithful to the field as he knew it. He was and remains one of the "greats."
LESLIE SPIER HONORS AND DISTINCTIONS DEGREES 1915 B.S. (engineering), College of the City of New York 1920 Ph.D. (anthropology), Columbia University PROFESSIONAL RECORD 1919 1923 1920-1929 1930, 1934 1932-1933 1933-1939 1936,1937, 1939,1941 1939-1955 1960-1961 445 1912-1914 Assistant Anthropologist, New Jersey Archaeological and Geological Survey 1916 -1920 Assistant Anthropologist, American Museum of Nat- ural History Cutting Fellowship, Columbia University National Research Council Fellowship Professor, University of Washington Director, Anthropology Field Training Program, Pa- cific Northwest, Okanagon and Modoc Research Associate, Yale University Professor, Yale University Research Director, University of New Mexico Chaco Canyon Field Sessions Professor, University of New Mexico Research Associate, University of California, Berkeley Visiting Professor: 1927-1929 University of Oklahoma 1928, 1930 University of Chicago 1939, 1949 Harvard University 1921,1923, Columbia University (summer) 1925,1932 1924,1925, University of California, Berkeley (summer) 1927,1932, 1933,1948 1947 University of California, Los Angeles (summer) HONORARY SOCIETIES 1946 National Academy of Sciences 1946 American Philosophical Society
446 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1953 Fellow, Academy of Arts and Sciences 1955 Fellow, California Academy of Science 1960 Honorary Fellow, Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland HONORS 1946 Townsend Harris Medal 1960 Viking Fund Medal and Award PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES American Anthropological Association, (1934-1938) President ~ 1943~; Editor American Association for the Advancement of Science, Vice- President, Section H ~ 1943, 1946) Andean Institute Society for American Folklore National Research Council Sigma Xi
LESLIE SPIER B I B LI OGRAPHY 447 1913 Results of an archaeological survey of the state of New Jersey. Am. Anthropol., 15:675 -79. 1915 Review of"The double-curve motive in Northwestern Algonkian art," by Frank G. Speck. Am. Anthropol., 17:344-46. Review of"On the shell heaps of Maine," by F. B. Loomis and D. B. Young. Am. Anthropol., 17:346-47. Location of archaeological remains on Manhattan Island. In: The Indians of Manhattan Island and Vicinity, by Alanson Skinner. American Museum of Natural History, Guide Leaflet Series, no. 41. New York. Review of The Indians of Greater Nero York, by Alanson Skinner. Am. Anthropol., 17:581-82. Blackfoot relationship terms. Am. Anthropol., 17:603-7. Indian remains near Plainfield, Union County, and along the Lower Delaware Valley. Geological Survey of New Jersey, Bul- letin 13. Union Hill, N. I. 1916 New data on the Trenton Argillite culture. Am. Anthropol., 18: 181-89. Review of "Composition of California Shellmounds," by Edward Winslow Gifford. Am. Anthropol., 18:282-84. Review of "A Pre-Lenape Site in New jersey," by E. W. Hawkes and Ralph Linton. Am. Anthropol., 18:564-66. 1917 Zuni chronology. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 3. An outline of a chronology of Zuni ruins. Anthropol. Pap. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Impart 3~. 1918 The growth of boys: Dentition and stature. Am. Anthropol., 20:37-48.
448 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Notes on some Little Colorado ruins. Anthropol. Pap. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 18(part 4~. Physiological age: The relation of dentition to body growth. The Dental Cosmos, 60:899-905. The Havasupai of Cataract Canon. Am. Mus. i., 18:637-45. The Trenton Argillite culture. Anthropol. Pap. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 22(part 4~. 1919 Ruins in the White Mountains of Arizona. Anthropol. Pap. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 18(part 5~. The growth of Porto Rican boys, with special reference to the re- lation between their stature and dentition. i. Dent. Res., 1: 145- 57. 1920 Review of Primitive Society, by Robert H. Lowie. Pac. Rev., 1 :425- 26. Note on letters of a Javanese princess by Raden Adjeng Kartini. Pac. Rev., 1:427. 1921 Review of Peoples of the Philippines, by A. L. Kroeber. Pac. Rev., 2:348-49. Notes on the Kiowa Sun Dance. Anthropol. Pap. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 16(part 6~. The Sun Dance of the Plains Indians: Its development and diffu- sion. Anthropol. Pap. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 16(part 7~. Review of The Ila-Speaking Peoples of Northern Rhodesia, by Edwin W. Smith and Andrew Murray Dale. Am. Anthropol., 23:372-74. 1922 Havasupai days. In: American Indian Life, ed. Elsie Clews Parsons. New York. Review of The American Indian, by Clark Wissler. Wash. Hist. Q., 13:300-301. A suggested origin for gentile organization. Am.. Anthropol., 24:487-89.
