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Biographical Memoirs: V.57 (1987)

Chapter: Hans-Lukas Teuber

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Suggested Citation:"Hans-Lukas Teuber." National Academy of Sciences. 1987. Biographical Memoirs: V.57. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1000.
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HANS-LUKAS TEUBER August 7, 1916—January 4, 1977 BY LEO M. HURVICH, DOROTHEA JAMESON, AND WALTER A. ROSENBLITH ON W E D N E S D A Y. January 19, 1977, Hans-Lukas Teuber was scheclulect to deliver a lames R. Killian Faculty Award Lecture entities! "Mooct, Motives, Memory and Val- ues."~ Instead there assembled in the Kresge Auditorium of MIT a memorial gathering of family, colleagues, students, and friends to remember anc! share recollections of this ex- traorctinary person. They were there to express their a~ec- tion, admiration, and love for him, and to assuage the grief prompted by his untimely and unexpected death at the age of sixty. Professor Teuber—or Luke, as he was known to his many friends lost his life on January 4 while swimming oh Virgin Gorcia in the British Virgin Islands where he was va- cationing with his wife Marianne. He had been at MTT since 1961 and in 1964 hack founcled the Department of Psychol- ogy and was appointed its first head. Within a few years the department hack grown into a center of psychology and the brain sciences that came to be known and admired the world over. Only a man of his brilliance, scholarly acumen, and warm personal qualities could have accomplished such a feat in one ' The first lecture, which was to have been delivered January 12, 1977, was en- titled "From Perception to Action." 461

462 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS decade. A magnetic human being summarized once in the phrase of a ten-year-oIcl child of a colleague: "He twin- kles"2 Luke was a gifted experimenter, teacher, anc! admin- istrator. Above all, throughout his busy professional life, he expressed a warmth for people: gentleness, consideration, ancT concern for others. His colleague Professor Nauta said of him: "Luke was that rare person, describecT by Camus, as the true poet who would have no choice at all but to make poetry even in the desert."3 Whence came this magical, "highly improbable and very lovable man," as he was cle- scribe<1 by a brilliant young colleague, Ann Graybiel.4 Hans-Lukas Teuber was born August 7, 1916, in Berlin, the son of Dr. Eugen Teuber and Rose Knopf Teuber. His parents were exceedingly musical—both were excellent pi- anists—ant} his younger brother became an organist and mu- sic historian. His father, who was his greatest single influence during Luke's early years, had studied uncler Wilhelm Wundt ant] Car] Stumpf; uncler the sponsorship of the Prussian Academy of Sciences, he set up a primate station on Tenerife (Canary Islancis) for the study of anthropoid apes. (While there, Eugen Teuber also collected folk melodies for Stumpf's "Tonarchiv.") In early 1914 he returned to Ger- many to serve as a communications officer during World War I. After a brief period during which they overIappecl at Te- nerife, Wolfgang KohIer took over the direction of the station from Luke's father anct went on to conduct the famous chim- panzee experiments that he (lescribecl in The Mentality of Apes. After the war, Luke's father became interested in calculating crevices ant! joined a business machine firm callect Actrema, first as director of research and later as director of exports. 2 Transcript of a gathering to remember Hans-Lukas Teuber, Kresge Auditorium, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, January 19, 1977, p. 16. 3 Ibid., p. 4. 4 Ibid., p. 13.

HANS-LUKAS TEUBER 463 In 1938 Lukas's parents and brother moved to Denmark; he continuer} his studies at the University of Baste in Switzer- lancI, where he was a student from 1935 to 1939. Lukas spent his youth with the family partly on the Baltic and partly in Berlin. His first schooling was in a private pre- paratory school in Berlin, and he subsequently attended the College Frances (a Huguenot school) in Berlin for eight years, graduating in 1934 with a baccalaureat. His classical education emphasized the humanities Latin, Greek, and ancient history and all subjects, including the natural sci- ences, were taught in French. Lukas shared his father's ctis- parate interests in Greek and Roman literature, the compar- ative study of animal behavior, ant! the application of math- ematics to problems of communication. They took Tong hikes together, first into the Harz Mountains and later in the Alps. Lukas's oIcler son Andreas documentect the influence of his father's classical education when he told us at the memorial convocation: "I remember . . . when ~ was four years old, he thought it wouIct be splendid if T heard Antigone by Sopho- cles hard enough for a four-year-old except that my fa- ther thought ~ would not truly appreciate it unless he read it to me in Greek. And so there ~ was, four years old—~ hac] this tedcly bear—ant! ~ sat there and listened to Sophocles in Greek."5 (The going was not always that rough for Ancireas ant! his younger brother Christopher. Although the English translations of the Greek myths ant! the recounting of the entire Odyssey were part of their bedtime fare, so were Dr. DoolittIe and Winnie the Pooh.) Lukas wrote poetry and plays in his youth and had con- templated a career as a poet. In later years, he continued to write occasional verse (he often quoted relevant poetry in his lectures), but while he was at the University of Basle, philos- 5 Transcript of a gathering to remember Hans-Lukas Teuber, p. 10.

464 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS ophy became his primary interest particularly, philosophy of science. His early interest in the comparative study of be- havior continuccI, and he took courses and received labora- tory training in biology ant! zoology, comparative anatomy, and embryology. His teacher in physical chemistry was Pro- fessor Bernoulli, anct he worked with Professor Portman in the Zoological Institute. Hans Spemann, who came from nearby Freiburg to lecture on embryology, was still another influence. And it was here that Lukas's interest in problems of central nervous system physiology was first engaged. An important aspect of Lukas's Baste years was the small interclisciplinary workshop in which he participates! with sev- eral young instructors and fellow students. One of the latter was Marianne Liepe. Discussions at the workshop focuses! on the methoclologies of the diverse sciences and ways to bridge the gap between the biological anct social sciences. But the intellectual interests of the group ranged wicle. At one time the group react Dante's Divina Commeclia and works such as Bachofen's Mutterrecht unc! Urreligion the sort of book that later lect Robert Graves to extol matriarchal societies. On receiving the Holtzer Fellowship at Harvard in 1939, Lukas prepared to come to the Unitect States, but the out- break of World War II delayoc! his arrival here until 1941. Marianne Liepe had come to the United States two years ear- lier to study at Vassar College, and she and L.ukas were mar- ried in 1941. Marianne's background was similar to Lukas's in many ways. Her parents were Wolfgang and Gertrud (Neustadt) Liepe. Her father tract been chairman of the De- partment of German Literature at the University of Kie} in Germany ancT later became a professor at the University of Chicago. The Teubers's two sons, Andreas Wolfgang and Christopher Lawrence, were born in 1942 and 1946. An- clreas is now an associate professor of philosophy at Brancleis University and Christopher is a structural designer in Venice,

