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Educating Children with Autism (2001)

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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Educating Children with Autism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10017.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Educating Children with Autism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10017.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Educating Children with Autism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10017.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Educating Children with Autism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10017.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Educating Children with Autism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10017.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Educating Children with Autism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10017.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Educating Children with Autism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10017.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Educating Children with Autism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10017.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Educating Children with Autism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10017.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Educating Children with Autism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10017.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Educating Children with Autism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10017.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Educating Children with Autism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10017.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Educating Children with Autism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10017.
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Index A adaptive behavior, 104, 105-107, 111-113 assessment of children, 29, 30, 74 Adaptive behavior, 5, 12, 27, 40-41, 47, 103- behavior problems, 116, 117-118 114, 116, 184, 212 communication and symbolic abilities, see also Generalization of learning; 50, 54, 123, 160 Maintenance of behaviors and diagnosis, 3-4, 23, 25, 93, 94, 195-197, skills 212 age factors, 104, 105-107, 111-113 interventions, 6, 7, 29, 43, 71, 74, 144- comprehensive programs, 144, 169 145, 160, 163, 167-168, 169, 170, independence, 5, 216, 218 171-172, 206, 207, 210, 220, 221 professional education, 184 IQ and, 47, 71, 201, 206 self-help, 5, 162, 167, 216, 218 older children with autism, 95, 104, 105- toilet training, 103, 105-106, 107, 110, 106, 116, 144-145 114 parents of, 36, 37-38, 78-79 Adults onset of autism, 2, 11, 211 see also Parental factors; Teachers screening, 4, 25, 195-197 autistic, 36, 37-38, 43, 48, 71, 104, 106 sensory/motor deficits, 93, 94, 97, 110 behavioral problems, 117, 213 Aggressive behavior, 49, 115, 116, 118, 125, interactions with, general, 6, 49, 56, 59, 131, 145, 213 68-69, 70, 73, 76-77, 78, 80, 81, self-injurious behavior, 49, 115, 116, 138, 218, 219 117-118, 123, 125, 128-129 comprehensive programs, 142, 157 tantrums, 115, 123, 125, 145, 213 Advocacy, 13, 181-182, 223 Alternative communication, see see also Litigation Augmentative and alternative parental, 32, 36-37, 39, 146, 214-215, 222 communication Age factors, 37-38, 71, 76-77, 84, 85, 88, 216 American Academy of Neurology, 14 see also Adults; Developmental theory American Psychological Association, 14 and approaches; Early American Speech-Language-Hearing intervention, general; Peer Association, 62, 188 interactions Americans with Disabilities Act, 179 295

296 INDEX Applied behavior analysis, 34, 35, 119, 120, Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, 85, 125-126, 131, 142, 148-149, 156, 196, 197 184, 225 Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Asperger’s Disorder, 2, 24, 29-30, 85, 95, 197, 198 212 Autism Screening Questionnaire, 25-26 Assessment, 2, 4, 7, 26-30, 156-158, 184-185, Autism Society of America, 188, 194, 228 211-214, 220-221 Autistic Spectrum Disorders Support see also Diagnosis; Outcomes; Screening Systems, 223 adaptive behavior, 107-110 Aversive approaches, 106, 110-111, 121-122, age factors, 29, 30, 74 123, 128, 133, 134-135, 146, 162, behavioral problems, 118-132 163, 181 applied behavior analysis, 34, 35, 119, 120, 125-126, 131, 142, 148- 149, 156, 184, 225 B functional assessment, 15, 27, 48, Battelle Developmental Inventory, 74 120, 122-124, 127, 130, 131-132, 134, 135, 213 Bed wetting, see Toilet training communication and language deficits, Behavioral problems, 5, 11, 12, 15, 49, 68, 69-70, 78, 104, 115-132, 194 26, 27, 28-30, 51-52, 74, 167 comprehensive programs, 142, 144, 156- see also Adaptive behavior; Aggressive 158, 167 behavior; Imitation; Maintenance of behaviors and skills; Pivotal functional, 15, 27, 48, 120, 122-124, 127, 130, 131-132, 134, 135, 213 behavior growth curve analysis, 207-208, 210 adults, 117, 213 age factors, 116, 117-118 intelligence, 27-28, 82, 90, 108, 193 IQ scores, 5, 44, 70, 84-87, 88, 90, 108, applied behavior analysis, 34, 35, 119, 168, 170-171, 172, 184, 201, 217 120, 125-126, 131, 142, 148-149, 156, 184, 225 mental retardation, 1, 2, 24, 27, 82, 84-85, 104, 105, 106, 125, 129, 176- assessment, 27, 28, 30-31, 118-132 177, 184 applied behavior analysis, 34, 35, 119, 120, 125-126, 131, 142, 148- language factors, 27, 28, 29-30, 31, 52, 138-139, 167, 179, 215-216 149, 156, 184, 225 multidisciplinary, 4, 23-24, 28, 30 functional assessment, 15, 27, 48, 120, 122-124, 127, 130, 131-132, parental factors, 27, 28, 29-30, 31, 52, 138-139, 167, 179, 215-216 134, 135, 213 siblings of autistic children, 38-39 auditory perception and, 30-31 classification of, 115-116 videotapes, 94, 155, 156, 157-158, 171 Assessment, Evaluation, and Programming clinical practice guidelines, 118-119 System, 74 communication deficits and, 49, 55 comprehensive programs, 116, 119-120, Assistive technology, 2, 3, 12, 56-57, 59-63, 103, 136, 184 125, 143, 144-145, 146, 147-149, Association for Persons with Severe 150, 157, 163, 169 developmental approaches, 12, 117, 119, Handicaps, 141 Attachment and attachment constructs, 67 126 Atypical autism, 3, 213 diagnosis, 2, 3-4, 25, 196, 211-212 family/parental factors, 3-4, 69-70, 115, prevalence, 24 Auditory perception, 30, 31-32, 42, 83, 85, 116, 120, 121-122, 123 98, 99-101, 123, 131, 212 functional assessment, 15, 27, 48, 120, 122-124, 127, 130, 131-132, 134, Augmentative and alternative communication, 51, 55, 56-63, 135, 213 136-137 interventions, general, 6, 40-41, 42-43, 68, 71-73, 78, 79-81, 110-114, 118- Autism Behavior Checklist, 196 137, 139, 194, 195, 210, 218

