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Biographical Memoirs: V.57 (1987)

Chapter: John Dove Isaacs III

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Suggested Citation:"John Dove Isaacs III." National Academy of Sciences. 1987. Biographical Memoirs: V.57. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1000.
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Suggested Citation:"John Dove Isaacs III." National Academy of Sciences. 1987. Biographical Memoirs: V.57. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1000.
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JOHN DOVE ISAACS III March 2S, Z 913-June 6, ~ 980 BY WILLARD BASCOM T O H N D O V E ~ S A A C S ~ ~ ~ was born in Spokane, Washing- ~Jton, anct he was raised in Oregon where his maternal grandparents had locater! after crossing the plains by wagon train. His paternal grandfather, John D. Tsaacs, Sr., was chief consulting engineer for the Southern Pacific and Union Pa- cific systems, which was of particular import to John who vastly enjoyed travels with his grandfather in his private rail- roac! car. A bronze plaque at Stanford University credits the senior Isaacs with conceiving ancT developing the principle of making motion pictures; the first photographic experiments were carried out with Edward Muybriclge at Leland Stan- ford's farm in Palo Alto, California. Johns father, also a rail- roac! engineer, client in a hunting accident when John was six. During his chilclhooct, John liver! on the 20,000-acre Hay Creek Ranch in central Oregon with his mother, his sister Emily, and his favorite aunt ant] uncle. Later he movecT to his pioneer grandparents' first ranch home near PendIeton, Or- egon. Ranch life gave him a solid background in practical ecology as well as an opportunity for his strong naturalist instincts to clevelop. Early in life John showoct intense scientific curiosity and a capacity for invention. As a PencIleton High School student in the early 1930s, he proposed to his physics teacher a way 89

go BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS of detecting ctistant objects by means of reflected ractio waves. (Unfortunately, the fellow clict not grasp the possibilities anct thereby lost an opportunity to become a coinventor of radar.) To his chemistry teacher, he had to confess that his chemistry lab was the scene of the procluction of the hydrogen-plus- acetylene balloons that had recently been exploding over PendIeton and that had even ripped the shingles off the min- ister's roof. Young John enjoyed reading encyclopedias, and he had an excellent memory. As an aclult he would sometimes launch into detailed dissertations on esoteric subjects such as the complex life cycles of oriental parasites that he had read twenty to thirty years earlier. In 1933 he joiner! the new Civilian Conservation Corps. He became a camp office manager and because there was a good supply of logging and construction accidents as well as stabbings anct shootings- an accident investigator. Two years later John became camp manager at Cape Perpetua, Oregon, a Resettlement Administration facility. (The Reset- tlement Administration was a New Deal agency that resettled low-income local families on more productive lands.) By the following year he had saved enough money to return to col- lege at Oregon State, where one of the attractions was Mary Carol Zander. When school was out, John got a job as a forestry service lookout on Mt. Hebo in the Siuslaw National Forest. When it wasn't raining, this meant twenty-four hours a day atop a high tower accompanied only by Sampson, his trusty cat. During the period Tsaacs spent in Oregon's coastal forest, he Earned not only the names of all the trees and the under- growth plants but also the intricate relationship among them ant! how it changed with logging and fires. In later life when he would drive along the highway, he would amuse himself,

JOHN DOVE ISAACS III 91 and sometimes his companions, by intoning the Latin names of each species of passing tree. One of the monuments he leaves behinct is the stand of one thousand trees he planted on his estate in Rancho Santa Fe, California. In 1938 he moved to Astoria, Oregon, just as a great run of albacore tuna appeared offshore. It was said that everyone in Oregon who tract a lettuce crate went after the albacore; John was no exception. He joiner! with a friend who owned a small boat just a little bigger than a lettuce crate. After long hours of work to make it reacly for fishing, John took the boat well out to sea for a test run. Coming back into the Columbia River entrance always a scary experience in a small boat events occurred] that almost proved fatal. The boat's engine coughed ancI stopped dead in the turbulent waters of the bar. After frantic work, John realizect there was no chance of getting it running again and that the boat would soon crash on the jetty. He stripper! off his shoes anct pants, put on a life jacket, anct committed himself to the river. He vaguely remembered seeing one large wave fling the boat on the unforgiving rocks anc! watching splinters drift away. After half an hour in the icy waters he was picked up by a passing tug. The crew put him in a cold shower to warm him up; he remembered it as scalding in relation to the river. It was thought at the time that one couIc! not survive in those rough frigid waters more than 10 minutes, but he knew by his watch otherwise. His body was black and blue, totally bruised from head to foot, anc} he was harcIly able to walk for some time after the orcleal. The next clay John ancT Mary Carol walkecI out on the jetty. She found the only surviving relics of the wreck: his trousers with his wallet in the pocket, and in it his social se- curity caret. He carried the caret for the rest of his life as a reminder of his good luck that near-tragic day. Later in that

92 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS year the two were married. The young pair occupied the captain's cabin and officer's quarters aboard the sailing ship William Taylor, which was moored in Young's Bay near Astoria. As a young commercial fisherman working out of the Co- lumbia River, Isaacs was outraged one day by a passing tourist who said something to the effect that "these fishermen don't know much about what they're doing." John—with a 6-foot 3-inch frame and one of the highest recorded I.Q.'s in the state of Oregon rather firmly suggested that this unwary soul sit down and observe while he dissected a salmon and explained in detail the function of each organ and tissue. John Isaacs was a fisherman throughout his life, and he appeared to enjoy cold, wet, miserable weather as long as he could fish. He felt he could think better with a fishing pole in hand. Some of his best thoughts about who eats whom in the sea, under what conditions, and how the sea's biological energy is distributed were developed over fifty years of ran- dom observations. These were set down finally in a landmark piece in Scientific American entitled "The Nature of Oceanic Life" illustrated, of course, with photos of deep sea crea- tures taken by his monster camera. But that was much later. As a commercial fisherman with a boat that was consid- ered large for the pre-World War IT period, John and oc- casionally Mary Carol would fish out of the Columbia River, sometimes going north to Grays Harbor or the QuilIayute River, or south to TilIamook Bay. It was the perfect school for a future oceanographer and it left him with an ever-ready bag of stories, as well as a good sense of the lore of the sea. After two years of commercial fishing John and Mary Carol returned to school and spent the academic year of 1940-41 at Oregon State University. Afterward John took a job with a survey crew on the construction of Tongue Point Naval Air Station near Astoria, Oregon. As various construc- tion problems arose, John devised solutions that moved him