HANS-LUKAS TEUBER 465 California. The Teubers became naturalized American citi- zens in 1944. In recent years Marianne has devoted more of her intellectual energies to her contributions to art history, particularly the Bauhaus periocl; but throughout l.ukas's ca- reer, she was an integral part of the international intellectual life that movecT freely and hospitably from his laboratory or seminar room to their home. Teuber received his Ph.D. in psychology from Harvard University in 1947. His graduate training at Harvard and research at the Cabot Foundation in Cambridge were inter- rupted by two years of service in the U. S. Naval Reserve from 1944 to 1946. According to a perhaps apocryphal story, Lu- kas at first failect the mandatory German language exami- nation at Harvard because, as a recent arrival to the United States, he clid not know enough English into which to trans- late the German text. His Navy stint, however, and a part- time position as assistant boys secretary at the Cambridge YMCA while he was a Harvard graduate student acceleratect his Americanization. He eventually acquired a superb com- manct of the English language, and throughout his academic career his rapt audiences enjoyed his eloquence and gentle humor. During his stay at Harvard, Lukas's interests were ctiviclecl between the physiology of sensation and the application of experimental methods to the study of small social groups. His appointment to the research staff of the Cabot Founcia- tion turned him temporarily in the direction of experimental sociology and lecl to his cloctoral dissertation "Dyaclic Groups A Study in Counseling Relationships" under Gordon Aliport's sponsorship. This study was part of a ten- year experiment in the "prevention of delinquency" by pro- vicling guidance, counseling, ancT psychotherapy to 325 underprivileged boys. Treatment consisted of intensive, face- to-face interactions between the boys and some thirty coun-

466 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS sellors; these counsellors saw the boys at weekly to monthly intervals for periods ranging frozen two-and-a-half to eight years. A control group of 325 similarly unclerprivilege(1 boys- matched in pairs with the members of the treatment group but left entirely untreated was also set up at the be- ginning of the experiment. The importance of control groups to evaluate such social intervention programs was borne out by the outcome. Ten years after the start of the experiment and after all treatment had been terminated, the research staff compared the inci- clence of delinquency between the treater! and control groups. Even though all but one of the counsellors thought their treatment efforts highly successful, the frequency of offenses turned out to be slightly higher in the treatment group. The use of large matched control groups was to be a dominant feature of Teuber's later research on brain- clamaged patients. After his cleath, an autobiographical sketch that Lukas had preparer! in either 1952 or 1953 was flounce among his papers. In summarizing his career to that point, he wrote: My original biological interests had been fostered at Harvard through contacts with Lashley, and through avid reading of the work of {. W. Gibbs, L. I. Henderson, and W. B. Cannon. The possibility that the logic of Gibbs- ian systems (set up for physical chemistry) might be equally applicable to biological and social systems, was considered more and more seriously. A more direct influence was that of Kurt Goldstein, who at that time (1941) was Visiting Professor and William James lecturer at Harvard. Fre- quent personal contacts made me aware of the strategic role of experi- mental neurology within the framework of general biological science, and suggested a reconsideration of the earlier German work (Bethe, Uexkull, Weiss) in comparative physiology of nervous systems and problems of sen- sorimotor integration. The final and decisive push in the direction of my chosen field was provided almost fortuitously by a two-year period in the U.S. Navy. In 1944, I arrived at the San Diego Naval Hospital where Dr. M. B. Bender

HANS-LUKAS TEUBER 467 was in charge of the neurology wards. He was interested in studying pe- ripheral nerve injuries, causalgia, and sensory disturbances after cerebral injury. Hearing of my acquaintance with Goldstein's work, he suggested that I stay with him at the Naval Hospital. An improvised laboratory was set up early in 1945, and men with acute battle injuries of the nervous system were studied by us for nearly two years. The unique opportunity of observing effects of acute brain injuries resulted in a number of joint papers . . . In these papers, we tried to continue the tradition of Goldstein and Gelb, of Poppelreuter, of Head and Holmes, considering the injuries as experiments of nature and studying the disturbances of brain function as a clue to normal modes of central nervous functioning. . This type of research was to remain a consuming interest of Luke's until the end. Dr. Weiskrantz, an Oxford colleague and friend, has written: "He contributed a unique and clis- tinctive personal approach to a tradition that had its roots in 19th century neurology."6 Following his discharge from the Navy and completion of his graduate work at Harvard, Lukas went to the New York University College of Medicine. Under the sponsorship of Bender and S. B. Wortis, he built up a small laboratory to . continue studying the effects of penetrating brain injuries. Successively he was appointed research associate in the Col- lege of Medicine and in the Department of Psychology in the Graduate School of Arts and Science, associate professor, and professor. Throughout this perioc! he heaclect the Psycho- physiological laboratory at the NYU Bellevue Medical Cen- ter and with his colleagues and students establishect that lab- oratory as a vital and creative research center that attracted international attention. Teuber's research collaborators clur- ing these years inclucled Josephine Semmes, Lila Ghent, Rita Rudel, Sidney Weinstein, William Battersby, Joseph Altman, Mortimer Mishkin, Stephan Chorover, Florry Proctor, and others. 6 L. Weiskrantz, "Hans-Lukas Teuber," Nature, 2(1977):485-86.

468 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Although his teaching at NYU was primarily in special- ized courses such as neuroanatomy and physiological psy- chology, Teuber's interctisciplinary interests persisted. He also taught a course on the social psychology of small groups and became a member of the Macy Foundation multidisci- plinary group. This group held a series of conferences in an area that became known after the title of Norbert Wiener's book—as cybernetics; the discussions clealt with feedback theory anct communication theory and their possible rele- vance to the study of central nervous function. In 1961 Teuber left New York University for MIT but with certain misgivings: he hac] had a long association with his group of brain-injured patients, and he was strongly at- tachect to his attractive home in Dobbs Ferry just outside New York City. The early transition to MIT was, in his own worcts, "somewhat turbulent." But even after the move to the Boston area, Luke was able to maintain his contacts with the New York patient group, anct in fact the association laster! some thirty years. He tract a clear and uncompromising conception of the type of psychology department he wanted to develop at MIT, ant] he saw to it that his plan became reality. In 1961, psychology at MTT was a section in the Depart- ment of Economics ant! Social Science. But Luke moved rap- idly to reorganize psychology staffing, to plan a research building, and to develop a cloctoral program. In contrast to a proposer] interclepartmental arrangement that would have overseen all scientists anc! engineers at MIT involved or in- terestect in psychology, Teuber and his colleagues stressec! the need for psychology as a core concept. Their aim was a strong and cohesive program with both educational and research components. Luke's view was supported by the visiting com- mittee of the "parent" department and the MIT administra- tion; by the end of the 1964 academic year, the MIT corpo- ration conferred clepartmental status on psychology.