INDEX 297 applied behavior analysis, 34, 35, Classification issues, 2-3, 13, 25, 27-28, 69, 119, 120, 125-126, 131, 142, 148- 176-177 149, 156, 184, 225 see also Assessment; Diagnosis aversive approaches, 106, 110-111, behavioral problems, 115-116 121-122, 123, 128, 133, 134-135, features of autism, 11-12, 212 146, 162, 163, 181 historical perspectives, 31, 32-33, 47 drug treatment, 116, 128-131 The Clinical Practice Guidelines for Autism/ functional assessment, 15, 27, 48, Persuasive Development Disorders, 120, 122-124, 127, 130, 131-132, 118-119 134, 135, 213 Clinical trials, 6, 8, 15-17, 90, 131, 194, 197- incidental learning, 6, 54, 78, 119, 198, 199-201, 204, 218-219, 222- 134, 150, 164, 184 223 Walden Early Childhood Clonidine, 129 Programs, 79, 112, 136, 145, 146, Cognitive deficits, 5, 82-92, 212 148-149, 150, 153, 154, 155, 160, see also Communication deficits; 161-162, 162, 165, 171 Language factors naturalistic teaching and learning, comprehensive programs, 142, 144, 145, 15, 42, 134, 142, 148, 149, 159, 184 156-157, 162, 168-169, 172 professional education, 183, 184 Denver Model, 80, 142, 145-146, 147, neurobiological factors, 116, 117-118 150, 153, 155-156, 157, 159, 160, self-injurious behavior, 49, 115, 116, 163, 164, 165, 167, 188, 189 117-118, 123, 125, 128-129 executive functioning, 84, 89 self-stimulatory behavior, 55, 105, 111, intelligence, 27-28, 82, 90, 108, 193 213 see also Mental retardation sleeping, 107-108 intelligence quotients (IQs), 5, 44, 70, toilet training, 103, 105-106, 107, 110, 84-87, 88, 90, 108, 168, 170-171, 114 172, 184, 201, 217 stereotypic behavior, 61, 94, 96, 97, 98, age factors, 47, 71, 201, 206 117, 118, 145, 176-177 interventions, general, 6, 86, 90-92, 220, tantrums, 115, 123, 125, 145, 213 229 teachers response to, 116, 130 joint attention and, 83, 89 time factors, 116-117, 119, 120, 123, 134, memory, 57, 83, 85, 88, 89 163 reading skills, 62-63, 78-79, 83, 91 Boys, see Gender factors Collaborative Program for Excellence in Brain, see Neurobiological factors Autism, 209 Communication deficits, 1, 5, 12, 47-65, 71, 79, 83, 105, 115, 205 C see also Auditory perception; Joint attention; Language factors; CARS, see Childhood Autism Rating Scale Social factors Centers for Disease Control and age factors, 50, 54, 123, 160 Prevention, 208 assessment, 26, 27, 28-30, 51-52, 74, 167 Central coherence theory, 89 augmentative and alternative Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT), communication, 51, 55, 56-63, 25, 26, 196 136-137 Child-centered approaches, 63 communication training, 121 Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), comprehensive programs, 142, 144, 149, 27, 156, 169, 196, 197 160, 162, 167 Childhood disintegrative disorder, 3, 12, diagnosis, 25, 26, 47, 212 213 facilitated communication, 61-62 Children’s Unit, 142, 146, 148, 150, 154, 155, familial factors, 47 158, 161, 163-164, 165, 167