JOHN DOVE ISAACS III 93 rapidly up the job ladder. For example, the ceiling beams in one of the buildings under construction flexed excessively because of poor design. To solve the problem, Isaacs derived the formula for computing bending stresses in beams and redesigned the offending structure "so the plaster below would stay on." When the chief engineer unexpectedly quit, he was offered the job. In 1943-44 Isaacs studied at the Uni- versity of California at Berkeley, receiving a B.S. in civil en- gineering, his only degree. While at Berkeley he came to know and appreciate Dean Morrough (Mike) O'Brien who greatly influenced his life. Thereafter he spent his life with the University of Cali- fornia, beginning as a research engineer on the WAVES Proj- ect at Berkeley, which is where ~ met him. {ohn's enthusiasm for the sea and his sense of humor attracted me to him at once. After listening to him for two hours on our first en- counter in 1945, ~ switched immediately from mining to oceanography. The following week we began surveying the beaches of northern California, Oregon, and Washington using amphibious trucks (DUKWS), seaplanes, radio-con- trolled cameras, and a small party of men who didn't mind daily dousings in cold seawater. In the late 1940s at Berkeley he invented such things as a wave direction indicator using a Rayleigh disc, several varieties of wave meters, a wave- propelled "sea-sled" to carry surveying rods through the surf zone, and a means of measuring and modeling stress in tor- pedo nets. Later he and T worked together measuring the effects of nuclear explosions in Eniwetok and Bikini. John Isaacs was present at four nuclear test series; he es- pecially distinguished himself during two of them. The first was Crossroads in 1946 for which {ohn's job was to measure waves from the blasts. For this purpose he arranged to have large aerial cameras (with a film size of 9 by ~ ~ inches) set up on two camera towers on Bikini Island. These cameras were

94 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS to be started a little before the explosion, simultaneously tak- ing a picture every three seconds for several minutes. This wave-measuring technique had previously been tested on the northern California coast, but at Bikini the problem was a little different. Because the objective of that first test was to learn the ejects of an airburst anc! an underwater burst on a fleet of warships, it was necessary to know the exact distances be- tween the explosions and specific parts of each ship. The ships were to be anchored, and the original plan hacI been to run aerial photo sorties over the fleet a day or two before the shot. These were to have been assemblec} in a mosaic in order to determine the distances from ship to shot. As any seaman knows, however, ships at anchor move about in a "watch circle" whose radius is the anchor line, which is at least three times the depth of the water (some 200 feet in Bikini lagoon). it. . .. . it. ~ . . AS a result, matching successive lines ot pictures was impos- sible; between photo runs some ships had moved several hun- cirect feet. Weapons effects decrease as the cube root of the distance; thus such errors in position were unacceptable. At the uncomfortable moment when this funciamental flaw in the great test was discoverecI, Isaacs' proposal to use the wave-measuring cameras to triangulate ship positions was gratefully accepted. For months afterward he had a group of people using a traveling microscope mounted on a large steel micrometer stage measuring photos and precisely com- puting the position of ships in the test fleet. The wave mea- surements became almost inciclental. Using automatic cam- eras that fire every three seconds he had the fantastic luck to get a picture of the Baker shot's lightect bubble breaking the surface. During the Castle series at Bikini in 1954, John became very concerned about the possibility of the shots causing a tidal wave that wouIc} wash over some of the islets on which

JOHN DOVE ISAACS III 95 people were intending to stay during the shot. Some of us thought there was little likelihoocT of that happening because John was jokingly known as a "calamatologist" (who often foresaw unlikely calamities). Nevertheless, he tract the ear of the acimiral, and at the last minute, just to be on the safe sicle, that worthy orderer! everyone except the firing team off the atoll. The first shot of the series (Bravo) went with about twice the expected yield. When it diet, it destroyed many camp builctings on the islancts and dumped heavy radioactivity on the atoll. The firing party was trapped in the bunker for a time, ant! no one went back ashore for several days. There was no substantial ticial wave, but ~ am convinced that if Isaacs' hunch tract not been followed, lives would have been lost both to the blast and the subsequent radioactivity. John Isaacs likect to think, ant! the more complex the sub- ject, the better he liked it. Some of his favorite topics were far from oceanography. They incluclect such diverse matters as black holes in space, the groun(lwaters of the upper Indus valley, growing foot] plants in saline water, and esoteric as- pects of mine warfare. He clip not think in mathematical terms, but in later fire he wrote equations for ideas that to him were self-eviclent. . John philosophizect about a great many diverse subjects ~nclucting economics ("The more money is expended for nothing, the more it approaches nothing as a value," and Whiteheact's universe where "the possibilities are not only in- finite but actually. He revitalizect Epimetheus, the hincI- thinker, rampant on a field of greenbacks, who proposed panaceas for vaguely clefined scientific problems. Ant! he worried about the communications disjuncture between those who possess scientific unclerstancting and those who are responsible for the direction of governmental action. John was a big man with quick reactions, but he was not

96 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS especially athletically inctinecI. Insteact he playecI games like "slaphancts" in which two persons face each other and extend their hands, each parallel to the other's, but with the hancts below, palms up. The object is for the hands below to slap the back of the hancis above. No one came close to beating Isaacs at this. He was also expert at ping pony and clelightect in "teaching" it to graduate students who had an overly high opinion of their prowess. He lovect chess, including blind chess, Kriegspiel, and triple cylinclrical chess, but he often had a hard time fincting worthy opponents. Isaacs tract a marvelous sense of humor that began with outrageous puns and extencled upward to jokes that were so sophisticated that almost no one wouIct get the point. Having deliverecl some such witicism he would cautiously look arounc! the audience to see if anyone had caught on. On such occasions ~ would just perceptibly move my head from sicle to side to show that his remarks tract not gone completely unnoticed but as a matter of principle ~ never cracked a smile. Isaacs was in his glory when it became fashionable to devise a horrid form of joke known as a Tom Swifty. As with puns he was always trying to invent ones with double anct triple meanings. These were marvelously idiotic, and when we all laughed he would be encoura~er1 to attempt an even more outrageous version. John Isaacs moved from Berkeley to the Scripps Institu- tion of Oceanography in 1948. From this vantage point he conic! involve himself wholly in all aspects of sea studies. About that time he heard of the existence of huge fresh- water icebergs in the Antarctic, some ten miles long and a mile wicle. He promptly set about thinking of ways in which they could be used to increase California's water supply. Isaacs posited that they could be towed into the Peru current, which wouIct move them north to the equatorial currents, which wouIc! carry them westward] and into the Kuro Siwa,

JOHN DOVE ISAACS III 97 which would move them eastward toward Vancouver and eventually south along the California coast. The ice wouIct take on a streamlinecl form as it moved, powered by a tem- perature-di~erence "engine"; and it would produce more water from rain than from ice melt. Eventually somehow- the berg would be parked behinct Catalina Islanct. The worst objection to this plan was that it would change the weather in southern California. In a year or so we founct that this idea hac! been invented several times before, but by then Isaacs had gone on to bigger schemes. Isaacs' curiosity about the animals that live in the depths lee! to the development (with Lewis Kidd) of the Isaacs-Kictd mic~water trawl. This net had a hyctrodynamic depressor across the bottom to hold it down while being towoc! at a depth of several hundrecI meters. He was also keen on mak- ing photos of the animals that live on the creep-sea bottom. In the late 1960s, in association with Richard SchwartzIose, Richard Shutts, anct others, he developed baited automatic cameras that were freely released in water as much as 7 km deep and recovered a clay later. In several places he photo- graphec3 a surprisingly large number of active invertebrates, fishes, and some gigantic sharks that changed man's thinking about the sparsity of life at such depths. The nets anct the cameras were extensions of his senses as he sought to fincI out: What's going on down there? In ~ 958 he became head of the Marine Life Research Pro- gram, which was concerned! with discovering whether man's overfishing or pollution hac] caused sarclines to disappear from California waters in the early 1950s. His unconven- tional approach was to examine (with Andrew Soutar) the yearly layers of unclisturbed sediment layers in the Santa Bar- bara Basin. These layers contained the scales of fish species going back for some 1,200 years. Counting the scales, year by year, showed that sardines tract for natural reasons-