HANS-LUKAS TEUBER 469 From its very beginning the department focused its efforts on what is now commonly called brain sciences. Three related parallel lines of interest were vigorously pursued: (~) brain and behavior (neuropsychology, neuroanatomy, and neuro- physiology); (2) experimental psychology (perception and learning); and (3) social and developmental psychology, with an emphasis on comparative aspects (sensorimotor develop- ment, cognition and language acquisition, and psycholin- · — gUlStlCS . Weiskrantz has succinctly summarized the clepartment's further development uncier Teuber's leadership: To it he attracted scientists of great distinction from a variety of dis- ciplines, as well as younger persons whose promise later was fulfilled; the contributions of his colleagues were as important in neurophysiology as in experimental psychology. He worked unceasingly to attract funds for their endeavors and to promote a genuinely interdisciplinary atmosphere, warm and paternalistic, in which he and his colleagues could flourish. The MIT department became an almost compulsory stopping-off point in the U.S.A. for scientists from throughout the world with interests in brain function and psychology; they were invariably greeted with great hospitality and kindness, their seminars almost always continuing at the Teubers' home late into the evening, surrounded by a formidable but enthusiastic circle of graduate students.7 To this day the full-time faculty of the department in- clucles Walle I. H. Nauta (Institute Professor), who came from the Walter Reed Institute of Research; Emilio Bizzi, whom Lukas brought from the National Institutes of Health; Rich- ard Helc! and Alan Hein from Brandeis University; Stephan L. Chorover, who came with Teuber from NYU; and Ann M. Graybiel, Whitman Richards, Peter H. Schiller, and Gerald E. Schneider, all of whom receiver} their cloctoral degrees at MIT. Teuber's scientific interests are succinctly summarized in 7 L. Weiskrantz, "Hans-Lukas Teuber," p. 486.

470 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS the title of one of his many invitec! adciresses, "The Brain ant! Human Behavior": "What we want to know," he saict, "is nothing less than what goes on within ourselves (anct by that we mean within our central nervous system) when we per- ceive, when we move, when we fee! (or express emotions), anct when we learn or remember."8 In pursuit of this ambi- tious goal, his research, which was usually a collaborative ef- fort, can be cliviclec! into roughly three periods.9 The first phase- with Bender in San Diego—has already been mentioned. It clealt mainly with visual and perceptual changes relatect to occipital injuries in a small number of brain-damaged individuals. This work was characterized by three qualities: (~) an emphasis on how different examination procedures provide different answers regarding the nature of the deficits; (2) a cle-emphasis on the localization aspect of the effects; and (3) the necessity of complementing clinical studies with precise, cletaile(1 laboratory investigations. The French neuropsychologist Hecaen has underscored the im- pact Teuber's approach has had on contemporary neurolog- ical procedures. The work carried out in New York University's Psycho- physiological Laboratory constitutes the second phase. When Teuber went to New York in the spring of 1947, he per- suaclec! the Veterans Administration to allow him to ciraw up lists of World War II veterans who had relatively stable and chronic lesions after receiving penetrating head wouncis. After preliminary interviews at VA hospitals, selectecl pa- tients were invited to participate in the research project at the New York University Medical School. The traumatized ~ H.-L. Teuber, "The Brain and Human Behavior," in Handbook of Sensory Physi- ology, ed. R. Held, H. W. Leibowitz, and H.-L. Teuber, vol. 8, Perception (Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 1978), p. 880. 9 H. Hecaen, "H.-L. Teuber et la Fondation de la Neuropsychologie Experimen- tale,"Neuropsychologia, vol. 17, no. 2(1979):119-24.

HANS-LUKAS TEUBER 471 veterans were not chosen on the basis of clinical needs or complaints but simply because they had suffered a head in- jury. Prior to the head injury they had been healthy young men with no signs of brain pathology. Working with a large brain-injured population, Teuber ant! his colleagues developed a battery of precise tests encom- passing the tactile, auditory, and visual domains. The result- ing data led them to an increased recognition of the impor- tance of problems of functional localization anct functional hemispheric lateralization. It became possible to specify the unilateral or bilateral nature of the clifficulties; and, as He- caen points out, by demonstrating the significant associations among the symptoms, it became possible to reveal the func- tional deficit responsible for the various behavioral manifes- tat~ons. A unique feature of this research, and one strongly influ- enced by Teuber's early work, was the introduction of a large, matched control group. This group was made up of veterans with peripheral nerve wounds; their performance on the bat- tery of tests was user! to establish norms. Matched control groups today are de rigueur in scientific studies, and LashIey had user] control groups in his animal studies on the effects of brain lesions, but their use was not standard procedure in human neurological testing and diagnosis. Another instance of Teuber's awareness of the importance of control groups came later when he servect as a member of the Biosciences Subcommittee of the National Aeronautics anct Space AcI- ministration. He insistect that matched controls be iclentifiect on earth in experiments that involvect sending single mon- keys—who belong to a naturally gregarious group off into space. The single, isolated space-borne monkey dicT ctie (as Teuber tract predicted), but so ctid several similarly isolated monkeys in the control group on earth. Another important Teuber contribution—the principle