298 INDEX functional communication, 49-50, 61-62, developmental theory and approaches, 64-65, 123, 160, 221 144, 147-148, 149, 164 initiation of communication/ Denver Model, 80, 142, 145-146, 147, spontaneous communication, 6, 150, 151, 153, 155-156, 157, 159, 41, 47, 48, 49, 53, 54, 55, 64, 70, 160, 163, 164, 165, 167, 188, 189 71, 161, 169, 204, 221 Developmental Intervention Model, goals of education, 40-41, 50-51, 72 142, 145, 147, 148, 150, 152, 153, historical perspectives, 47, 48 156-157, 160-161, 164, 168 nonverbal communication, 3, 5, 25, 30, discrete trials, 112, 141, 143, 144-145, 47, 48, 58-59, 63-64, 69, 84, 85, 88, 147, 148, 150, 163-164, 170 95, 123, 214 Douglass Developmental Disabilities augmentative and alternative Center, 112, 143, 146, 148, 150, communication, 51, 55, 56-63 151, 153, 154, 160, 164, 165, 167- comprehensive programs, 142, 144 168 pivotal behaviors, 53, 55-56 emotional factors, 142, 144, 148, 156-157 professional education, 184, 185 familial/parental factors, 142, 143, 144- spontaneous, 6, 41, 47, 48, 49, 53, 54, 55, 145, 149, 150, 152-154, 157, 170, 64, 70, 71, 161, 169, 204, 221 215 symbol use, 29, 49, 50, 54, 55-56, 58, 82, funding, 141, 143, 146 123, 142, 160, 218 historical perspectives, 144, 146-147 symbolic play, 42, 49-50, 70-71, 76-77 individualized attention, general, 142, voice output communication aid, 59-60, 159, 164-165 63 Individualized Support Program, 143, Communication Participation Model, 57 145, 146, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, Community factors, 1, 11, 15, 32, 199 154, 157-158, 160, 161, 162, 163, Denver Model, 80, 142, 145-146, 147, 168 150, 153, 155-156, 157, 159, 160, language factors, 144, 145, 156-157, 160, 163, 164, 165, 167, 188, 189 167, 168, 172 interventions, general, 5, 7, 9, 218 Learning Experiences Alternative Comprehensive programs, 17-18, 55-56, Program (LEAP), 143-144, 145, 133, 140-172, 204-205, 206-207 146, 148, 150-155 (passim), 157, adaptive behavior, 144, 169 158, 160, 161-162, 163, 168-169, assessment, 142, 144, 156-158, 167 206-207 videotapes, 155, 156, 157-158, 171 local education authorities (LEAs), 165, behavioral problems, 116, 119-120, 125, 178, 182, 213-214, 215-216 143, 144-145, 146, 147-149, 150, peer interactions, 142, 146, 148, 150, 157, 157, 163, 169; see also Children’s 161, 162, 165, 171 Unit; Douglass Developmental Pivotal Response Model, 144, 147-153 Disabilities Center; Young (passim), 157, 161, 162, 169 Autism Project play, 142, 161, 162 Children’s Unit, 142, 146, 148, 150, 154, preschool programs, 143-144, 145, 146, 155, 158, 161, 163-164, 165, 167 161, 165 cognitive development, 142, 144, 145, Denver Model, 80, 142, 145-146, 147, 156-157, 162, 168-169, 172 150, 151, 153, 155-156, 157, 159, Denver Model, 80, 142, 145-146, 147, 160, 163, 164, 165, 167, 188, 189 150, 153, 155-156, 157, 159, 160, Individualized Support Program, 163, 164, 165, 167, 188, 189 143, 145, 146, 149, 150, 151, 152, communication deficits, 142, 144, 149, 153, 154, 157-158, 160, 161, 162, 160, 162, 167 163, 168 cost factors, 153, 155, 172 Learning Experiences (LEAP), 143- curricula, 142, 143-145, 149, 158, 159, 144, 145, 146, 148, 150-155 165, 189 (passim), 157, 158, 160, 161-162, 163, 168-169, 206-207

INDEX 299 professional education, 154-156, 158- individualized education plans (IEPs), 159, 167, 185, 188-189, 224-225 36, 38, 109, 118, 119, 124, 127, school-based programs, 147, 157, 162, 131, 154, 177-178, 180-181, 182, 165, 169; see also “preschool 207, 215-216, 217, 219-221 programs” supra social factors, general, 142, 144, 148-149, 156-157, 161-162, 165, 172 D standards, 141, 155 state government role, 146, 165 Delivering Individualized Support for Young Children with Autism, time factors, 119, 142, 150, 151-152, 153- 154, 155-156, 161, 163, 167-168, 191 170 Denver Model, 80, 142, 145-146, 147, 150, 151, 153, 155-156, 157, 159, 160, Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication 163, 164, 165, 167, 188, 189 Handicapped Children Department of Education, 141 see also Office of Educational Research (TEACCH) program, 34, 35-36, 60, 80, 136-137, 144, 145, 146, 147, and Improvement; Office of 150, 151, 152, 155, 158, 160, 161, Special Education Programs Department of Health and Human 162, 164, 169-170, 188, 189 Walden Early Childhood Programs, 79, Services, see Centers for Disease 112, 136, 145, 146, 148-149, 150, Control and Prevention; terms beginning “National Institute...” 153, 154, 155, 160, 161-162, 165, 171 Developmental, Individual Difference, Young Autism Project, 112, 144-145, Relationship-Based Model, 158 Developmental Intervention Model, 142, 146, 148, 150, 151, 153, 155, 158, 161, 162, 163, 170-171, 187-188, 145, 147, 148, 150, 152, 153, 156- 206 157, 160-161, 164, 168 Developmental theory and approaches, vii, Computer applications assistive learning technologies, 2, 3, 12, x, 2-3, 6, 11-12, 13, 19, 82-92, 105- 56-57, 59-63, 91-92, 103, 136, 184 106, 135-136, 203-204, 210, 213, 220 voice output communication aid, 59- 60, 61, 63 see also Age factors; Cognitive deficits; comprehensive programs, 157, 167 Language factors; Mental retardation Internet, 214, 215 Core deficits, 5, 43, 47, 48-50, 54, 55-56, 63, atypical autism, 3, 24, 213 89, 128, 162 auditory perception, 31 behavioral problems, 12, 117, 119, 126 see also Communication deficits; Joint attention communication and symbolic abilities, Cost and cost-effectiveness factors, 90, 180, 50, 51, 53-54 comprehensive programs, 144, 147-148, 182 committee study methodology, 19 149, 164 comprehensive programs, 153, 155, 172 Denver Model, 80, 142, 145-146, 147, 150, 151, 153, 155-156, 157, 159, family financial support, 153, 222 Council for Exceptional Children, 191 160, 163, 164, 165, 167, 188, 189 Court cases, see Litigation Developmental Intervention Model, 142, 145, 147, 148, 150, 152, 153, Creative Curriculum, 158 Cultural factors, familial, 34-35 156-157, 160-161, 164, 168 Cure Autism Now, 194, 228 pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), Curricula, 31, 40-41, 74, 120, 181, 186, 219, 226 2-3, 12, 24, 113, 206, 212, 213 comprehensive programs, 142, 143-145, social development, 15-16, 31, 66-69, 71- 72, 81, 105 149, 158, 159, 165, 189 state-funded programs, 23