98 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS come anct gone many times before man arrived. This led to a new question: Why were sardines so plentiful when they were present? The answer is not yet known. In 1950 ~ invented the deep taut-moorect buoy and usect it for wave measurements at the nuclear shots. The buoy was helc! about 100 feet beneath the sea surface by a slencler steel wire some 6,000 feet long; the wire connected the buoy to a heavy anchor clump installed on a sea-mount, which fur- nishec! a steady platform for instruments in creep water. John always wanted to "go me one better," and in 1966 he devisecI the "sky hook." The sky hook was a taut-moored earth sat- ellite that was to be helct just beyond synchronous orbit by a wire. If it couic! be built it wouIc! permit large amounts of material to be moved into space without the use of rockets. Aside from the problem of actually constructing this device, however, the wire into space required a tensile strength far beyond any known material. Someday it may be possible; in the meantime the idea has been duly credited in Arthur CIarke's book, The Fountains of Paract~se. While thinking about how to deal with sea mines activated by a ship's pressure signal, Isaacs also devised a ship hull that trapper! its own waves. This was basically an ordinary hull, "sliced" clown the midctle, with the pieces transposed and separated by a closed bottom so that only straight sides were exposed. The propeller was between the hulls, and the ship carried a substantial breaking wave just inside the stern, the forward] part being a raceway. ~ pilotect a mocle! of it through a number of test runs without disturbing the surface of a glassy reservoir. Later, Isaacs anct Hugh Bradner proposed that the earth might be appreciably heated by neutrinos. John Isaacs also gave a good clear of thought to the matter of extracting power from the sea. In 1954 he studiect the CIaucle thermal differ- ence process and started to build a resonant wave pump for

JOHN DOVE ISAACS III 99 the end of the Scripps pier. Later he reinvestigated tidal power schemes, pointing out that much of what seemed! to be available heac! (usable water height) in an estuary would be lost as soon as any structure was built because the kinetic run-up would be much recluced. In the 1970s he and various associates at the Institute of Marine Resources, including Walter Schmitt, Geralct Wick, and Davict Castel, reexamined the utilization of energy from ocean waves. John liked to remind his listeners that more power is expendect by waves in heaving—that is, vertically moving a ship up and down as it crosses the ocean than by the thrust of its screws. He noted that waves are a form of solar energy; as such their very nature requires that a great number of small crevices be used if much energy is to be extracted. Their special feature is that if waves are cropped by some extraction device, the winct builds them up again; thus there could be a hunctred times more power available than is observer! in a steady-state condition. Isaacs and his associates established design criteria for wave-powered machines anct then proceecled to construct a wave-powerec} pump. A photo of a small version of this pump appearec! on the cover of Science ~ January Id, 1980) spouting water some 6 meters into the air in waves of only 0.6 meter. The advantages of zero fuel costs and only one moving part led him to suggest that a 50-kilowatt plant of this type in tracle-wincI seas using a pipe 0.9 meter in diameter and 153 meters long would be very efficient if only there were a suitable application. Next Isaacs (anc] Wick) looker] into salinity gradient en- ergy. This is a potentially large source of usable energy that can be tapped if the osmotic pressure between two fluids of different salinity can be harnessed. Where a stream flows into the ocean, this pressure is equivalent to 240 meters of heacl; it is more than ten times that much if it flows into the Great

100 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Salt Lake. Several schemes for tapping salinity gradient en- ergy were reviewocl, most of which required better anti cheaper semipermeable membranes than currently exist. John pointed out that there may be greater amounts of en- ergy available from the salt in salt domes than in the of} and gas that has been extracted from them. At the end of his paper on the forms of and prospects for using the ocean for human power needs, Isaacs concluded: "The most important . . . will be in the employment of sea- water for heat rejection and of the creep region below the sea floor for the ctisposal of nuclear wastes." Isaacs the whimsical philosopher also likes] to consider the positions of events and energy in perspective. He and Walter Schmitt constructed an energy "lacl{ler" and made order-of- magnitude estimates that included some of the following: Big bang i07 Sun's radiation (one year) 104] - 1033 1 028 Ice age latent heat Marine biomass (one year) Large salt dome Largest H-bomb Tornado Lightning flash Human daily diet Melting ice cube Striking typewriter key 10 Flea hop 26 024 22 017 1014 - 109 10° After carefully considering the implications of the above, he concludect (in Science) that the sun's radiation for one year could fuel the leap of i041 fleas. One of his inventions was an elegantly simple means of controlling heat and moisture loss in divers, mountain climb- ers, or other inclividuals subjected to cold-clry stress. In nor- mal breathing, inhaled air is warmed and humidified as it

JOHN DOVE ISAACS III 101 moves toward the lungs; with exhalation, most of that heat ant] moisture is lost. Uncler extreme conditions, the heat- moisture losses are 250 times those that occur at rest at room temperature. As Isaacs pointed out, by far the largest part of the heat lost is that required to vaporize water, and divers and climbers can have a serious problem of clehydration. Previously existing techniques were complex and heavy, and required some stored water. His solution was to equip the explorer with a small cylincler of hydrogen uncler high pressure. The hydrogen is then premixed with incoming air in a breathing mask and passed over a catalytic metal where it is combustecI. This provides a supply of warm, moist air. As long as the amount of hydrogen is less than 3 percent, there is no cianger of explosion. The patent for this crevice is held by the Founciation for Ocean Research. Isaacs' name does not appear on it but, as he liked to say, "There's no limit to what a man can accom- plish if he doesn't care who gets the credit." John Isaacs was committed to the conservation and pro- tection of natural resources, but he was incensed by regula- tions that attempted to control the discharge of human wastes into the sea. It was his opinion that: The return of organic waste and plant nutrients resulting from the most natural of acts to the sea is most probably beneficial. The benefits of putting the same material on land is clear to any farmer but the advantages to the sea are not so easily appreciated. The sea is starved for basic plant nutrients and it is a mystery to me why anyone should be concerned with their introduction into coastal seas in anY Quantity we can generate in the J ~ forseeable future. (Testimony of October 19, 1973.) On other occasions Isaacs liked to note that if the human population of the southern California coast (about 10 million persons) were compared on a weight basis with the anchovy populations (then about 3.5 million tons), the anchovies would produce about ten times as much fecal material. <'Why