LESLIE SPIER 449 Review of Early Civilization, by A. A. Goldenweiser. The Book Re- view, New York Herald-Tribune, October, p. 22. 1923 Southern Diegueno customs. Univ. Calif. Berkeley Publ. Am. Ar- chaeol. Ethnol., 20(Phoebe Apperson Hearst Memorial Vol- ume): 297-358. Note appended to "A Blackfoot Version of the Magic Flight," by Robert H. Knox. I. Am. Folklore, 36:401. 1924 Zuni weaving technique. Am. Anthropol., 26:64-85. Havasupai (Yuman) texts. Int. I. Am. Linguistics, 3:109-16. Wichita and Caddo relationship terms. Am. Anthropol., 26:258- 63. Review of Studies in Evolution and Eugenics, by S. ]. Holmes. Am. Anthropol., 26:264-67. Review of A History of Magic and Experimental Science During the First Thirteen Centuries of Our Era, by Lynn Thorndike. Am. Anthro- pol., 26:277-78. 1925 Reviews of The Bagesu and Other Tribes of the Uganda Protectorate, by John Roscoe; Ashanti, by R. S. Rattray; Race Problems in the New Africa, by W. C. Willoughby. Am. Anthropol., 27:330-31. Anthropology. In: New International Year Book for 1924, ed. Frank Moore Colby and Herbert Treadwell Wade, pp. 38-45. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company. Review of Growth of Chinese, by S. M. Shirokogoroff and V. B. Ap- pleton. Am. Anthropol., 27:469-70. The distribution of kinship systems in North America. Univ. Wash. Publ. Anthropol., 1 (2) :69-88. An analysis of Plains Indian parfleche decoration. Univ. Wash. Publ. Anthropol., 1~3~:89-112. 1926 Anthropology. In: New International Year Book for 1925, ed. Herbert Treadwell Wade, pp. 37-43. New York: Dodd, Mead and Com- pany.
450 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Review of "Archaeological Investigations in the Aleutian Islands," by Waldemar Jochelson. Wash. Hist. Q., 17:145. Are savages people? Reviews of My Crowded Solitude, by Jack Mc- Laren, and In Unknown New Guinea, by W. ]. V. Saville. In: New York Herald-Tribune Books, August 22, p. 11. Are savages people? Review of Crime and Custom in Savage Society, by B. Malinowski. New York Herald-Tribune Books, September 19, p. 16. 1927 Review of Les Origines de l'Humanite, by Rene Verneau. Am. An- thropol.,29:116. Review of Religion and Folklore in Northern India, by William Crooke. Am. Anthropol., 29: 1 19. Review of Process of Physical Growth Among the Chinese, vol. 1, by S. M. Shirokogoroff. Am. Anthropol., 29: 1 19-20. Anthropology. In: New International Year Book for 1926, ed. Herbert Treadwell Wade, pp. 40-47. New York: Dodd, Mead and Com- pany. The association test as a method of defining religious concepts. Am. Anthropol., 29:267-70. With Dorothy A. Smith. The dot and circle design in Northwestern America. I. Soc. Americanistes Paris, 19:47-55. Review of Mythology of Puget Sound, by Hermann Haeberlin. Wash. Hist. Q., 18:149. The Ghost Dance of 1870 among the Klamath of Oregon. Univ. Wash. Publ. Anthropol., 2~2~:39-56. Tribal distribution in southwestern Oregon. Oreg. Hist. Q., 28: 1-8. Review of Culture: The Diffusion Controversy, by G. Elliot Smith, Bronislaw Malinowski, Herbert i. Spinden, and Alexander Gol- denweiser. I Am. Folklore, 40:4 15-16. 1928 Concerning man's antiquity at Frederick, Oklahoma. Science, 67: 160-61. Review of The Story of the American Indian, by Paul Radin. The Daily Oklahoman (Oklahoma City), March 11, p. 9.