300 INDEX Diagnosis, 2-4, 11, 13, 16, 23-24, 25-26, 30, Electroencephalograms, 30 85, 93, 94, 104-105, 195-197, 210, Emotional factors, 1, 61, 66-67, 69, 79 211-214, 227 attachment constructs, 67 see also Assessment; Screening comprehensive programs, 142, 144, 148, age factors, 3-4, 23, 25, 93, 94, 195-197, 156-157 212 parental, 32, 34, 39, 66-67, 153 behavioral problems, 2, 3-4, 25, 196, Epidemiology 211-212 behavioral problems, 118 communication deficits, 25, 26, 47, 212 prevalence, 17, 24-25, 125, 212-213 language factors, 23, 25, 212, 214 Ethical issues, 6, 8 multidisciplinary, 23, 26, 30, 214 Ethnicity, see Racial and ethnic factors time factors, 3, 25, 211, 214, 219 Executive functioning, 84, 89 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), 197 Discrete trials, 6, 122, 133-134, 137, 219 F communication skills, 50, 53, 54, 64 comprehensive programs, 112, 141, 143, Facilitated communication, 61-62 144-145, 147, 148, 150, 163-164, Familial factors, 3-4, 6, 32-39, 214-216, 218- 219, 223 170 defined, 133 see also Parental factors professional training, 187 behavioral problems, 3-4, 69-70, 115, 116, 120, 121-122, 123 Young Autism Project, 112, 144-145, 146, 148, 150 comprehensive programs, 142, 143, 144- Dopamine, 118 145, 149, 150, 152-154, 157, 170, 215 genetic/neurological, 11, 26, 30, 38-39, Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, 112, 143, 146, 148, 150, 117 151, 153, 154, 160, 164, 165, 167- professional development, 8, 226, 229 research design and description, 8-9, 168 Drug treatment, 116, 128-131, 132 198-199, 205-206, 229 DSM-IV, see Diagnostic and Statistical Federal government role, 7, 9, 13, 190-191, 222-224 Manual of Mental Disorders see also Funding; Legislation; specific departments and agencies E Federal Interageny Coordinating Council, 222-223 Early intervention, general, vii, 6, 7, 9, 12, Females, see Gender factors 37, 38, 123, 221, 222 Fidelity of treatment, 8, 9, 91, 194, 206-207, see also Preschool programs 209, 210, 227, 228 assessment, 29, 30, 196 Functional behavioral assessment, 15, 27, committee charge and methodology, 2, 48, 120, 122-124, 127, 130, 131- 13-14, 20 132, 134, 135, 213 comprehensive programs, 143-144, 145, Functional communication, 49-50, 61-62, 146-147, 151, 162, 165, 166, 171- 64-65, 123, 160, 221 172 initiation of communication/ diagnosis, 4, 23 spontaneous communication, 6, drug treatments, 129 41, 47, 48, 49, 53, 54, 55, 64, 70, goals of, 41-42, 43 71, 161, 169, 204, 221 personnel education, 7, 8, 190 Functional Emotional Assessment Scale, Early Intervention Profile and Preschool 156-157 Profile, 157, 167 Funding, 7, 9, 23, 175, 182, 195, 210, 223, Echolalia, 29, 47, 49, 105, 163 224, 226, 227-228, 229 Education of All Handicapped Children comprehensive programs, 141, 143, 146 Act, 1, 12 professional development, 8, 187, 188, 189, 191

INDEX 301 G Incidental learning, 6, 54, 78, 119, 134, 150, 164, 184 Gender factors Walden Early Childhood Programs, 79, IQ scores, 85 112, 136, 145, 146, 148-149, 150, parents of autistic children, 33, 34, 37, 153, 154, 155, 160, 161-162, 165, 171 66, 67, 221 Independence, 5, 216, 218 prevalence of autism, 24 see also Generalization of learning; Generalization of learning, 5, 8, 35, 43, 64, Maintenance of behaviors and 77, 108, 138, 139, 163-164, 184, skills 203, 216, 221 problem solving, 4, 124, 142, 163 see also Maintenance of behaviors and self-help skills, 162, 167 skills toilet training, 103, 105-106, 107, 110, Genetic factors, 11, 26, 30, 38-39, 117 114 Gilliam Autism Rating Scale, 196 Individual differences, see Heterogeneity Girls, see Gender factors Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP), 36, Government role, see Federal government 178, 180-181, 217 role; Legislation; State Individual instruction, 31, 73, 83, 90, 91, government role 120, 137-138, 139, 142, 149 Governor’s Council for Developmental Individualized attention, 4, 6, 7, 31, 34, 144, Disabilities, 223 149, 153, 219, 220, 221 Group instruction, 90, 91, 137-138, 159, 217 comprehensive programs, 142, 159, 164- Growth curve analysis, 207-208, 210 165 drug treatment and, 129 Individualized education plans (IEPs), 36, H 38, 109, 118, 119, 124, 127, 131, Haloperidol, 129 154, 177-178, 180-181, 182, 207, 215-216, 217, 219-221, 223 Hearing, see Auditory perception Heterogeneity, 2, 47-48, 69-71, 86, 186, 193, local education authorities (LEAs), 178, 197, 201, 207, 208, 211, 217 182, 215-216 Individualized Support Program, 143, 145, see also terms beginning “Individ...” Hierarchical linear modeling, 207-208, 210 146, 149, 150, 152, 153, 154, 157- Historical perspectives 158, 160, 161, 162, 163, 168 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act behavioral problems, 120 cognitive development, 82 (IDEA), 2, 7, 13, 115, 119, 122, communication deficits, 47, 48 124, 127, 132, 138, 176-179, 181- 182, 216, 222, 229 comprehensive programs, 144, 146-147 definition/explanation of autism, 31, see also Individualized education plans 32-33, 47 Infants and Young Children, 141 Initiation of communication/spontaneous litigation, 176, 178, 179, 180-181, 182, 222, 224 communication, 6, 41, 47, 48, 49, prevalence of autism, 24 53, 54, 55, 64, 70, 71, 161, 169, 204, 221 social development issues, 66, 67, 68 Instructional strategies, 17-18, 78-81, 90-92, 112-114, 133-139, 216-218, 227 I see also Comprehensive programs; Preschool programs; School- IDEA, see Individuals with Disabilities based programs; Teachers; terms Education Act beginning “Individual...” IEPs, see Individualized education plans group instruction, 90, 91, 137-138, 159, IFSP, see Individual Family Service Plan 217 Imitation, 25, 42, 44, 50, 54, 56, 58, 69, 72, incidental teaching/learning, 6, 54, 78, 73, 75, 80, 83-84, 95, 163, 218 119, 134, 150, 164, 184 echolalia, 29, 47, 49, 105, 163