102 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS should the human product be worse?" he would ask ciramat- ically. "Don't you know that most sea animals live in a soup of fecal material anal feed on it ctirectly?" During the first clecacle of work by the Southern Califor- nia Coastal Water Research Project (of which this writer is director, Isaacs was the chairman of the scientific consulting boarcl that guidect its efforts. His wise course! in the begin- ning establishecI the attitude that has continued to this day. He believer] that we should try to understand the overall pic- ture—including all sources of contaminants against the background! of changing sea conditions. The project's con- tribution to man's knowledge of marine food webs, toxicity, ant] the understanding of marine biological processes derives in part from ~ohn's intuitive suggestions. One of his more dramatic Pleas was basecT on the sixfoIct increase in the recorded incidence of tornadoes in the United States over the forty years prior to 1975. He claimed that part of the increase was caused by streams of motor vehicles moving in opposite directions on highways: these vehicles imparted angular momentum as a counterclockwise torque to the atmosphere. He suggeste(1 that the center of tornado activity had stea(lily moved eastward in recent decades and that there were fewer tornadoes on Saturdays when two-way truck anc! commuter traffic is at a minimum. Subsequent study by James Stork substantiated this forecast and showed specifically that there were, on the average, 300 less torna- cloes per year on Saturdays than on other days. Publication of this novel thesis in Nature created a storm of controversy at first, but after extensive exchanges Isaacs' views seem to have prevailed. His position was that shear, caused by the flow of autos and trucks, is the largest identi- fiable source of nonrandom cyclonic vorticity. His analysis showed that rotating storms of the dimensions of hurricanes

JOHN DOVE ISAACS III 103 are energy limitect, whereas those of tornadoes are limited by angular momentum. Isaacs loved Beethoven, Brahms, Tchaikovsky, Mozart, and Rimski-Korsakov when he wrote or studied at home it was often to the accompaniment of great music. In literature his tastes remained consistent throughout his life; the Bible, Shakespeare, Omar Khayyam, \lark Twain, and Kipling were his favorites. He constantly quoted the first three, often used analogues to Mark Twain scenes (seeing himself as a latter- day Huck Finn), and trailed many a quote from Kipling with me. He was very fond of writing quotes from Omar Khayyam on blackboards or reciting them to students carefully not- ing which of the five editions was used. In 1961 Isaacs became a full professor at the University of California. In 1971 he was named director of the Univer- sity's statewide Institute of Marine Resources, ant! in 1976 he was elected president of the Foundation for Ocean Research of San Diego. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1974 and to the National Academy of Engineer- ing in 1977. He was also a member of the World Academy of Arts ant! Sciences and was president of the Pacific Division of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. In addition to these affiliations, he was involved in dozens of other clubs, societies, committees, and chairmanships. Among the posthumous tributes he received were the naming of a research vessel after him (the RV fohn Isaacs); the establishment, by the National College Sea Grant Pro- gram, of the annual John D. Isaacs Memorial Scholarship for excellence in marine science by a high school student; and the endowment of the John D. Isaacs Chair of Natural Phi- losophy at the University of California at San Diego. John and Mary Carol procluced four children: Ann Kath- erine, who is professor of modern history at the University

104 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS of Pisa, Italy; Caroline Marie, a research sedimentary geolo- gist at the U.S. Geological Survey, MenIo Park, California; Jon Berkeley, a student at the University of California at San Diego; and Kenneth Zancler, a neurologist in private practice ancI research in Walia WalIa, Washington. There are also two grancichildren: Alessanctro Marcello and Jessica Ann Marie. Only rarely do scientists leave a clear, succinct statement of their opinions about the state of science anct its relation to government and education. Fortunately, John Isaacs re- cordec} his for a plenary adciress to the Pacific Science Con- gress at Vancouver, British Columbia, in 1975. Those who remember his unique manner of expression will recognize the following excerpts from that speech as pure vintage Isaacs: I believe that the vast reaches of the Pacific Ocean, covering more than one-third of the planet, hold and conceal minerals, energy, food, aesthetic resources, and intellectual challenges of immense potential to the peoples of the Pacific Basin can we but learn to discern these possibilities and intelligently approach them. I believe that there are many remarkably simple but undiscovered ways of achieving understanding of and dealing with the resources and forces of this great realm. The scientific hierarchy demands deeper penetration of nature, not broader and broader comprehension! Yet it is the development of increas- ing breadth and comprehension as well as penetration, that we must es- pouse with open-eyed, broad, undogmatic intellectual fervor, confidence and devotion if we are to understand the complexity of nature. It is in- creasingly clear that our crucial task is now to learn how the pieces fit together, for it is interaction on this planet, rather than its components, that form the limiting problem of mankind. Our educational system in science and technology tends to train only those faculties of the human intellect that are readily testable: memory and formal reasoning. Untaught, unevaluated and, indeed, often sup- pressed, since they are so challenging to teachers, are those other vast components of intellectuality: conceptualization, that allows one to con- ceive of complex interactions as a system; intuition, the mysterious quality

JOHN DOVE ISAACS III 105 that leaps to truths through a jungle of confusing detail; the trilogy: mental adventurousness and fervor, attention to the unexpected, and curiosity, those intellectual attributes that can challenge established dogma by dis- cerning its underlying flaws, and judgment, the equally mysterious faculty of recognizing the "likelihood" of something, a mental quality that went out of fashion a hundred years ago. My point is, of course, that the intellectual qualities that we neither teach nor know how to teach, and hence tend to suppress, are precisely the ones essential to dealing with the complex systems of this planet, and since these qualities are suppressed in our educational system, untutored people often possess them in more highly developed form than do the educated. I have much greater faith in simple observations and untrammeled thinking than I have in sophisticated observations and simplistic thinking! And I have much greater confidence that man's relationship to the sea and its resources will be enhanced by thoughtful and observant people closely involved and broadly acquainted with the sea scientist and non-scientist alike than by frantic bureaucratic responses to public hysteria or by the pontification of the scientific hierarchy. John Isaacs spent his last few months fighting cancer. He tried to live a reasonably normal life, doing the teaching that he lover! in his regular seminars at the Foundation for Ocean Research. He committee] his major energies, however, to work on a book that he envisioned as presenting a total con- ceptualization of current multidisciplinary knowledge of the sea. It was his belief that a broad anct penetrating study of the sea and man's interventions anc! relations-hips there could provicle some guidance in solving the complex problems threatening man's future. In his own words lies his theme: "It was largely the chal- lenge of the seas that brought meclieval man out of the clerk ages and into the moclern world. His discoveries of the oceans and continents, and his development of navigation instru- ments anct ships, gave him new confidence in his ability to surpass the achievements of the ancients, the darkness of his times, ant] the inadequacies of his institutions.

106 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS "The sea again challenges our sciences and our institu- tions and presents again those same opportunities to guide ourselves out of the present age and into a new and future world." On June 6, 1980, John Isaacs passed as Mark Twain put it "to that mysterious country from whose bourne no trav- eler returns."