LESLIE SPIER 451 Havasupai ethnography. Anthropol. Pap. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 29 (part 3). Anthropology. In: New International Year Book for 1927, ed. Herbert Treadwell Wade, pp. 43-51. New York: Dodd, Mead and Com- pany. Review of Primitive Man As Philosopher, by Paul Radin. The City College Alumnus (New York), 24:73-74. Review of various Publicaciones de la Secretaria de Educacion Pub- lica, Mexico. In: Books Abroad, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 40-41. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Review of Totenmasken, by Richard Langer. In: Books Abroad, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 71-72. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. A note on reputed artifacts from Frederick, Oklahoma. Science, 68:184. Measurements of quadruplet girls. Am. I. Phys. Anthropol., 12: 269-72. 1929 Review of The Building of Cultures, by Roland B. Dixon. Am. An- thropol., 31: 140-45. Review of The Ancient Inhabitants of the Canary Islands, by Earnest A. Hooten. Am. Anthropol., 31:169-75. Problems arising from the cultural position of the Havasupai. Am. Anthropol., 3 1:2 13-22. Review of Auf der Suche nach dem Pithekanthropus: Dem "A~en- menschen vor Java," by Emil Carthaus. In: Books Abroad, vol. 3, no. 3, p. 287. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Growth of Japanese children born in America and in lanan IJniv Wash. Publ. Anthropol., 3~1~: 1-30. -- ~ --r ~~ Anthropology. In: New International YearBooLfor 1928, ed. Herbert Treadwell Wade, pp. 39-46. New York: Dodd, Mead and Com- pany. Review of Religion and Art in Ashanti, by R. S. Rattray. Am. Anthro- pol., 31:521-25. 1930 Anthropology. In: New International Year Book for 1929, ed. Herbert Treadwell Wade, pp. 33-44. New York: Dodd, Mead and Com- pany.
452 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Contributions to New International Encyclopedia Supplement: Anthro- pology, vol. 1, pp.87-89; Ethnography, vol. l, pp.513-18; Eth- nology, vol. 1, pp. 518 - 22; Eugenics, vol. 1, pp. 523-24; Indi- ans, vol. 1, pp. 783-85; Prehistoric races of man, vol. 2, pp. 976-78; Race problems, vol. 2, pp. 1306-10. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company. Ethnology. In: Nelson's Perpetual Loose-Leaf Encyclopedia, vol. 4, pp. 490-94. Review of Materials for the Study of Inheritance in Man, by Franz Boas. Am. Anthropol., 32:321. With Edward Sapir. Wishram ethnography. Univ. Wash. Publ. An- thropol., 3~3~: 151-300. Review of The Prehistory of Aviation, by Berthold Laufer. Am. An- thropol., 32 :556-57. Review of Anthropology and Modern Life, by Franz Boas. Am. I. So- ciol., 35:1117-18. Slave raid. Southwest Rev., 15: 515 -23. Klamath ethnography. Univ. Calif. Berkeley Publ. Am. Archaeol. Ethnol., 30:1-338. 1931 Perfectly natural. Atl. Mon., 147: 133-36. N. C. Nelson's stratigraphic technique in the reconstruction of pre- historic sequences in Southwestern America. In: Methods in So- cial Science, ed. Stuart A. Rice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Historical interrelation of culture traits: Franz Boas' study of Tsim- shian mythology. In: Methods in Social Science, ed. Stuart A. Rice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Anthropology. In: New International Year Book for 1930, ed. Herbert Treadwell Wade, pp. 37-43. New York: Dodd, Mead and Com- pany. Plains Indian parfleche designs. Univ. Wash. Publ. Anthropol., 4 (3):293-322. 1932 Anthropology. In: New International Year Book for 1931, ed. Herbert Treadwell Wade, pp. 39-43. New York: Dodd, Mead and Com- pany.