302 INDEX Walden Early Childhood Programs, echolalia, 29, 47, 49, 105 79, 112, 136, 145, 146, 148-149, goals of education, 40-41, 50-51, 72 150, 153, 154, 155, 160, 161-162, IQ and age of language development, 165, 171 47, 70, 71 naturalistic teaching and learning, 15, literacy, 62-63, 78-79, 83, 91 42, 134, 142, 148, 149, 159, 184 professional education, 184 peer-mediated, 71, 72, 73-74, 77-78, 80, reading skills, 62-63, 78-79, 83, 91 81, 91, 109-110, 111, 133, 134, 138, theory of mind, 89 182, 217, 218, 221 Learning Accomplishment Profile, 74 comprehensive programs, 142, 146, Learning Experiences Alternative Program 148, 150, 157, 161, 162, 165, 171 (LEAP), 143-144, 145, 146, 148, Intelligence, 27-28, 82, 90, 108, 193 150-155 (passim), 157, 158, 160, see also Mental retardation 161-162, 163, 168-169, 206-207 Intelligence quotients (IQs), 5, 44, 70, 84-87, LEAs, see Local education authorities 88, 90, 108, 168, 170-171, 172, 184, Legal issues, 14, 175-182 201, 217 see also Legislation age factors, 47, 71, 201, 206 litigation, 176, 178, 179, 180-181, 182, Interdisciplinary approaches, 4, 7, 219 222, 224 assessment of children, 4, 23-24, 28, 30 Legislation, 176-179 committee study at hand, vii-x, 14 Americans with Disabilities Act, 179 diagnosis of autism, 23, 26, 30, 214 Education of All Handicapped Children Internet, 214, 215 Act, 1, 12 IQ, see Intelligence quotients Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), 2, 7, 13, 115, 119, 122, 124, 127, 132, 138, 176-179, 181- J 182, 216, 222, 229; see also Individualized education plans Joint attention, 5, 48, 50, 55-56, 63, 65, 123, parental advocacy, 36-37 217 Rehabilitation Act, 179 diagnosis of autism, 25 Literacy, see Reading skills cognitive development and, 83, 89 Litigation, 176, 178, 179, 180-181, 182, 222, goals of educational services, 42, 44, 73, 224 77 Local education authorities (LEAs), 222, social development and, 48, 69, 73, 77, 223 213 comprehensive programs, 165, 178, 182, 213-214, 215-216 diagnosis of autism, 23, 214 L individualized education plans (IEPs), Language factors, 1, 2, 3, 5, 12, 42, 44, 47- 178, 182, 215-216 65, 70, 87-88, 95, 118, 138-139, litigation, 180 205, 217, 219, 220 parental support by, 38, 215-216 see also Auditory perception; Longitudinal studies, 5, 9, 16-17, 42, 44, 95, Communication deficits; 210, 217 Nonverbal communication epidemiologic, 17, 24-25, 118, 125, 212- assessment of deficits, 27, 28, 29-30, 31, 213 52, 138-139, 167, 179, 215-216 augmentative and alternative communication, 51, 55, 56-63, M 136-137 Maintenance of behaviors and skills, 8, 15, comprehensive programs, 144, 145, 156- 35, 134, 135, 138, 203, 209, 221, 157, 160, 167, 168, 172 225, 227, 228 diagnosis of autism, 23, 25, 212, 214 see also Generalization of learning