JOHN DOVE ISAACS III BIBLIOGRAPHY 107 1945 Memorandum on drawing refraction diagrams directly by orthog- onals. Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, report nos. HE- 116-47 and HE- 116-47b. Memorandum on sighting bar discrepancies. Fluid Mechanics Lab- oratory, University of California, Berkeley, report no. HE-116- 57. A device for traversing the surf zone of ocean beaches. Fluid Me- chanics Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, report no. HE-116-90. A revised rudder for the LCVP. Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, Uni- versity of California, Berkeley, report no. HE- 116-91. Plans for the study of beaches—I. Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, report no. HE- 116-92. Plans for the study of beaches II. Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, report no. HE- 116- 125. Memorandum on proposed change in sighting bar procedure. Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, report no. HE- 116- 129. Report on survey at Surf. Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, report no. HE- 116- 130. Survey and reconnaissance of miscellaneous Pacific Coast beaches. Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, report no. HE- 116- 131. Littoral current at Estero Bay. Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, Uni- versity of California, Berkeley, report no. HE-116-132. Report on survey with sea sled and mast at Pismo, California. Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, re- portno. HE-116-135. Plans for the study of beaches—III. Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, report no. HE- 116- 138. Report on survey at Pismo. Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, report no. HE-116-139. Hydrography at Coronado. Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, Univer- sity of California, Berkeley, report no. HE- 116- 141. Report on survey at Oceano. Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, Univer- sity of California, Berkeley, report no. HE- 116- 149. 107

108 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Hydrography at Estero Bay. Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, Univer- sity of California, Berkeley, report no. HE- 116- 154. Beach and surf conditions at Carmel Beach on July 24, 1945. Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, re- port no. HE-116-178. Analysis of elements of a breaker by two sighting bars. Fluid Me- chanics Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, report no. HE-116-179. Beach and surf conditions at Half Moon Bay. Fluid Mechanics Lab- oratory, University of California, Berkeley, report no. HE-116- 181. Beach and surf conditions at Point Joe Bight. Fluid Mechanics Lab- oratory, University of California, Berkeley, report no. HE-116- 183. Beach and surf conditions at Carmel River Bight, July 26, 1945. Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, report no. HE- 116- 185. 1946 Hydrography at Monterey Bay. Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, Uni- versity of California, Berkeley, report no. HE-116-200. Notes on reconnaissance of miscellaneous Pacific beaches, May 21- September 29, 1946. Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, report no. HE-116-223. Preliminary report on harbors, havens and anchorages of the Pa- cific coast from San Francisco to the Straits of Juan de Fuca. Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, report no. HE-116-225. Field report on the reconnaissance of beaches of the island of Oahu. Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, report no. HE- 116-231. 1947 Beach and surf conditions on beaches of the Oregon and Washing- ton coast between August 27 and September 27, 1945. Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, re- port no. HE- 116-229. With D. L. Foight and W. N. Bascom. Report on amphibious op-

JOHN DOVE ISAACS III 109 oration at Oceanside. Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, report no. HE- 116-235. With W. N. Bascom. Water-table elevations in some Pacific coast beaches. Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, report no. HE- 116-238. Memorandum on the use of magnesium rod as a release device. Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, report no. HE- 116-251. With R. Wiegel. Investigation of torpedo net. Part II. Fluid Me- chanics Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, report no. HE-116-254. With A. I. Chinn. Investigation of torpedo net. Part III (revised model "zippering" effect). Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, Univer- sity of California, Berkeley, report no. HE-116-255. With S. Schorr. Memorandum of analysis of pressure records from Mark III Model II, shore wave recorder. Fluid Mechanics Lab- oratory, University of California, Berkeley, report no. HE-116- 257. With S. Schorr. Records of waves on the Pacific coast of California and Oregon. Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, University of Cali- fornia, Berkeley, report no. HE-116-263. With S. Schorr. General information on wind waves and swells (ma- rine operations). Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, report no. HE-116-263, addendum I. With W. N. Bascom. Report on operation and characteristics of U.S. Army DUKWS in oceanographic investigations. Fluid Mechan- ics Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, report no. HE- 116-266. Graphical construction of refraction diagrams directly by orthog- onals. Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, report no. HE- 116-273. 1948 With I. W. Johnson. Action and effect of waves. West. Constr. News, 23~4~:97-102, 116. Discussion of "Refraction of surface waves by currents" by I. W. Johnson (in Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 28~19471:867-741. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 29~5~:739-41.

110 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With l. W. Johnson and M. P. O'Brien. Graphical Construction of Wave Refraction Diagrams. U.S. Navy Hydrological Office Publication no. 605. 45 pp. With R. L. Wiegel. The measurement of wave heights by means of a float in an open-end pipe. Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, Uni- versity of California, Berkeley, report no. HE-116-271. With E. Winkler. Preliminary report on the modification of the Esterline Angus one milliampere movement for recording long period swell. Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, University of Cali- fornia, Berkeley, report no. HE- 116-277. With I. P. Frankel. The design and operation of an underwater deflection meter. Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, report no. HE-116-284. With i. W. Johnson. Action and effect of waves. West. Constr. News, 23~4~:97-102. With T. Saville, Jr. The comparison between recorded and forecast waves on the Pacific coast. Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, Univer- sity of California, Berkeley, report no. HE-116-285. With A. I. Chinn. Preliminary report on the Mark II wave direction indicator and recorder. Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, report no. HE-116-290. 1949 The forecasting of sea and swell and open water protection from waves in coastal waters. Explor. J., 27~1~:1-9, 59. With W. N. Bascom. Water-table elevations in some Pacific Coast beaches. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 30~2~:293-94. With R. L. Wiegel. The measurement of wave heights by means of a float in an open-end pipe. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 30~4~:501-6. With T. Saville, fir. A comparison between recorded and forecast waves on the Pacific Coast. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.,51, art. 3:502- 10. 1950 With J. M. Snodgrass. Underwater electrical signals. In: Proceedings of the Fifth Undersea Symposium, Washington, D.C., May 1950. National Research Council, Committee on Undersea Warfare Publ. 0095.

JOHN DOVE ISAACS III 111 With R. L. Wiegel. Thermopile wave meter. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 31~5~:711-16. 1951 With E. A. Williams and C. Eckart. Total reflection of surface waves by deep water. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 32~1~:37-40. With L. W. Kidd. A midwinter trawl. Scripps Institution of Ocean- ography, SIO Reference no. 51-51. 1952 With C. O'D. Iselin, ed. Oceanographic instrumentation. (By Office of Naval Research, Rancho Santa Fe, California, June 1952.) NAS—NRC Publ. 309. With D. L. Fox and E. F. Corcoran. Marine leptopel, its recovery, measurement and distribution. }. Mar. Res., 1 1 ~ 1 ~ :29 - 46. With A. E. Maxwell. The ball-breaker, a deep water bottom sig- nalling device. T Mar. Res., 11 ~ 1 ~ :63 - 68. With E. A. Williams. The refraction of groups and of the waves which they generate in shallow water. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 33~4~:525-30. With R. S. Arthur and W. H. Munk. The direct construction of wave rays. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 33~6~:855-65. 1953 With L. W. Kidd. Isaacs-Kidd midwater trawl. Oceanographic Equipment Report no. 1, ed. R. F. Devereux. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, SIO Reference no. 53-3. With L. W. Kidd. High-speed diving dredge. Oceanographic Equipment Report no.4, ed. R. F. Devereux. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, SIO Reference no. 53-37. 1955 With T. R. Folsom. Mechanism and extent of the early dispersion of radioactive products in water. Preliminary report, Operation Wigwam, Project 2.6, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project ITR- 1064. Oceanography and engineering. I. Mar. Res., 14~4~:323-32.