472 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS of the "ctouble dissociation of symptoms" was clesignect to offset the uncertainty of verifying a lesion site. In orcler for a particular deficit to be consiclered attributable to a partic- ular lesion, the lesion has to "determine" the deficit to the exclusion of another type of deficit, caused by a lesion at a different site that does not involve the first deficit. This prin- ciple quickly became a funciamental tenet in animal and hu- man neuropsychological methoclology by serving as a check on the validity of experimental results. As his work progressed, Teuber came to see the principles of cerebral localization in a broacler perspective. As evidence accumulated, he drew the conclusion that bilateral hemi- spheric lesions couIct produce consequences that were not the equivalent of simply acicting two unilateral lesions. On the other hancI, ctisorclers of hemispheric interaction could result from unilateral lesions. Ultimately, the brain-injured popu- lation that Teuber workoc! with totaled 520 cases; the original WorIc! War IT group of veterans had been augmented by cases from both the Korean and the Vietnam wars. The third phase of Teuber's research contributions began with his recognition of the importance of the concept of cor- olIary clischarge. This hypothesis derived from formulations by van Holst and Mittelstaeclti° and, indepenclently, by Sperry, anct it lee! Teuber to begin rethinking the relation- ships between perceptual anc! motor behavior and their cer- ebral correlates. He advanced the hypothesis that mecha- nisms of internal stimulation, as distinct from external sensory stimulation, couicl provide the necessary stability for human perceptions and the spatial and temporal framework 'I E. von Holst and H. Mittelstaedt, "Des Reafferenzprinzip (Wechselswirkungen zwischen Zentralnervensystem und Peripherie)," Naturwissenschaften, 37(1950) :464- 76. " R. W. Sperry, "Neural Basis of the Spontaneous Optokinetic Response Pro- duced by Visual Inversion," Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 43 ( 1 950):482-89.

HANS-LUKAS TEUBER 473 for action, a notion that helped to throw light on a variety of frontal lobe ctisorclers. Teuber clescribect corollary discharge as follows: Specifically, we postulate that when we make deliberate voluntary movements (e.g., shift our eyes across the room), two streams of signals are initiated within our nervous system, and not only one. One of these two is of course the classical motor outflow to the effecter organs. The other set of signals is sent, directly and centrally, to the sensory systems, so that the consequences of the intended action can be taken into account. We call these discharges "corollary" when they are essentially deriva- tions of momentary motor commands, and "anticipatory" when more re- mote consequences of the impending action are being computed. In either case, these signals . . . involve an information flow that is the reverse of the classical Sherrington one: not from sensory to motor, from back to front, so to speak, but in the opposite direction, from motor and premotor to sensory and therefore from front to backer The concept was used to interpret results related to visual searching behavior, curious abnormalities in the reversal of certain types of reversible figures, and breakdowns in sorting and categorizing behavior. As was his wont, Teuber sought to give the notion a solid base in neurophysiology by relating the concept to single cell studies of his own colleagues and related research in other laboratories. Teuber's move to MIT coinciclecT with rapid advances in electrophysiology and neuroanatomy in laboratories through- out the world. He and his colleagues, however, who were at the forefront of this specializect research, went beyond relat- ing new data from anatomy, physiology, and studies of single neurons to perceptual-motor behavior. They attempted to relate these finctings to simple ant! complex perceptual events (e.g., facial recognition), to problems of language (e.g., ac- quisition and impairments of production or reception of speech), and to problems of mooct anc! memory (e.g., am- |2 H.-L. Teuber, "The Brain and Human Behavior," p. 900.

474 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS nes~as). The relative innateness and limits of modifiability of the postulated neurophysiological mechanisms were major concerns of Teuber's in each of the problem areas he toucher! on. . Teuber recognized that "the key questions about percep- tion and movement, memory and mood remain unan- swerect"; but he was confident that the "converging evolution of experimental psychology, physiology and microanatomy together with comparative and developmental studies are bound to take us ever closer to our common goal: that of gaining a rational understanding of ourseIves."~3 In moving toward this goal he was untiring in his efforts as researcher, administrator, teacher, and promoter of neuropsychology- both at home and abroad. More than anyone else he helpecl bring together scien- tists both young ant! oIct with diverse backgrounds but mutual interests, hosting their discussions at his clepartmen- tal colloquia, seminars, scientific meetings, and symposia. He lectured fluently with wit, humor, and brilliance in three lan- guages: German, French, and English. As an "insightful, popular, and expansive reviewer at international meetings- even as a helpful translator for foreigners, the cluration of his commentaries was apt to exceed, by a consiclerable amount, that occupied by the original speaker."~4 As Ann Graybie! reminds us, Lukas was often teased about this trait, but as she says, "He was by nature impish"; "he was a tease, and he lovecl to be teasecl."~5 His summations were usually brilliant, his introductions always entertaining and informa- tive, and his classroom lectures he was among MIT's most popular lecturers drew standing-room-only aucliences. In presentations as well as in conversation, he made no effort to |3 H.-I-. Teuber, "The Brain and Human Behavior," p. 912. |4 it. Weiskrantz, "Hans-Lukas Teuber," p. 486. ]5 Transcript of a gathering to remember Hans-Lukas Teuber, p. 13.

HANS-LUKAS TEUBER 475 suppress his contagious delight, but his listeners always needed to keep a close watch on his expressive eyebrows, which often punctuated—or punctured a point. His gentleness, his warmth and consideration for others, are epitomized by his advocating and helping to institute at M]:T the first committee to protect human subjects from un- toward effects of psychological and other forms of experi- mentation. The MIT Review Committee on Human Subjects antedates by several years the university review committees set up under the supervision of the National Institutes of Health. His concern for the unethical use of scientific knowledge led him to resign as chairman of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the U.S. Army when his committee was asked to develop a policy for the use of LSD and other mind-altering drugs. Moral decisions must always be primary, he claimed. And when it comes to the application of science, scientists must be citizens first and, together with others, pro- tect all human beings from the abuses of science and from ignorance. Professor Hecacn paid Teuber the highest tribute when he wrote that Teuber's works made him "the founder and guiding spirit of contemporary neuropsychology."~6 Teuber's posthumously published address, "The Brain and Human Behavior," which was delivered on July 20, 1976, at the Gist International Psychology Congress in Paris, concludes: For millennia, we have tried to comprehend the universe around us; the time has come, during this last century, and is now here, to attempt to comprehend ourselves. To this end, all the sciences have to be put to the service of man's understanding of man. Psychology finds its identity, I propose, by its subject matter, not by its methods. It is clear that our particular science is as central as physics, and ulti- |6 H. Hecaen, "H.-L. Teuber et la Fondation de la Neuropsychologie Experimen- tale," p. 122.