LESLIE SPIER 453 Notes and queries on Anthropology, 5th ed. (Edited for the British Association for the Advancement of Science by a committee of Section H.) Am. Anthropol., 34:516. 1933 Review of Social Anthropology, by Paul Radin. Am. J. Social., 38:775-76. Anthropology. In: New International Year Book for 1932, ed. Frank H. Vizetelly, pp. 35-40. New York: Funk and Wagnalls Com- pany. Yuman Tribes of the Gila River. Univ. Chicago Publ. Anthropol., Eth- nol. Ser. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1934 Review of The Peninsula of Yucatan: Medical, Biological, Meteorological and Sociological Studies, by George Cheever Shattuck and collab- orators. Am. l. Sci., 27:237. Anthropology. In: New International Year Book for 1933, ed. Frank H. Vizetelly, pp. 34-39. New York: Funk and Wagnalls Com- pany. Review of The Long Roadfrom Savagery to Civilization, by Fay-Cooper Cole. Am. Anthropol., 36:302-3. 1935 Anthropology. In: New International Year Book for 1934, ed. Frank H. Vizetelly, pp. 33-37. New York: Funk and Wagnalls Com- pany. The prophet dance of the Northwest and its derivatives. General Series in Anthropology, no. 1, pp. 1-74. 1936 Cultural Relations of the Gila River and Lower Colorado Tribes. Yale Univ. Publ. Anthropol., no. 3, pp. 1-22. Tribal Distribution in Washington. General Series in Anthropology, no. 3, pp. 1-43. Anthropology. In: New International Year Book for 1935, ed. Frank H. Vizetelly, pp. 31-35. New York: Funk and Wagnalls Com- pany.
454 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1937 Review of The Comparative Ethnology of Northern Mexico Before 1750, by Ralph L. Beals, and The Distribution of Aboriginal Tribes and Languages in Northwestern Mexico, by Carl Sauer. Am. Anthro- pol., 39:146-48. 1938 Preface. In: The Sinkaielk or Southern Okanagon of Washington, by Walter B. Cline and others. General Series in Anthropology, no. 6, pp. 3-5. 1939 Edward Sapir obituary. Science, 89:237-38. Illustration in Anthropological Publications. Full-Tone Collotype for Scientific Reproduction, Supplement no. 12. Meriden, Conn.: The Meriden Gravure Company. Edward Sapir: 1884-4 February 1939 obituary. Man (London), 39:92-93. Ed. Songsfora Comox Dancing Mask, by Edward Sapir. Ethnos,4:49- 55. 1940 Review of An Ethnic Map of Australia and A Preliminary Register of Australian Tribes and Hordes, by D. Sutherland Davidson. Am. Anthropol., 42: 159-60. Review of The Kiliwa Indians of Lower California, by Peveril Meigs, III. I. Am. Folklore, 53:198-200. The Pueblos since Coronado. E1 Palacio (Santa Fe, N.M.), 47:201- 4. . , . _ . . 1941 With A. Irving Hallowell and Stanley S. Newman, eds. Foreword. In: Language, Culture, and Personality: Essays in Memory of Edward Sapir, p. x. Menasha, Wisc.: Sapir Memorial Publication Fund. Completion of an extended ethnography of the Modoc Indians of Oregon. In: American Philosophical Society, Year Book for 1940, pp. 253-54. Philadelphia.
/ LESLIE SPIER 1942 455 Review of Ceremonial Costumes of the Pueblo Indians: Their Evolution, Fabrication, and Significance in the Prayer Drama, by Virginia More Roediger. Pac. Hist. Rev., 11:220-21. Elsie Clews Parsons, 1875-1941. (Obituary.) Am. Counc. Learned Soc. Bull., 35:46 - 49~716 -18~. 1943 Review of Pima and Papago Indian Agriculture, by Edward F. Castet- ter and Willis H. Bell. N.M. Q. Rev., 13:99-100. Addenda to bibliography of Elsie Clews Parsons. I. Am. Folklore, 56:136. Review of The Eyak Indians of the Copper River Delta, by Kaj Birket- Smith and Frederica de Laguna. Am. I. Archaeol., 47:152-53. With A. L. Kroeber. Elsie Clews Parsons. (Obituary.) Am. Anthro- pol., 45:244-51. Franz Boas and some of his views. (Obituary.) Acta Americana: Rev. Inter-Am. Soc. Anthropol. Geogr. (Mexico City), 1:108- 27. With Edward Sapir. Notes on the culture of the Yana. Anthropol. Rec., 3:239-98. 1945 Review of Racial Prehistory in the Southwest and the Hawikuh of Zuni, by Carl C. Seltzer. N.M. Hist. Rev., 20:101-3. 1946 Comparative vocabularies and parallel texts in two Yuman lan- guages of Arizona. Univ. N.M. Publ. Anthropol., no. 2, pp. 1- 150. 1947 Review of Papago Indian Religion, by Ruth M. Underhill. Sci. Mon., 65: 170-72. 1949 A study of cultural selectivity. In: American Philosophical Society, Year Book for 1948, pp. 207-8. Philadelphia.