INDEX 303 adaptive behaviors, 106 Neurobiological factors, vii, 1, 11, 13, 30, 68, comprehensive programs, 161, 163-164 83, 89-90, 211, 214 personnel training, 184 see also Psychomotor function; Sensory problem behaviors, interventions, 115, perception 121, 122, 125-126, 127, 128, 131 behavioral problems, 116, 117-118 professional education, 184 psychopharmaceuticals, 116, 128- social development, 72, 75, 76, 77, 78, 131, 132 80, 81 genetic, 11, 26, 30, 38-39, 117 Males, see Gender factors seizures, 30, 85, 130 Massed trials, 133 New York State Department of Health, 14 Medical considerations, 30-31, 97, 104, 116 Nonverbal communication, 5, 25, 30, 47, 48, see also Genetic factors; Neurobiological 58-59, 63-64, 69, 84, 85, 88, 95, factors 123, 214 diagnosis of autism, 26 augmentative and alternative drug treatment, 116, 128-131, 132 communication, 51, 55, 56-63 Memory, 57, 83, 85, 88, 89 comprehensive programs, 142, 144 Mental retardation, 1, 2, 27, 82, 84-85, 104, 105, 106, 125, 129, 176-177 diagnosis, 24 O professional education, 184 Methodology, see Research methodology Office of Educational Research and Improvement, 9, 208, 210, 214, Michigan Scales, 74 Minorities, see Racial and ethnic factors 228 Motor function, see Psychomotor function prevalence estimates, 25 professional education, 187, 191, 214, Multidisciplinary approaches, see Interdisciplinary approaches 226 Office of Special Education Programs, 4, 8, 9, 194, 212-213, 228 N committee charge, vii, 2, 13 Outcomes, 3, 5, 8, 9, 15, 64, 65, 71, 73-80, Naltrexone, 129 140, 151, 166-172, 193, 201-202, National Alliance for Autism Research, 205-206, 210, 216-217, 228, 229 194, 228 see also Generalization of learning; National Early Childhood Technical Independence; Maintenance of Assistance Systems, 141, 191 behaviors and skills; Recovery National Institute of Child Health and clinical trials, 6, 15-17, 90, 131, 194, 197- Human Development, 9, 194, 198, 199-201 209-210, 226, 228 goals of education, 40-44 National Institute of Mental Health, 9, 194, IQ scores, 5, 44, 70, 71, 84-87, 88, 90, 108, 209, 210, 226, 229 168, 170-171, 172, 184, 201, 206, National Institute of Neurological 217 Disorders and Stroke, 9, 194, 209, Overarousal theories, 68-69, 94 210, 229 National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, 9, P 194, 209, 210, 229 Paraprofessionals, 7-8, 145, 187, 188, 226 National Institutes of Health, 141, 146, 191, 214, 222-223 Parental factors, 4, 32-39, 66-69, 76, 105, National Resource Center for 179-180, 181-182, 199, 214-216 advocacy, 32, 36-37, 39, 146, 214-215, Paraprofessionals, 187 Naturalistic teaching and learning, 15, 42, 222 134, 142, 148, 149, 159, 184 assessment of autistic children, 27, 28, 29, 31, 52, 179, 215-216

304 INDEX behavioral problems, 3-4, 69-70, 115, diagnosis of autism, 25 116, 120, 121-122, 123 symbolic, 42, 49-50, 70-71, 75, 76-77, 82- comprehensive programs, 142, 143, 144- 83, 84 145, 146, 149, 150, 152-154, 157, Playschool Model, 142 170, 215 Policy issues, 7, 12, 19, 165, 175-182, 222- drug/nutritional treatment of children, 224 130 see also Advocacy; Federal government education of, 1, 12, 219, 226 role; Legal issues; Legislation; emotional factors, 32, 34, 39, 66-67, 153 Litigation; Standards; State gender factors, 33, 34, 37, 66, 67, 221 government role litigation by, 176, 178, 179, 180-181, 182, Posture, 94, 96, 99, 101, 182 222, 224 Preschool programs, 2, 12, 74, 89, 112, 146, local education authorities (LEAs) and, 217, 219 38, 215-216 see also Early intervention, general older children with autism, 36, 37-38, committee charge, 2, 13 78-79 comprehensive programs, 143-144, 145, sensory/motor deficits reported, 97, 146, 161, 165 105, 107 Denver Model, 80, 142, 145-146, 147, PECS, see Picture Exchange 150, 151, 153, 155-156, 157, 159, Communication System 160, 163, 164, 165, 167, 188, 189 Peer interactions, 69, 70, 75, 79, 99, 109, 112, Individualized Support Program, 116, 178-179, 213 143, 145, 146, 149, 150, 152, 153, comprehensive programs, 142, 146, 148, 154, 157-158, 160, 161, 162, 163, 150, 157, 161, 162, 165, 171 168 instructional methods, other, 71, 72, 73- Learning Experiences Alternative 74, 77-78, 80, 81, 91, 109-110, 111, Program (LEAP), 143-144, 145, 133, 134, 138, 182, 217, 218, 221 146, 148, 150-155 (passim), 157, Personal independence, see Independence 158, 160, 161-162, 163, 168-169, Personnel preparation, see Professional 206-207 education and development Prevalence, 17, 24-25, 125, 212-213 Pervasive development disorder-not Problem solving, 4, 124, 142, 163 otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), Professional education and development, 2-3, 12, 24, 113, 206, 212, 213 7-8, 72-73, 183-192, 194, 214, 224- Pervasive Developmental Disorders 226 Screening Test-II, 26, 196 clinical practice guidelines, 118-119, 167 Pharmaceuticals, see Drug treatment comprehensive programs, 154-156, 158- Picture Communication Symbols, 58 159, 167, 185, 188-189, 224-225 Picture Exchange Communication System curricula, 31, 40-41, 74, 120, 181, 186, (PECS), 59, 136, 160 219, 226 Pivotal behaviors, 34, 42, 112, 122, 134, 144- comprehensive programs, 142, 143- 153 (passim), 157, 160-163, 169 145, 149, 158, 159, 165, 189 communication, 53, 55-56 individualized education plans social development, 69, 73, 76-77, 79 (IEPs), 36, 38, 109, 118, 119, 124, Pivotal Response Model, 144, 147-153 127, 131, 154, 177-178, 180-181, (passim), 157, 161, 162, 169 182, 207, 215-216, 217, 219-221 Play, 6, 28, 29, 38, 41, 42, 48, 49, 70, 74-75, 77- medical personnel, diagnostic signs, 30 78, 79, 80, 84, 112, 122, 218, 221 paraprofessionals, 7-8, 145, 187, 188, 226 comprehensive programs, general, 142, state government role, 189, 190-191 161, 162 teachers, 7, 8, 12, 130, 182, 184-186, 189- Denver Model, comprehensive 190, 224-225 program, 80, 142, 145-146, 147, technical assistance, 8, 141, 146, 152, 150, 151, 153, 155-156, 157, 159, 184, 185, 190, 191, 223, 226 160, 163, 164, 165, 167, 188, 189