476 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS mately more so. But it is also capable of as much abuse as physics. As Lord Adrian once said, "He who can first explain and control paranoia will have found the means of producing it." Yet just for that reason, all of us here who are concerned with furthering man's understanding of man will have to abide by a new kind of Hippocratic oath, never to do harm, always to heal rather than hinder, to make human life richer, and to make it free.~7 It seems appropriate to conclude this memoir with two brief excerpts from the citation prepared by his MIT col- leagues for the James M. Killian Faculty Achievement Award (1976-771: Hans-Lukas Teuber, Professor of Psychology, founder and head of the Department of Psychology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is a man who joins the instincts of a penetrating experimenter and the ex- perience of a brain scientist with the consummate style of a gifted teacher. In that many-sided image, he has created the Department where he never ceases to support, by precept and example, his three-fold ends: informed observation, keen experiment, and the generosity and wit to make the fruits of science available to all.... Even that is not all. Many of us do not forget his long hours of talking and sharing with troubled and angry stu- dents during the terrible years of the war in Southeast Asia. He displays two high gifts, that of a scientist's perpetual wonder at the mysteries of brain and behavior, and that of an artist's compassion for the springs of thought and action in his fellow human beings. THE AUTHORS would like to thank Marianne Teuber for her gen- erous assistance in the preparation of this memoir. |7 H.-~. Teuber, "The Brain and Human Behavior," p. 913.

HANS-LUKAS TEUBER HONORS AND DISTINCTIONS HONORARY DEGREES 477 Universite Claude Bernard, Lyon, France, Doctor of Medicine, 1975 Universite de Geneve, Switzerland, Doctor of Psychology, 1975 VISITING LECTURESHIPS AND PROFESSORSHIPS Eastman Professor, University of Oxford, England, 1971-1972 Christmas Lecturer, Illinois Science Lecture Series, Chicago, 1974 Philips Lecturer, Haverford College, Pennsylvania, 1975 AWARDS Karl Spencer Lashley Award for Research in Neurobiology, Amer- ican Philosophical Society, 1966 Apollo Achievement Award, NASA, 1969 Kenneth Craik Award in Experimental Psychology, St. Johns Col- lege, Cambridge, England, 1971 James R. Killian Faculty Achievement Award, Massachusetts Inset tote of Technology, 1976 -1977 HONORARY AND ELECTED MEMBERSHIPS National Academy of Sciences, 1972 American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1962 Society of Experimental Psychologists, 1960 National Institute of Neurology Faculty, Mexico, 1967 French Neurological Society, 1968 Institute of Medicine, 1975-1977 Sigma Xi SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES American Academy of Neurology American Association for the Advancement of Science American Neurological Association American Psychological Association Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Diseases Eastern Psychological Association European Brain and Behavior Society French Psychological Society (associe Stranger)

478 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS International Brain Research Organization Psychonomic Society Society for Neuroscience EDITORIAL POSITIONS Coeditor, Experimental Brain Research, 1965 - 1977 Berlin Editorial Board, Springer-Verlag, Handbook of Sensory Phys- iolo~<y, 1967 Consulting editor, journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1956-1968 Consulting editor, journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1961-1964 Editorial Board, journal of Psychiatric Research, 1961-1964 Neuropsycholog7a, 1962 - 1977 PROFESSIONAL AND ADVISORY AFFILIATIONS Professional Advisory Committee, Boston University Aphasia Cen- ter, 1975 Board of Directors, Foundations Fund for Research in Psychiatry, 1966-1969 International Brain Research Organization: Central Council Rep- resentative, 1968-1970; Chairman, 1970-1973; Chairman, Committee on Symposia, 1968-1974 Scientific Advisory Board, Massachusetts General Hospital, 1971- 1974 Task Force in Behavioral Biology, National Academy of Sciences, 1965-1968 Biosciences Subcommittee, National Aeronautics and Space Ad- ministration, 1963 -1970 National Institutes of Health: Mental Health Study Section, National Institute of Mental Health, 1955-1958 and 1960-1961; Experimental Psychology Study Section, National Institute of Mental Health, 1961-1964; Neu- rology A Study Section, NINDB, 1964-1968 Behavioral Sciences Training Committee, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, 1969-1973 Head Injury Section, National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Blindness, 1967-1969 Scientific Advisory Committee, New England Regional Primate Center, 1971 - 1977

HANS-LUKAS TEUBER 479 Biological and Behavioral Sciences Panels, Once of Scientific Re- search, U.S. Air Force, 1962-1965 Advisory Committee on Psychophysiology, Office of the Surgeon General: Member, 1958-1960; Chairman, 1960-1963 Research Advisory Committee, United Cerebral Palsy Association, 1959-1969 Area Consultant in Psychology, U.S. Veterans Administration, 1947-1960 Research Group on Head Injuries, World Federation of Neurology and the World Federation of Neurological Sciences, 1967-1969 !

480 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS BIBLIOGRAPHY 1946 Nystagmoid movements and visual perception (their interrelation in monocular diplopia). Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry (Chicago), 55:511-29. With M. B. Bender. Phenomena of fluctuation, extinction and com- pletion in visual perception. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry (Chi- cago), 55:627-58. With M. B. Bender. Ring scotoma and tubular fields: Their signif- icance in cases of head injury. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry (Chi- cago), 56:300-326. With M. B. Bender. Disturbances in the visual perception of space after brain injury. Trans. Am. Neurol. Assoc., 71:159-61. 1947 The dyadic group: A study in counselling relationships. Ph.D. the- sis, Harvard University. With M. B. Bender. Spatial organization of visual perception fol- lowing injury to the brain. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry (Chicago), 58:721-39. 1948 With M. B. Bender. Spatial organization of visual perception fol- lowing injury to the brain. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry (Chicago), 59:39 - 63. (Continued from Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry EChi- cagol, 58E 1947:1:721-39.) 1949 With M. B. Bender. Alterations in pattern vision following trauma of occipital lobes in man. l. Gen. Psychol., 40:37-57. With M. B. Bender and L. T. Furlow. Alterations in behavior after massive cerebral trauma (intraventricular foreign body). Con- fin. Neurol., 9:140-57. With W. S. Battersby and M. B. Bender. Changes in visual search- ing performance following cerebral lesions. Am. J. Physiol., 159:592-93. With M. B. Bender. Disturbances in visual perception following cerebral lesions. I. Psychol., 28:223 -33.