112 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1956 With R. Revelle, T. R. Folsom, and E. D. Goldberg. Nuclear science and oceanography. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, August 1955, vol. 13, Legal, Health, and Safety Aspects of Large-Scale Use of Nuclear En- ergy, pp. 371-80. New York: United Nations. With R. L. Wiegel. Thermopile wave meter. In: Proceedings of the First Conference on Coastal Engineering Instruments, Berkeley, Cali- fornia, 1955, pp. 101-10. (Revision of 1950 article.) 1957 With R. P. Huffer and L. W. Kidd. Instrument stations in the deep sea. Science, 125~3243~:341. 1958 With I. L. Faughn, T. R. Folsom, F. D. Jennings, DeC. Martin, fir., L. E. Miller, and R. L. Wisner. A preliminary radioactivity sur- vey along the California coast through disposal areas. In: Pro- ceedings of the Ninth Pacific Science Congress, Thailand, 1957, vol. 16, pp. 152-58. With E. H. Ahlstrom, l. R. Thrailkill, and L. W. Kidd. High-speed plankton sampler. Fish. Bull., 58:187-214. 1959 With O. E. Sette. Unusual conditions in the Pacific. Science, 129~3351~:787-88. 1960 With O. E. Sette, eds. The changing Pacific Ocean in 1957 and 1958. (Presented at California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Symposium, Rancho Santa Fe, California, June 1958.) Calif. Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest. Rep., 7:13-217. With G. B. Schick. Deep-sea free instrument vehicle. Deep-Sea Res., 7:61-67. With i. E. Tyler. On the observation of unresolved surface features of a planet. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 72~4261: 159-66.

J fOHN DOVE ISAACS III 113 1961 Underwater inspection methods. In: Syllabus of On-Site Inspection of Unidentified Seismic Events, pp. 141-50. Stanford, Calif.: Stan- ford Research Institute. Capacity of the oceans. Int. Sci. Technol. (prototype):38-43. With G. B. Schick. Underwater remote programming. Undersea Technol., 2~6~:29-32. 1962 With L. M. K. Boelter, D. M. Bonner, L. A. Bromley, D. E. Carritt (chairman), B. F. Dodge, E. Epstein, H. P. Gregor, G. A. Jeffrey, J. J. Katz, K. A. Kraus, G. W. Murphy, and T. K. Sherwood. Desalination Research and the Water Problem. (Presented at Desal- ination Research Conference, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, June-July 1961.) NAS-NRC Publ. no. 941. 85 pp. Note on an association of cumulus clouds and turbid water. I. Geo- phys. Res., 67~5~:2076-77. Editor. Disposal of Lozo-Level Radioactive Waste into Pacific Coastal Waters. (A report of a working group of the Committee on Oceanography.) NA~NRC Publ. no. 985. 87 pp. Mechanism and extent of the early dispersion of radioactive prod- ucts in water. (Revision of 1955 report.) Operation Wigwam, MA 1955, Proj. 2.6-1. Defense Atomic Support Agency Report WT-1014. 1963 With I. L. Faughn, G. B. Schick, and M. C. Sargent. Deep-sea moorings: Design and use with unmanned instrument stations. Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr., 8~3~:271-312. Deep-sea anchoring and mooring. In: The Sea, vol. 2, ed. M. N. Hill, pp. 516-27. New York: Interscience; John Wiley & Sons. The water dilemma. In: The Impact of Science, pp.41-49. (Proceed- ings of conference no.4 of the conference series, California and the Challenge of Growth, San Diego, University of California, Berkeley, June 1963.) With W. R. Schmitt. Resources from the sea. Int. Sci. Technol., ~une:39-45. Atmospheric jet streams. Science, 141~35851: 1045-46.

4 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS World Book Encyclopedia contributions (since 1958~: Aegean Sea, Sea of Azov, Bay of Biscay, Bosporus, Caspian Sea, River Derwent, English Channel, Fiord (Fjord), Inchcape Rock, Ionian Sea, Sea of Marmara, Strait of Messina, North Sea, Ruhr River, Scapa Flow, and White Sea. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1964 Discussion of "Considerations on the siting of outfalls for the sea disposal of radioactive effluent in tidal waters" by R. T. P. Whip- ple. In: Advances in Water Pollution Research, vol. 3, ed. E. A. Pearson, pp. 26-35. (Proceedings of the International Confer- ence, London, September 1962.) Oxford: Pergamon Press. California and the world ocean. In: Proceedings of the Governor's Con- ference, Colloquy, and Forum. Los Angelo T~n,,~rv .31_ F~hr'~nrv 1, pp. 97-106. Explosively created harbors. In: Engineering with Nuclear Explosives, pp. 335-54. (Proceedings of the Third Plowshare Symposium, University of California, Davis, April 1964.) U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Division of Technical Information no. TID-7695. Washington, D.C. Night-caught and day-caught larvae of the California sardine. Sci- ence, 144~3622~: 1132-33. The planetary water problem. In: Proceedings of the First Interna- tional Conference of Women Engineers and Scientists, New York, June, pp. II-1 to II-13. With H. Bradner. Neutrino and geothermal fluxes. I. Geophys. Res., 69~181:3883-87. ~ o ~ ~ a ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ^ ~ 1965 Possible oceanographic and related observations from satellites. In: Oceanography from Space, ed. G. C. Ewing, p.51. (Proceedings of Conference on the Feasibility of Conducting Oceanographic Explorations from Aircraft, Manned Orbital, and Lunar Lab- oratories, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, August 1964.) Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Reference no. 65-10. With B. Polk. New techniques, new esthetic. Landscape, 14~31:3- 5. Larval sardine and anchovy interrelationships. Calif. Coop. Oce- anic Fish. Invest. Rep., 10: 102-40.

JOHN DOVE ISAACS III 115 With R. A. Schwartzlose. Migrant sound scatterers: Interaction with the sea floor. Science, 150~37051:1810-13. With G. B. Schick, M. H. Sessions, and R. A. Schwartzlose. Devel- opment and testing of taut-nylon moored instrument stations (with details of design and construction). Scripps Institution of Oceanography, SIO Reference no. 65-5. An historical study of the eastern North Pacific. In: Final report, Junior College Workshop in Biology, pp. 23-29. California De- partment of Education. 1966 With A. C. Vine, H. Bradner, and G. E. Backus. Satellite elongation into a true "sky-hook." Science,151~37111:682-83. (Further dis- cussion in: Science, 152~3723]:800 and 158~3803l:946-47.) The sea and man. Portal (first edition), pp. 18-28. With I. L. Reid, fir., G. B. Schick, and R. A. Schwartzlose. Near- bottom currents measured in 4 kilometers depth off the Baja California coast. J. Geophys. Res., 71~18~:4297-303. With D. M. Brown. Isaacs-Brown opening, closing trawl. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, SIO Reference no. 66-18. 1967 Food from the sea. Int. Sci. Technol., April: 61-68. Large-scale anomalous sea surface conditions in the North Pacific. In: Proceedings of the Fourth U.S. Navy Symposium on Military Oceanography, Washington, D.C., May. With R. Radok and W. Munk. A note on mid-ocean internal tides. Deep-Sea Res., 14: 121-24. Remarks on some present and future buoy developments. In: Transactions of the Second International Buoy Technology Symposium, Washington, D.C., September, pp. 503-29. Marine Technology Society. The oceans and man. Ariz. Eng. Sci., December:4, 6. 1968 With G. B. Schick and M. H. Sessions. Autonomous instruments in oceanographic research. In: Marine Sciences Instrumentation, vol. 4. ed. F. Alt, pp. 203-30. (Proceedings of the Fourth Na-