INDEX 305 Professional organizations, 4, 14, 62, 188, Research recommendations, 4, 5, 8-9, 19-20, 214, 228 39, 63-65, 81, 92, 102, 113-114, Psychomotor function, x, 15-16, 30, 83-84, 131-132, 209-210, 211-229 89-90, 93-102, 104, 109, 117, 163, (passim) 212, 218 Retardation, see Mental retardation see also Sensory perception Rett’s syndrome, 3, 12 age factors, 93, 94, 97, 110 Risperidone, 129 posture, 94, 96, 99, 101, 182 toilet training, 103, 105-106, 107, 110, 114 S Punishment, see Aversive approaches Sampling, 15, 24-25, 26, 50, 52, 64, 71, 76, 87, 194, 198, 201, 208-209, 229 Q Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised, 74 School-based programs, 7-8, 12, 31, 112, Qualitative research, 28, 30, 62, 209 115, 139, 177-179, 183-186, 216- 218 see also Local education authorities; R Preschool programs; Teachers advocacy, 37 Racial and ethnic factors, 35, 39 assessment of children, 31, 222 Reading skills, 62-63, 78-79, 83, 91 committee charge, 2, 13 Recovery, 43, 114, 166, 171, 216-217 comprehensive programs, 147, 157, 162, IQ scores, 85-87 165, 169 Recreational interventions, 144, 162, 177 curricula, 31, 40-41, 74 Rehabilitation Act, 179 diagnosis, 23, 26 Research methodology, 6, 12-13, 64-65, 75- individual instruction, 31, 73, 83, 90, 91, 76, 98, 131-132, 193-210 120, 137-138, 139, 142, 149 clinical trials, 6, 8, 15-17, 90, 131, 194, individualized education plans (IEPs), 197-198, 199-201, 204, 218-219, 36, 38, 109, 118, 119, 124, 127, 222-223 131, 154, 177-178, 180-181, 182, committee study at hand, vii, 13-20, 207, 215-216, 217, 219-221, 223 141, 148 local education authorities (LEAs), comprehensive programs, 166-172 178, 182, 215-216 controlled studies, 6, 8, 15 parental involvement, 4, 31, 33, 38, 184, epidemiology, 17, 24-25, 118, 125, 212- 223 213 School Psychology Review, 141 ethical issues, 6, 8 Screening, 4, 25-26, 27, 28, 195-197 growth curve analysis, 207-208, 210 see also Diagnosis interdisciplinary approaches, vii, 14, age factors, 4, 25, 195-197 214, 219 Screening Test for Autism in Two Year longitudinal studies, 5, 9, 16-17, 42, 44, Olds, 25, 26, 196 95, 210, 217 Secretin, 130 qualitative research, 28, 30, 62, 209 Seizures, 30, 85, 130 sampling, 15, 24-25, 26, 50, 52, 64, 71, Self-help skills, 162, 167 76, 87, 194, 198, 201, 208-209, 229 Self-injurious behavior, 49, 115, 116, 117- single-subject designs, 15, 44, 52, 56, 64, 118, 123, 125, 128-129 90, 91, 104, 111, 116, 120, 201-203, tantrums, 115, 123, 125, 145, 213 204, 205, 217, 227 Self-stimulatory behavior, 55, 105, 111, 213 standards, 8-9, 14, 16, 196-197, 198, 199, Sensory perception, x, 15-16, 42, 83-84, 89, 209-210 93-102, 110, 123, 127, 131, 176-177 validity, external, 15, 26, 52, 62, 82 see also Psychomotor function validity, internal, 15, 26, 28, 52, 98 age factors, 93, 94, 97, 110

306 INDEX assessment, 30, 212 Standards auditory perception, 30, 31-32, 42, 83, see also Outcomes 85, 98, 99-101, 123, 131, 212 assessment instruments, 25-30 (passim), visual perception, 57, 62-63, 69, 83, 85, 74, 75, 85, 88, 91, 96, 108-109, 135- 90, 94, 95, 96, 98, 100-101, 123, 136, 156-158, 167, 169, 196-197 131, 137-138, 144, 212; see also IQ scores, 5, 44, 70, 84-87, 88, 90, 108, Nonverbal communication 168, 170-171, 172, 184, 201, 217 Serotonin, 129 age factors, 47, 71, 201, 206 Sign language, see Nonverbal attachment process, 67 communication behavioral problems, response to, 115, Single-subject designs, 15, 44, 52, 56, 64, 90, 118-119, 125 91, 104, 111, 116, 120, 201-203, clinical practice guidelines, 118-119, 167 204, 205, 217, 227 committee study at hand, 14, 15 Sleeping, 107-108 comprehensive programs, 141, 155 toilet training, 103, 105-106, 107, 110, curricular, 40-41 114 fidelity of treatment, 8, 9, 91, 194, 206- Social factors, 1, 2, 5, 11, 12, 15, 66-81, 83, 207, 209, 210, 227, 228 115, 119, 212-213 goals of education, 40-44, 50-51, 71-75, see also Adaptive behavior; Behavioral 77, 212-213, 218, 221 problems; Communication policy, 175 deficits; Community factors; professional, 7, 118-119, 187, 191, 224, Cultural factors; Familial factors; 227-228 Imitation; Joint attention; research design and description, 8-9, 14, Parental factors; Peer interactions 16, 196-197, 198, 199, 209-210 adults, interactions with, general, 6, 49, State government role, 7, 14, 222-224 56, 59, 68-69, 70, 73 comprehensive programs, 146, 165 assessment, 27, 28, 52, 74-75, 212, 214 diagnosis of autism, 23 comprehensive programs, 142, 144, 148- professional education, 189, 190-191 149, 156-157, 161-162, 165, 172 Stereotypic behavior, 61, 94, 96, 97, 98, 117, developmental theory, 15-16, 31, 66-69, 118, 145, 176-177 71-72, 81, 105 Student/teacher ratios, 120, 159, 219, 220- goals of education, 40-41, 42, 71-75, 212- 221 213, 221 individual instruction, 31, 73, 83, 90, 91, historical perspectives, 66, 67, 68 120, 137-138, 139, 142, 149 incidental learning, 6, 54, 78, 119, 134, Symbol use, 29, 49, 55-56, 58, 82, 218 150, 164, 184 see also Nonverbal communication Walden Early Childhood Programs, age factors, 50, 54, 123, 160 79, 112, 136, 145, 146, 148-149, comprehensive programs, 142 150, 153, 154, 155, 160, 161-162, Symbolic play, 42, 49-50, 70-71, 75, 76-77, 165, 171 82-83, 84 interventions, general, 6, 31, 71-81, 212- System for Augmenting Language, 61 213, 216, 217, 218, 229 maintenance of behaviors, 72, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 81 T pivotal behaviors, 69, 73, 76-77, 79 Tantrums, 115, 123, 125, 145, 213 professional education, 184, 186, 187 reading skills and, 78-79, 83 TEACCH, see Treatment and Education of recreational interventions, 144, 162, 177 Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Society for Clinical Child Psychology, 14 Socioeconomic status, 35, 39 Children (TEACCH) program Spontaneous communication, see Initiation Teachers, 1, 4, 31, 114, 133, 157, 179 assessment of autistic children, 27, 31, of communication/spontaneous communication 52