HANS-LUKAS TEUBER 48 With M. B. Bender. Psychopathology of vision. In: Progress in Neu- rology and Psychiatry, ed. E. A. Spiegel, pp. 163-92. New York: Grune & Stratton. With M. B. Bender and M. F. Shapiro. Allesthesia and disturbance of the body scheme. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry (Chicago), 62:222-31. 1950 Neuropsychology. A summary of recent advances in diagnostic methods. In: Recent Advances in Diagnostic Psychological Testing: A Critical Summary, pp. 30-52. Springfield, Ill.: C. C. Thomas. 1951 Review of Recovery from Aphasia by ]. M. Wepman. I. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol., 46:610. With M. B. Bender. Neuro-ophthalmology: The oculomotor sys- tem. In: Progress in Neurology and Psychiatry, vol. 6, ed. E. A. Spiegel, pp. 148-78. New York: Grune & Stratton. With W. S. Battersby and M. B. Bender. Performance of complex visual tasks after cerebral lesions. {. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 114:413- 29. With W. S. Battersby and M. B. Bender. Effects of total light flux on critical flicker frequency after frontal lobe lesion. }. Exp. Psychol., 42: 135 -42. With M. B. Bender and W. S. Battersby. Visual field defects after gunshot wounds of higher visual pathways. Trans. Am. Neurol. Assoc., 76: 192-94. 1952 Some observations on the organization of higher functions after penetrating brain injury in man. In: The Biology of Mental Health and Disease, pp. 259-62. (Proceedings of the twenty-seventh Annual Conference of the Milbank Memorial Fund.) New York: Hoeber. With M. Mead and H. Von Foerster. Introduction. In: Cybernetics, ed. L. W. Neustedt. New York: Macy.

482 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1953 With E. Powers. Evaluating therapy in a delinquency prevention program. In: Psychiatric Treatment, pp. 138 - 47. Baltimore: Wil- liams & Wilkins. With W. S. Battersby and M. B. Bender. Problem-solving behavior in men with frontal or occipital brain injuries. I. Psychol., 35:329-51. 1954 With M. Mishkin. lodgement of visual and postural vertical after brain injury. l. Psychol., 38: 161-75. With M. Mishkin. Performances on a formboard-task after pene- trating brain injury. I Psychol., 38: 177-90. With E. B. Krueger and P. A. Price. Tactile extinction in a parietal lobe neoplasm. I Psychol., 38: 191-202. With J. Semmes, S. Weinstein, and L. Ghent. Performance on com- plex factual tasks after brain injury in man: Analyses by locus of lesion. Am. I. Psychol., 67:220-40. 1955 Physiological psychology. Annul Rev. Psychol., 6:267-96. With L. Ghent, S. Weinstein, and I. Semmes. Effect of unilateral brain injury in man on learning of a factual discrimination. }. Comp. Physiol. Psychol., 48:478-81. With I. Semmes, S. Weinstein, and L. Ghent. Spatial orientation in man after cerebral injury. I. Analyses by locus of lesion. I. Psy- chol., 39:227-44. 1956 With S. Weinstein. Ability to discover hidden figures after cerebral lesions. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry (Chicago), 76:369-79. With S. Weinstein, l. Semmes, and L. Ghent. Spatial orientation in man after cerebral injury. II. Analysis according to concomitant defects. I. Psychol., 42:249-63. 1957 With S. Weinstein. Effects of penetrating brain injury on intelli- gence test scores. Science, 125:1036-37. With S. Weinstein. The role of preinjury education and intelligence

HANS-LUKAS TEUBER 483 level in intellectual loss after brain injury. I. Comp. Physiol. Psy- chol., 50:535-39. 1958 Appreciation de la recuperation de function apres lesions cere- brales. Revue Psychol. Appl., 8:129-41. With R. S. Liebert. Specific and general effects of brain injury in man. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry (Chicago), 80:403-7. 1959 Some alterations in behavior after cerebral lesions in man. In: Evo- lution of Nervous Controlfrom Primitive Organisms to Man, ed. A. D. Bass, pp. 157-94. Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science. Report and discussion. In: Conference on the Central Nervous System: Transactions of the First Conference, ed. M. A. B. Brazier, pp.393— 99. New York: Macy. 1960 Perception. In: Handbook of Physiology, sec. 1, vol. 3, ed. J. Field, H. W. Magoun, and V. E. Hall, pp. 1595-668. Washington, D.C.: American Physiological Society. The premorbid personality and reaction to brain damage. Am. I. Orthopsychiatry, 30:322-29. Review of Einfahrung in die Pharmakopsychologie by H. Lippert. Con- temp. Psychol., 5:357-58. Alterations in perception after brain injury in man. In: Perception and Psychopathology, Proceedings of the third Annual University of Kansas Institute on Research in Clinical Psychology, ed. M. E. Wright, pp. 89-121. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press. With W. S. Battersby and M. B. Bender. Visual Field Defects After Penetrating Missile Wounds of the Brain. Cambridge, Mass.: Har- vard University Press. With R. G. Rudel, R. S. Liebert, and S. Halpern. Localization of auditory midline and reactions to body tilt in brain-damaged children. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 131:302-9. With I. Semmes, S. Weinstein, and L. Ghent. Somatosensory Changes After Penetrating Brain Wounds in Man. Cambridge, Mass.: .Har- vard University Press.

484 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1961 Sensory deprivation, sensory suppression and agnosia: Notes for a neurologic theory. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 1 3 2 :3 2- 40. Summation. In: Brain and Behavior, Proceedings of the First AIBS Con- ference, ed. M. A. B. Brazier, pp. 393-420. Washington, D.C.: American Institute of Biological Science. Some observations on the superior colliculi of the cat (report on the work of J. Altman). In: Neurophysiologie and Psychophysik des visuellen Systems, ed. R. [ung and H. Kornhuber, pp. 217-20. Heidelberg: Springer. Neuere Beobachtungen uber Sehstrahlung und Sehrinde. In: Neu- rophysiologie and Psychophysik des visuellen Systems, ed. R. Jung and H. Kornhuber, pp. 256-74. Heidelberg: Springer. 1962 Memory. N.Y. Med., 18:248-50. Perspectives in the problems of biological memory a psycholo- gist's view. In: Macromolecular Specificity and Biological Memory, ed. F. O. Schmitt, pp. 99-107. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Effects of brain wounds implicating right or left hemisphere in man: Hemisphere differences and hemisphere interaction in vision, audition and somesthesis. Discussion. In: Interhemispheric Relations and Cerebral Dominance, ed. V. B. Mountcastle, pp. 203- 8. Baltimore: iohns Hopkins Press. With R. G. Rudel. Behavior after cerebral lesions in children and adults. Dev. Med. Child Neurol., 4:3-20. With R. G. Rudel. Effects of brain injury in children and adults. In: Clinical Psychology: Proceedings of the Fourteenth Congress of Applied Psychology, vol. 4, pp. 113-39. Copenhagen: Munks- gaard. With L. Ghent and M. Mishkin. Short-term memory after frontal- lobe injury in man. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol., 55:705-9. 1963 Space perception and its disturbances after brain injury in man. (For W. Kohler, Festschrift, 1962.) Neuropsychologia, 1 :47-57. Discussion. In: Brain and Behavior: Proceedings of the Second AIBS Conference, ed. M. A. B. Brazier, pp. 146-51, 247..Washington, D.C.: American Institute of Biological Science.