456 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1950 Contributions to Collier's Encyclopedia: Amuck, vol. 1, p. 515; An- thropology, vol. 2, pp. 37-38; Cannibalism, vol. 4, pp. 467-68; Civilization, vol. 5, pp. 295-96; Couvade, vol. 6, p. 75; Ethnol- ogy, vol. 7, pp. 451-52; Infanticide, vol. 10, p. 406; Potlatch, vol. 16, p. 252; Primitive culture (with a section on primitive industry by Harry Tschopik, Jr.), vol. 16, 317-29; primitive re- ligion, vol. 16, pp. 329-34; Primitive society, vol. 16, pp. 334- 43. New York: P. F. Collier and Sons Corporation. 1953 With Harold E. Driver, John M. Cooper, Paul Kirchoff, Dorothy Ranier Libby, and William C. Massey. Indian Tribes of North America. Ind. Univ. Publ. Anthropol. Linguist., Memoir 9, Int. J. Am. Linguist. Suppl., Int. J. Am. Linguist., 19~3~:1-30. Some observations on Mohave clans. Southwest. I. Anthropol., 9:324-42. 1954 Ancestor worship. In: The Encyclopedia Americana, vol. 1, pp. 651 52. New York: The Americana Corporation. Some aspects of the nature of culture. First Annual Research Lec- ture, University of New Mexico, April 23,1954. N.M. Quarterly, 24~3):301-21. (Also printed separately, pp. 1-21.) 1955 Mohave Culture Items. Mus. N. Ariz. Bull., no. 28, pp. 1-35. Flag- staff: Northern Arizona Society of Science and Art, Inc. 1956 invention and human society. In: Man, Culture, and Society, ed. Harry L. Shapiro, pp. 224-46. New York: Oxford University Press. 1957 The Horse Comes to the Great Plains. Radio Script no. 12, The World of the Mind Series. (Arranged in collaboration with the Amer- ican Association for the Advancement of Science and the Amer-
LE S LI E S PI E R 457 ican Council of Learned Societies.) New York: Broadcast Music, Inc. 1958 Invention. In: Collier's Encyclopedia, vol. 11, pp. 93A-93F. New York: P. F. Collier and Sons Corporation. Cannibalism. In: The Encyclopedia Americana, vol. 5, pp.502-3. New York: The Americana Corporation. Contributions to Collier's Encyclopedia: Fire, vol. 8, pp.56 - 57; Prim- itive industry, vol. 16, pp. 593-95; Sign language, vol. 17, pp. 320 - 27; Wheel, vol. 19, p. 458A. New York: P. F. Collier and Son. 1959 With Wayne Suttles and Melville I. Herskovits. Comment on Aberle's thesis of deprivation. Southwest. I. Anthropol., 15: 84- 88. Some central elements in the legacy. In: The Anthropology of Franz Boas, ed. Walter Goldschmidt. Am. Anthropol. Assoc. Mem., 89: 148-55. 1960 Note on Maricopa origin of the term Nixoras. In: What Were Nix- oras? by Henry F. Dobyns and others. Southwest. J. Anthropol., 16:233-34. Contributions to Collier's Encyclopedia: Anthropology, vol. 1, pp. 657-58; Anthropogeography, vol. 1, p. 658; Ethnology, vol. 7, pp. 185-86; Primitive and professional hunting, vol. 9, pp. 640-44. New York: P. F. Collier and Son. 1961 Geophagy. In: Collier's Encyclopedia, vol. 8, p. 358. New York: P. F. Collier and Son. Sun dance. In: The Encyclopaedia Britannica, vol.21, p.565. London and New York: The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company, Ltd. 1962 Contributions to Collier's Encyclopedia: Bachofen, Johann Jakob, vol. 3, p.439; Bastian, Adolf, vol.3, p. 697; Lowie, Robert Heinrich,
458 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS vol. 15, p. 60; Sapir, Edward, vol. 20, pp. 425-26. New York: P. F. Collier and Son. 1963 Contributions to The Encyclopaedia Britannica: Cocopa, vol. 6, p. 7; Dwellings, primitive, vol. 7, pp. 809-12; Mohave, vol. 15, p. 655. London and New York: The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company, Ltd. Contributions to the Harper Encyclopedia of Science: Fire, vol. 2, p. 7; Primitive technology, vol. 3, pp. 956-57; Wheel, vol. 4, p. 1257. New York: Harper and Row. 1964 Contributions to The Encyclopaedia Britannica: Weapons, vol.28, pp. 531-32; Wheel, vol. 28, pp. 700-702. London and New York: The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company, Ltd.