INDEX 307 behavioral problems of children, 116, Treatment and Education of Autistic and 130 Related Communication communication interventions, 54-55 Handicapped Children diagnosis by, 26 (TEACCH) program, 34, 35-36, education of, 7, 8, 12, 130, 182, 184-186, 60, 80, 136-137, 144, 145, 146, 147, 189-190, 224-225 150, 151, 152, 155, 158, 160, 161, individualized education plans (IEPs), 162, 164, 169-170, 188, 189 178 parents as, 35-36, 39, 109, 144-145, 146 student/teacher ratios, 120, 159 V individual instruction, 31, 73, 83, 90, 91, 120, 137-138, 139, 142, 149 Validity, external, 15, 26, 52, 62, 82 Validity, internal, 15, 26, 28, 52, 98 Technical assistance, 8, 141, 146, 152, 184, 185, 190, 191, 223, 226 Videotapes, 94, 155, 156, 157-158, 171 Technology, assistive, see Assistive Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 74, 108-109, 169 technology Theory of mind, 83, 88-89 Visual perception, 57, 100-101, 62-63, 69, 83, Time factors, 2, 11 85, 90, 94, 95, 96, 98, 100-101, 123, 131, 137-138, 144, 212 see also Age factors behavioral problems, 116-117, 119, 120, see also Nonverbal communication 123, 134, 163 Voice output communication aid, 59-60, 61, 63 diagnosis, 3, 25, 211, 214, 219 interventions, duration and time intervals, 6, 35-36, 86, 91, 113, 119, 120, 123, 133, 134, 193, 217, W 218, 219, 220 Walden Early Childhood Programs, 79, assistive technology, 63 112, 136, 145, 146, 148-149, 150, comprehensive programs, 119, 142, 153, 154, 155, 160, 161-162, 165, 150, 151-152, 153-154, 155-156, 171 161, 163, 167-168, 170 Women, see Gender factors parental time spent with child, 34, 35- World Wide Web, see Internet 36, 152, 153 professional training, 155-156 social deficits, 31 Y variability in child over time, 86 Toilet training, 103, 105-106, 107, 110, 114 Young Autism Project, 112, 144-145, 146, Transfer of learning, see Generalization of 148, 150, 151, 153, 155, 158, 161, learning 162, 163, 170-171, 187-188, 206

Educating Children with Autism Get This Book
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Autism is a word most of us are familiar with. But do we really know what it means?

Children with autism are challenged by the most essential human behaviors. They have difficulty interacting with other people-often failing to see people as people rather than simply objects in their environment. They cannot easily communicate ideas and feelings, have great trouble imagining what others think or feel, and in some cases spend their lives speechless. They frequently find it hard to make friends or even bond with family members. Their behavior can seem bizarre.

Education is the primary form of treatment for this mysterious condition. This means that we place important responsibilities on schools, teachers and children's parents, as well as the other professionals who work with children with autism. With the passage of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1975, we accepted responsibility for educating children who face special challenges like autism. While we have since amassed a substantial body of research, researchers have not adequately communicated with one another, and their findings have not been integrated into a proven curriculum.

Educating Children with Autism outlines an interdisciplinary approach to education for children with autism. The committee explores what makes education effective for the child with autism and identifies specific characteristics of programs that work. Recommendations are offered for choosing educational content and strategies, introducing interaction with other children, and other key areas.

This book examines some fundamental issues, including:

  • How children's specific diagnoses should affect educational assessment and planning
  • How we can support the families of children with autism
  • Features of effective instructional and comprehensive programs and strategies
  • How we can better prepare teachers, school staffs, professionals, and parents to educate children with autism
  • What policies at the federal, state, and local levels will best ensure appropriate education, examining strategies and resources needed to address the rights of children with autism to appropriate education.

Children with autism present educators with one of their most difficult challenges. Through a comprehensive examination of the scientific knowledge underlying educational practices, programs, and strategies, Educating Children with Autism presents valuable information for parents, administrators, advocates, researchers, and policy makers.

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