HANS-LUKAS TEUBER 485 Personality and reaction to brain damage. In: Contributions to Mod- ern Psychology, 2d ea., ed. D. E. Dulaney, R. L. DeValois, D. C. Beardslee, and M. R. Winterbottom, pp. 406-14. New York: Oxford University Press. Discussion of "Polyopia and palinopia in homonymous fields of vision" by M. B. Bender and A. I. Sobin. Trans. Am. Neurol. Assoc., 88:58. Discussion of "Perceptual defects in both visual fields in attention hemianopia" by S. Horenstein and T. R. Carey. Trans. Am. Neurol. Assoc., 88:63-64. With R. G. Rudel. Decrement of visual and haptic Muller-Lyer illusion on repeated trials: A study of crossmodal transfer. Q. J. Exp. Psychol., 15: 125 - 31. With R. G. Rudel. Discrimination of direction of line in children. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol., 56:892-98. With V. Myer and C. G. Gross. Effect of knowledge of site of stim- ulation on the threshold for pressure sensitivity. Percept. Mot. Skills, 16:637-40. With F. Proctor, M. Riklan, and I. S. Cooper. Somatosensory status of parkinsonian patients before and after chemothalamectomy. Neurology, 13 :906-12. With J. Semmes, S. Weinstein, and L. Ghent. Correlates of im- paired orientation in personal and extrapersonal space. Brain, 86:747-72. 1964 The riddle of frontal lobe function in man. In: The Frontal Granular Cortex and Behavior, ed. J. M. Warren and K. Akert, pp. 410-44. New York: McGraw-Hill. Speech as a motor skill. In: The Acquisition of Language, ed. U. Bel- lugi and R. W. Brown, pp. 131-38. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. Discussions. In: Disorders of Language, ed. A. V. S. De Reuck and M. O'Conner. Transactions of the Ciba Foundation Symposium. London: Churchill. Discussion. In: Learning, Remembering and Forgetting: The Anatomy of Learning, vol. 1, ed. D. P. Kimble. Washington, D.C.: American Institute of Biological Science. Discussion of "Effects of different cortical excisions on sensory

486 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS thresholds in man" by S. Corkin, B. Milner, and T. Rasmussen. Trans. Am. Neurol. Assoc., 89. Discussion of "Impaired delayed response from thalamic lesions in monkeys" by S. Schulman. Trans. Am. Neurol. Assoc., 89. With F. Proctor. Some effects of basal ganglia lesions in subhuman primates and man. Neuropsychologia, 2:85-93. With R. G. Rudel. Crossmodal transfer of shape discrimination by children. Neuropsychologia, 2:1-8. With F. Proctor, M. Riklan, and I. S. Cooper. tudgement of visual and postural vertical by parkinsonian patients. Neurology, 14:287-93. 1965 Alterations of perception after brain injury. In: Semaine d'Etude sur Cerveau et Experience Consciente, pp. 269-310. Pontificae Aca- demiae Scientiarum Scripta Varia. Rome: The Vatican. Disorders of higher tactile and visual functions. Neuropsychologia, 3:287-94. Postscript: Some needed revisions of the classical views of agnosia. Neuropsychologia, 3:371 - 78. Effects of occipital lobe lesion on pattern vision. In: Proceedings of the Eighth International Neurological Congress, Supplement, Vienna, September, pp. 79-102. 1966 Alterations in perception after brain injury. In: Brain and Conscious Experience, ed. {. C. Eccles, pp. 182-216. New York: Springer. The frontal lobes and their function: Further observations on ro- dents, carnivores, subhuman primates, and man. Int. J. Neu- rol., 5:282 - 300. Kurt Goldstein's role in the development of neuropsychology. Neu- ropsychologia, 4:299 -310. Some behavioral consequences of frontal-lobe lesions in rodents, carnivores and primates. In: Proceedings of the Eighteenth Inter- national Congress on Psychology, Moscow, vol. 10, pp. 90-96. The lesson of focal brain injury. In: Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Congress on Psychology, Moscow, vol. 26, pp. 12-18. Preface. In: A. R. Luria, Highest Cortical Functions in Man. New York: Basic Books.

HANS-LUKAS TEUBER 487 Preface. In: A. R. Luria, Human Brain and Psychological Processes. New York: Harper. Summation: Convergences, divergences, lacunae. In: Brain and Conscious Experience, ed. I. C. Eccles, pp. 575-83. New York: Springer. With R. G. Rudel and T. E. Twitchell. A note on hyperesthesia in children with early brain damage. Neuropsychologia, 4:351- 66. With T. E. Twitchell, A. R. Lecours, and R. G. Rudel. Minimal cerebral dysfunction in children: Motor deficits. Trans. Am. Neural. Assoc., 91:353-55. , (= 1967 Lacunae and research approaches to them. In: Brain Mechanisms Underlying Speech and Language, ed. F. L. Darley, pp. 204-16. New York: Grune & Stratton. Wolfgang Kohler zum Gedenken. Psychol. Forsch., 31:1-14. 1968 Disorders of memory following penetrating missile wounds of the brain. Neurology, 18:287-88. With B. Milner and H. Vaughan. Persistent anterograde amnesia after stab wound of the basal brain. Neuropsychologia, 6:267- 82. With B. Milner. Alteration of perception and memory in man: Re- flections on methods. In: Analysis of Behavioral Change, ed. L. Weiskrantz, pp. 268-375. New York: Harper & Row. With B. Milner and S. Corkin. Further analysis of the hippocampal amnesic syndrome: 14-year follow-up study of H. M. Neuro- psychologia, 6:215 -34. 1969 Wahrnehmung, Willkurbewegung und Gedachtnis. Stud. Gen., 22:1135-78. Neglected aspects of the post-traumatic syndrome. In: The Late Effects of Head Injury, ed. A. E. Walker, W. F. Caveness, and M. Critchley, pp. 13-34. Springfield, Ill.: C. C. Thomas. Recommendations (post-traumatic syndrome). In: The Late Elects