116 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS tional ISA Marine Sciences Instrumentation Symposium, Cocoa Beach, Florida, January.) New York: Plenum Press. With M. H. Sessions and R. A. Schwartzlose. A camera system for the observation of deep-sea marine life. In: Proceedings of the Underwater Photooptical Instrumentation Applications Seminar, San Diego, California, February. Society of Photooptical Instrumen- tation Engineers. With D. M. Brown. "Bootstrap" corer. I. Sediment. Petrol., 38~1~: 159-62. The North Pacific study. In: Proceedings of the Third Marine Systems and ASW Meeting, San Diego, California, April 29—May 1. Am. Inst. Aeronaut. Astronaut., AIAA Paper no. 68-475. Oceans without megohms (a twenty-year baptism of electronics by seawater—a report). In: Electronics Serving Mankind, pp. 1-5. (Proceedings of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics En- gineers, Region Six Conference, Portland, Oregon, May.) New York: IEEE. General features of the ocean. In: Ocean Engineering, ed. I. F. Brahtz, pp. 157-201. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Science and technology: The driving force. In: Revolution, ed. M. D. Generates and {. D. Kitchen, pp. 218-35. (Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Annual Institute on World Affairs, San Diego, California, August.) San Diego, Calif.: San Diego State College Press. Probing the birthplace of American weather. Naval Res. Rev., 2 1(1 1-12): 1-13. The sea and man. Explor. J., 46~41:260-65. With M. W. Evans and R. A. Schwartzlose. Data from deep-moored instrument stations. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, SIO Reference no. 68-17. 1969 With A. Soutar. History of fish populations inferred from fish scales in anaerobic sediments off California. Calif. Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest. Rep., 13:63-70. With R. F. Devereux and F. D. Jennings. Long-distance telemetry of environmental data for the North Pacific study. In: Proceed- ings Oceanology International 69, First International Oceanology

JOHN DOVE ISAACS III 117 Conference, Brighton, England, February. London: BPS Exhi- bitions Ltd. The North Pacific study. (Revision of 1968 AIAA paper.) J. Hy- dronaut., 3~2~:65-72. With M. W. Evans and R. A. Schwartzlose. Atmospheric effects on the ocean as measured from deep-moored instrument stations. In: Proceedings of the Marine Temperature Measurements Symposium, Miami Beach, June, pp. 71-93. Marine Technology Society. With A. Fleminger and J. K. Miller. Distributional atlas of zoo- plankton biomass in the California current region: Spring and fall 1955 - 1959. Calif. Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest. Atlas, 10: i-xxv; 1-252. Role of the NDBS in future variability studies of the North Pacific. In: Proceedings of the First National Data Buoy Systems Scientific Advisory Meeting, U.S. Coast Guard Academy, New London, Connecticut. May, pp. 62-78. With R. A. Schwartzlose. Transient circulation event near the deep ocean floor. Science, 165~3896~:889-91. The nature of oceanic life. Sci. Am., 221~3~: 146-62. (Also in: Read- ings from Scientific American: "Oceanography," 1971, pp. 214— 27; see also pare. 4, p.208, for review; "Ecology, Evolution, and Population Biology," 1973, pp. 239-52; see also pare. 2, p. 191, for review; "Life in the Sea," 1981, pp. 4-17; see also pare. 6 et seq., p. 2, for review. Available as Sci. Am. Of~print no. 844.) With W. R. Schmitt. Stimulation of marine productivity with waste heat and mechanical power. I. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer,33~11:20- 29. 1970 With R. F. Devereux, M. W. Evans, R. F. Kosic, and R. A. Schwartz- lose. Telemetering of oceanographic data for the North Pacific study. Telemetry J., 5~2~:19-23, 36. With R. A. Schwartzlose. The operational results from the North Pacific study. In: Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Meeting, Marine Technology Society, Washington, D.C., Tune 29 - July 1, vol. 1, pp. 551-60. Editor. Symposium on population and fisheries. Calif. Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest. Conf., Avalon, Catalina Island, California,

118 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS December 1968. Calif. Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest. Rep.,14:21- 70. With R. M. Born, D. M. Brown, R. A. Schwartzlose, and M. H. Sessions. Deep-moored instrument station design and perfor- mance, 1967 - 1970. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, SIO Reference no. 70-19. 1971 With M. R. Clarke. Other resources of the deep sea. In: Deep Oceans, ed. P. J. Herring and M. R. Clarke, pp.270-76. London: Arthur Barker, Ltd. With W. R. Schmitt. Enhancement of marine protein production. In: Fertility of the Sea, ed. I. D. Costlow, vol. 2, pp. 455-62. Lon- don: Gordon & Breach. With D. M. Brown and M. H. Sessions. Continuous temperature- depth profiling deep-moored buoy system. Deep-Sea Res., 18:845-49. Engineering problems in monitoring the ocean. (Abstract.) In: The Ocean World, ed. M. Uda, pp. 123-24. (Proceedings of the Joint Oceanographic Assembly, Tokyo, September 1970.) Tokyo: ~a- pan Society for the Promotion of Science. With A. Fleminger and J. K. Miller. Distributional atlas of zoo- plankton biomass in the California Current region: Winter 1955-1959. Calif. Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest. Atlas, 14:)-xxiv; 1-122. 1972 With R. R. Hessler and E. L. Mills. Giant amphipod from the abys- sal Pacific Ocean. Science, 175~4022) :636 -37. Unstructured marine food webs and "pollutant analogues." Fish. Bull., 70~3~:1053-59. With H. Bradner. Overpressures due to earthquakes project. Final technical report to Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA), December 15, 1968-December 31, 1972. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, SIO Reference no.72-18, AOEL Report no.72. 1973 The ocean margins. (Seminar, University of Washington, Seattle, February 21, 1968.) In: Ocean Resources and Public Policy, ed.

JOHN DOVE ISAACS III 119 T. S. English, pp. 76-93. Seattle: University of Washington Press. With R. I. Seymour. The ocean as a power resource. Int. I. Environ. Stud., 4:201-5. With G. L. Wick. Optimized tactics for open-water marine preda- tors. I. Mar. Biol. Assoc. India, Spec. Publ., May:193-99. Potential trophic biomasses and trace-substance concentrations in unstructured marine food webs. Mar. Biol., 22:97-104. With D. R. Young, I. N. Johnson, and A. Soutar. Mercury concen- trations in dated varved marine sediments collected off South- ern California. Nature, 244~5415) :273 -75. 1974 With G. L. Wick. Tungus event revisited. Nature, 247~5437~: 139. With A. Soutar. Abundance of pelagic fish during the 19th and 20th centuries as recorded in anaerobic sediment off the Cali- fornias. Fish. Bull., 72~2~:257-74. With R. T. Seymour. Tethered float breakwaters. In: Proceedings of the Floating Breakwaters Conference, Newport, Rhode Island, April, ed. T. Kowalski, pp. 55-72. University of Rhode Island Marine Technical Report Series no. 24. (Also, in: University of California Institute of Marine Resources, IMR Reference no. 74-9, Sea Grant Publ. no. 30.) With S. A. Tont and G. L. Wick. Deep scattering layers: Vertical migration as a tactic for finding food. Deep-Sea Res., 21:651- 56. With A. Fleminger and i. G. Wyllie. Zooplankton biomass mea- surements from CalCOFI cruises of July 1955 to 1959 and re- marks on comparison with results from October, January and April cruises of 1955 to 1959. Calif. Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest. Atlas,21:i-xx;1-118. 1975 With H. Bradner. A tentative hazard chart for submarines in earth- quake zones. Naval Res. Rev., 28~1~:21-25. With I. W. Stork, D. B. Goldstein, and G. L. Wick. Effect of vorticity pollution by motor vehicles on tornadoes. Nature, 253 (54891: 254-55. With W. R. Schmitt and C. K. Stidd. Ice ages and northern forests.

