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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance.
This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. S-FBOAD-94-C-0023 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Federal Facilities Council via the U.S. Department of State. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
International Standard Book Number
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 00-110532
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES
National Academy of Sciences
National Academy of Engineering
Institute of Medicine
National Research Council
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.
The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.
The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.
The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
COMMITTEE ON OUTSOURCING DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION-RELATED MANAGEMENT SERVICES FOR FEDERAL FACILITIES
HENRY L. MICHEL, chair, Parsons Brinckerhoff, New York, New York
JOSEPH A. AHEARN, CH2M Hill, Greenwood Village, Colorado
A. WAYNE COLLINS, Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix
JOHN D. DONAHUE, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts
LLOYD A. DUSCHA, consulting engineer, Reston, Virginia
G. BRIAN ESTES, consulting engineer, Williamsburg, Virginia
MARK C. FRIEDLANDER, Schiff, Harden, and Waite, Chicago, Illinois
HENRY J. HATCH, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, Virginia
STEPHEN C. MITCHELL, Lester B. Knight and Associates, Inc., Chicago, Illinois
KARLA SCHIKORE, consultant, Petaluma, California
E. SARAH SLAUGHTER, MOCA, Inc., Newton, Massachusetts
LUIS M. TORMENTA, The LIRO Group, New York, New York
RICHARD L. TUCKER, University of Texas at Austin
NORBERT W. YOUNG, JR., McGraw-Hill Companies, New York, New York
RICHARD G. LITTLE, director, Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment
LYNDA L. STANLEY, study director
JOHN A. WALEWSKI, project officer
LORI J. VASQUEZ, administrative associate
NICOLE E. LONGSHORE, project assistant
BOARD ON INFRASTRUCTURE AND
THE CONSTRUCTED ENVIRONMENT
RICHARD WRIGHT, chair, National Institute of Standards and Technology (retired), Gaithersburg, Maryland
GREGORY BAECHER, University of Maryland, College Park
JONATHAN BARNETT, planning consultant, Washington, D.C.
MAX BOND, Davis, Brody, Bond, LLP, New York, New York
JACK BUFFINGTON, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
MARY COMERIO, University of California, Berkeley
CLAIRE FELBINGER, American University, Washington, D.C.
PAUL GILBERT, Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Quade, and Douglas, Seattle, Washington
AMY GLASMEIER, Pennsylvania State University, University Park
CHRISTOPHER M. GORDON, Massachusetts Port Authority, East Boston
NEIL GRIGG, Colorado State University, Fort Collins
JEREMY ISENBERG, Weidlinger Associates, New York, New York
MARTHA ROZELLE, The Rozelle Group, Ltd., Phoenix, Arizona
DAVID SKIVEN, General Motors Corporation, Detroit, Michigan
E. SARAH SLAUGHTER, MOCA, Inc., Newton, Massachusetts
ERIC TEICHOLZ, Graphic Systems, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts
RAE ZIMMERMAN, New York University, New York
RICHARD LITTLE, director, Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment
LYNDA STANLEY, executive director, Federal Facilities Council
JOHN WALEWSKI, project officer
LORI VASQUEZ, administrative associate
NICOLE LONGSHORE, project assistant
This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:
John Cable, University of Maryland
Frank Camm, RAND Corporation
G. Edward Gibson, University of Texas-Austin
Theodore Kennedy, BE&K, Inc.
Donald Kettl, University of Wisconsin-Madison
David Skiven, General Motors Corporation
Ralph Spillinger, Facility Management Consultant
Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by RADM Donald G. Iselin, U.S. Navy (retired), appointed by the Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
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