488 ~ . . _ . BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS of Head Injury, ed. A. E. Walker, W. F. Caveness, and M. Critch- ley. Springfield, Ill.: C. C. Thomas. 1970 . O~scuss~ons. In: Psychotomimetic Drugs, ed. D. H. Efron, pp. 215— 16, 220-28, 312-15, 338-43. New York: Raven Press. Sensation and perception. In: Biology and the Future of Man, ed. P. H. Handler, pp. 416-28. New York: Oxford University Press. 1971 Mental retardation after early trauma to the brain: Some issues in search of facts. In: Physical Trauma as an Etiologacal Agent in Men- tal Retardation, ed. C. R. Angle and E. A. Bering, Jr., pp. 7-28. Bethesda, Md.: National Institutes of Health. L'hypothese des decharges corollaires. In: La Fonction du Regard, ed. A. Dubois Poulson, G. C. Lairy, and A. Remond. Paris: INSEAM. Subcortical vision: A prologue. In: Brain, Behavior and Evolution, ed. W. Riss, pp. 7-15. Basel: S. Karger. Perception et mouvement. In: Neuropsychologia de la Perception Vi- suelle, ed. H. Hecaen, pp. 187-221. Paris: Masson & Cie. With R. G. Rudel. Spatial orientation in normal children and in children with early brain injury. Neuropsychologia, 9:401-7. With R. G. Rudel. Pattern recognition within and across sensory modalities in normal and brain-injured children. Neuropsy- chologia, 9:389-99. 1972 Effects of focal brain lesions. III. Neurophysiology. Neurosci. Res. Program Bull., 10:381-84. Unity and diversity of frontal lobe functions. Acta Neurol. Exp., 32:615-56. 1973 With F. Koerner. Visual field defects after missile injuries to the geniculo-striate pathway in man. Exp. Brain Res., 18:88-113. With J. Lackner. Alterations in auditory fusion thresholds after cerebral injury in man. Neuropsychologia, 11:408-15. With B. T. Woods. Early onset of complementary specialization of

HANS-LUKAS TEUBER 489 cerebral hemispheres in man. Trans. Am. Neurol. Assoc., 98:113-17. 1974 Why two brains? In: The Neurosciences: Third Study Program, ed. F. O. Schmitt and F. G. Worden, pp. 71-74. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT. Psychological effects of trauma. In: Study of Injured Patients, pp.79- 81. Trauma Research Programs. Bethesda, Md.: National In- stitute of General Medical Sciences. Recovery of function after lesions of the central nervous system: History and prospects. In: Functional Recovery After Lesions of the Nervous System, ed. E. Eidelberg and D. G. Stein. Neurosci. Res. Program Bull., 12: 197-209. Concluding session: Motor programs. (Presented at the Colloque du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, no.226: Com- portement moteur et activites nerveuses programmes.) Brain Res., 71:535-68. Contribution. In: Transactions of the Common Session and Round Table: Eighth International Congress of Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 36: 561-76. With R. G. Rudel and T. E. Twitchell. Levels of impairment of sensorimotor functions in children with early brain damage. Neuropsychologia, 12:95 -108. 1975 Recovery of function after brain injury in man. In: Outcome of Se- vere CNS Damage, Ciba Foundation Symposium, pp. 159-90. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Effects of focal brain injury on human behavior. In: The Nervous System, The Clinical Neurosciences, vol. 2, ed. D. B. Tower, pp. 457-80. New York: Raven Press. With G. Ettlinger and B. Milner. The Seventeenth International Symposium of Neuropsychology. Neuropsychologia, 13:125- 33. With W. Marslen-Wilson. Memory for remote events in antero- grade amnesia: Recognition of public figures from newspho- tographs. Neuropsychologia, 13:353-64.

490 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1976 Complex functions of the basal ganglia. In: The Basal Ganglia, ed. M. D. Yahr, pp. 151-68. New York: Raven Press. De la perception a la memoire: Problemes persistantes de la neu- ropsychologie. Lyon Med., 236:661-71. Plasticite nerveuse et debut du developpement. Bull. Psychol., Paris, 30(Piaget Festschr~ft) :376-86. With S. Corkin and T. E. Twitchell. A Study of Cingulotomy in Man. (A report to the National Commission for the Protection of Hu- man Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research.) Be- thesda, Md.: National Institutes of Health. 1977 Shades of blindness. Neurosci. Res. Program Bull., 15:346-48. With S. Corkin and T. E. Twitchell. A study of cingulotomy in man: A summary. In: Neurosurg~cal Treatment in Psychiatry, Pain and Epilepsy, ed. W. H. Sweet, pp. 355-62. Baltimore: University Park Press. With B. T. Woods. Changing patterns of childhood aphasia. Trans. Am. Neurol. Assoc., 102:36 -38. 1978 The brain and human behavior. In: Proceedings of the Twenty-First International Congress on Psychology, Paris, pp. 119-63. The brain and human behavior. In: Handbook of Sensory Physiology. vol. 8, Perception, ed. R. Held, H. Leibowitz, and H.-L. Teuber, pp. 879-920. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. With B. T. Woods. Changing patterns of childhood aphasia. Ann. Neurol., 3:273-80. With B. T. Woods. Mirror movements after childhood hemipares~s. Neurology, 28: 1154-58. .

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National Academy of Sciences

This distinguished series contains the biographies of deceased members of the National Academy of Sciences and bibliographies of their published works. Each biographical essay was written by a member of the Academy familiar with the professional career of the deceased. A cumulative index for all 57 volumes is now included. For historical and bibliographical purposes, these volumes are worth returning to time and again.

Volume 57 includes biographies of-- Arthur Francis Buddington, J. George Harrar, Paul Herget, John Dove Isaacs III, Bessel Kok, Otto Krayer, Rebecca Craighill Lancefield, Harold Dwight Lasswell, Jay Laurence Lush, John Howard Mueller, Robert Franklin Pitts, John Robert Raper, Karl Sax, Gerhard Schmidt, Leslie Spier, Hans-Lukas Teuber, and Warren Weaver

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