120 B I O G RA P H I C A L M EM O I RS In: Climate of the Arctic, ed. G. Weller and S. A. Bowling, pp. 117-19. (Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth Alaska Science Conference, August 1973.) College: Geophysical Institute, Uni- versity of Alaska. With R. A. Schwartzlose. Biological applications of underwater photography. Oceanus, 18~3~:24-30. With R. A. Schwartzlose. Active animals of the deep-sea floor. Sci. Am., 233(4):84 - 91. With S. L. Costa. Anisotropic sand transport in tidal inlets. In: Proceedings, Symposium on Modeling Techniques, pp. 254-73. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers. With G. L. Wick. Salinity power. Report based on a study group convened by the University of California Institute of Marine Resources and Oregon State University, San Francisco, Septem- ber 1974. IMR Reference no. 75-9. . ~ . Assessment of man's impact on marine biological resources. In: Marine Pollution and Marine Waste Disposal, ed. E. Pearson and E. Frangipane, pp. 329-40. (Proceedings of the Second Interna- tional Study Congress on Marine Waste Disposal, Sanremo, Italy? December 1973.) London: Pergamon Press. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project findings. In: Marine Pollution and Marine Waste Disposal, ed. E. Pearson and E. Frangipane, pp. 463-71. (Proceedings of the Second Interna- tional Study Congress on Marine Waste Disposal, Sanremo, Italy, December 1973.) London: Pergamon Press. 1976 Sanity and other factors in aquatic resource development. (Plenary, address.) In: Mankind's Future in the Pacific, ed. R. F. Scagel, pp. 72-85. (Plenary and special lectures of the Thirteenth Pacific Science Congress, Vancouver, B.C., August 1975.) Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. With J. W. Stork and G. L. Wick. Tornado forum. Isaacs, Stork & Wick reply to Kessler, Morton, Smith, McIntyre, Manton, Lilly, Darkow & Court. Nature, 260~55501:457-61. Reproductive products in marine food webs. Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. (Carl L. Hubbs Honorary Issue), 75~21:220-23. With D. Castel and G. L. Wick. Utilization of the energy in ocean waves. Ocean Eng., 3:175-87.

JOHN DOVE ISAACS III 121 The sea, the marine mystique, and the challenge to the scientific paradigm. In: Literature and the Sea, ed. R. Astro, pp. 25-30. (Proceedings of a conference at the Marine Science Center, Newport, Oregon, May.) Oregon State University Sea Grant College Program, Publ. no. ORESU-W-76-001. Some ideas and frustrations about fishery science. (Presented at a symposium of the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries In- vestigations Conference on Fishery Science, "Fact, Fiction, and Dogma," San Clemente, California, November 1973.) Calif. Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest. Rep., 18 :34 - 43. With G. Wick. Salinity power. In: Symposia of Expo '75, pp. 153-65; in Japanese, pp. 320-33. (Official Report: Symposium Section, Japan Association for the International Ocean Exposition, Oki- nawa, 1975.) 1977 With P. F. Tooby and G. L. Wick. The motion of a small sphere in a rotating velocity field: A possible mechanism for suspending particles in turbulence. J. Geophys. Res., 82~15~:2096-100. The life of the open sea. Nature (ocean sciences supplement), 267~56141:778-80. With S. L. Costa. The modification of sand transport in tidal inlets. In: Coastal Sediments '77, pp. 946-65. (Proceedings of the Fifth Symposium of Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Divisions, American Society of Civil Engineers, Charleston, South Caro- lina, November 2-4.) Threshold of the future, pp. 58-59; The new resource, pp. 96- 97; and Power from the sea, pp. 98-99. In: The Mitchell Beazley Atlas of the Oceans, ed. M. Bramwell. London: Mitchell Beazley Ltd. (Reprinted in 1979 as The Rand McNally Atlas of the Oceans. Skokie, Ill.: Rand McNally & Co. 208 pp.) 1978 With G. L. Wick. Salt domes: Is there more energy available from their salt than from their oil? Science, 199~4336~: 1436-37. With V. M. V. Vidal, F. V. Vidal, and D. R. Young. Coastal sub- marine hydrothermal activity off northern Baja California. I. Geophys. Res., 83(B4~:1757-74. Power from the sea forms and prospects. In: Proceedings of the

122 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Spring MeetinglS TAR Symposium, Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, New London, Connecticut, April, pp. 5-1- 5-14. With S. Loeb and M. R. Bloch. Salinity power, potential and pro- cesses, especially membrane processes. In: Advances in Ocean- ography (papers presented in general symposia at the Joint Oceanographic Assembly, September 13 -24, 1976, Edinburgh, Scotland), ed. H. Charnock and G. Deacon, pp. 267-88. New York: Plenum Press. With G. L. Wick. Utilization of the energy from salinity gradients. In: Proceedings of the ERDA Wave and Salinity-Gradient Energy Conversion Workshop, University of Delaware, May 1976, ed. R. Cohen and M. E. McCormick. ERDA Report no. C00-2946-1, Conf. 760564. (Also in: University of California IMR Reference no. 78-2 "revision of 76-91.) With G. L. Wick and W. R. Schmitt. Utilization of the energy from ocean waves. In: Proceedings of the ERDA Wave and Salinity- Gradient Energy Conversion Workshop, University of Delaware, May 1976, ed. R. Cohen and M. E. McCormick. ERDA Report no. C00-2946-1, Conf. 760564. (Also in: IMR Reference no. 78- 3 Erevision of 76-10~.) 1979 With M. Olsson and G. L. Wick. Salinity gradient power: Utilizing vapor pressure differences. Science, 206~44171:452-54. 1980 With W. R. Schmitt. Ocean energy: Forms and prospects. Science, 207(4428~:265-73. Challenges of a wet planet. Paper presented at Technology and Ocean Space Conference, Oregon State University Sea Grant Program, April 29, 1978. (Edited version published in Chem- tech, 1 0~31: 14 1-43.) 1981 With V. M. V. Vidal and F. V. Vidal. Coastal submarine hydrother- mal activity off northern Baja California. 2. Evolutionary his- tory and isotope geochemistry. J. Geophys. Res.,86(B 10~:9451- 68.

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National Academy of Sciences

This distinguished series contains the biographies of deceased members of the National Academy of Sciences and bibliographies of their published works. Each biographical essay was written by a member of the Academy familiar with the professional career of the deceased. A cumulative index for all 57 volumes is now included. For historical and bibliographical purposes, these volumes are worth returning to time and again.

Volume 57 includes biographies of-- Arthur Francis Buddington, J. George Harrar, Paul Herget, John Dove Isaacs III, Bessel Kok, Otto Krayer, Rebecca Craighill Lancefield, Harold Dwight Lasswell, Jay Laurence Lush, John Howard Mueller, Robert Franklin Pitts, John Robert Raper, Karl Sax, Gerhard Schmidt, Leslie Spier, Hans-Lukas Teuber, and Warren Weaver

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