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Educating Children with Autism (2001)

Chapter: Index

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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Educating Children with Autism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10017.
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Index

A

Adaptive behavior, 5, 12, 27, 40–41, 47, 103– 114, 116, 184, 212

see also Generalization of learning;

Maintenance of behaviors and skills

age factors, 104, 105–107, 111–113

comprehensive programs, 144, 169

independence, 5, 216, 218

professional education, 184

self-help, 5, 162, 167, 216, 218

toilet training, 103, 105–106, 107, 110, 114

Adults

see also Parental factors;

Teachers autistic, 36, 37–38, 43, 48, 71, 104, 106

behavioral problems, 117, 213

interactions with, general, 6, 49, 56, 59, 68–69, 70, 73, 76–77, 78, 80, 81, 138, 218, 219

comprehensive programs, 142, 157

Advocacy, 13, 181–182, 223

see also Litigation

parental, 32, 36–37, 39, 146, 214–215, 222

Age factors, 37–38, 71, 76–77, 84, 85, 88, 216

see also Adults;

Developmental theory and approaches;

Early intervention, general;

Peer interactions

adaptive behavior, 104, 105–107, 111–113

assessment of children, 29, 30, 74

behavior problems, 116, 117–118

communication and symbolic abilities, 50, 54, 123, 160

diagnosis, 3–4, 23, 25, 93, 94, 195–197, 212

interventions, 6, 7, 29, 43, 71, 74, 144– 145, 160, 163, 167–168, 169, 170, 171–172, 206, 207, 210, 220, 221

IQ and, 47, 71, 201, 206

older children with autism, 95, 104, 105– 106, 116, 144–145

parents of, 36, 37–38, 78–79

onset of autism, 2, 11, 211

screening, 4, 25, 195–197

sensory/motor deficits, 93, 94, 97, 110

Aggressive behavior, 49, 115, 116, 118, 125, 131, 145, 213

self-injurious behavior, 49, 115, 116, 117–118, 123, 125, 128–129

tantrums, 115, 123, 125, 145, 213

Alternative communication, see Augmentative and alternative communication

American Academy of Neurology, 14

American Psychological Association, 14

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 62, 188

Americans with Disabilities Act, 179

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Educating Children with Autism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10017.
×

Applied behavior analysis, 34, 35, 119, 120, 125–126, 131, 142, 148–149, 156, 184, 225

Asperger’s Disorder, 2, 24, 29–30, 85, 95, 212

Assessment, 2, 4, 7, 26–30, 156–158, 184–185, 211–214, 220–221

see also Diagnosis;

Outcomes;

Screening

adaptive behavior, 107–110

age factors, 29, 30, 74

behavioral problems, 118–132

applied behavior analysis, 34, 35, 119, 120, 125–126, 131, 142, 148– 149, 156, 184, 225

functional assessment, 15, 27, 48, 120, 122–124, 127, 130, 131–132, 134, 135, 213

communication and language deficits, 26, 27, 28–30, 51–52, 74, 167

comprehensive programs, 142, 144, 156– 158, 167

functional, 15, 27, 48, 120, 122–124, 127, 130, 131–132, 134, 135, 213

growth curve analysis, 207–208, 210

intelligence, 27–28, 82, 90, 108, 193

IQ scores, 5, 44, 70, 84–87, 88, 90, 108, 168, 170–171, 172, 184, 201, 217

mental retardation, 1, 2, 24, 27, 82, 84–85, 104, 105, 106, 125, 129, 176– 177, 184

language factors, 27, 28, 29–30, 31, 52, 138–139, 167, 179, 215–216

multidisciplinary, 4, 23–24, 28, 30

parental factors, 27, 28, 29–30, 31, 52, 138–139, 167, 179, 215–216

siblings of autistic children, 38–39

videotapes, 94, 155, 156, 157–158, 171

Assessment, Evaluation, and Programming System, 74

Assistive technology, 2, 3, 12, 56–57, 59–63, 103, 136, 184

Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 141

Attachment and attachment constructs, 67

Atypical autism, 3, 213

prevalence, 24

Auditory perception, 30, 31–32, 42, 83, 85, 98, 99–101, 123, 131, 212

Augmentative and alternative communication, 51, 55, 56–63, 136–137

Autism Behavior Checklist, 196

Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, 85, 196, 197

Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 197, 198

Autism Screening Questionnaire, 25–26

Autism Society of America, 188, 194, 228

Autistic Spectrum Disorders Support Systems, 223

Aversive approaches, 106, 110–111, 121–122, 123, 128, 133, 134–135, 146, 162, 163, 181

B

Battelle Developmental Inventory, 74

Bed wetting, see Toilet training

Behavioral problems, 5, 11, 12, 15, 49, 68, 69–70, 78, 104, 115–132, 194

see also Adaptive behavior;

Aggressive behavior;

Imitation;

Maintenance of behaviors and skills;

Pivotal behavior

adults, 117, 213

age factors, 116, 117–118

applied behavior analysis, 34, 35, 119, 120, 125–126, 131, 142, 148–149, 156, 184, 225

assessment, 27, 28, 30–31, 118–132

applied behavior analysis, 34, 35, 119, 120, 125–126, 131, 142, 148– 149, 156, 184, 225

functional assessment, 15, 27, 48, 120, 122–124, 127, 130, 131–132, 134, 135, 213

auditory perception and, 30–31

classification of, 115–116

clinical practice guidelines, 118–119

communication deficits and, 49, 55

comprehensive programs, 116, 119–120, 125, 143, 144–145, 146, 147–149, 150, 157, 163, 169

developmental approaches, 12, 117, 119, 126

diagnosis, 2, 3–4, 25, 196, 211–212

family/parental factors, 3–4, 69–70, 115, 116, 120, 121–122, 123

functional assessment, 15, 27, 48, 120, 122–124, 127, 130, 131–132, 134, 135, 213

interventions, general, 6, 40–41, 42–43, 68, 71–73, 78, 79–81, 110–114, 118– 137, 139, 194, 195, 210, 218

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Educating Children with Autism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10017.
×

applied behavior analysis, 34, 35, 119, 120, 125–126, 131, 142, 148– 149, 156, 184, 225

aversive approaches, 106, 110–111, 121–122, 123, 128, 133, 134–135, 146, 162, 163, 181

drug treatment, 116, 128–131

functional assessment, 15, 27, 48, 120, 122–124, 127, 130, 131–132, 134, 135, 213

incidental learning, 6, 54, 78, 119, 134, 150, 164, 184

Walden Early Childhood Programs, 79, 112, 136, 145, 146, 148–149, 150, 153, 154, 155, 160, 161–162, 162, 165, 171

naturalistic teaching and learning, 15, 42, 134, 142, 148, 149, 159, 184

professional education, 183, 184

neurobiological factors, 116, 117–118

self-injurious behavior, 49, 115, 116, 117–118, 123, 125, 128–129

self-stimulatory behavior, 55, 105, 111, 213

sleeping, 107–108

toilet training, 103, 105–106, 107, 110, 114

stereotypic behavior, 61, 94, 96, 97, 98, 117, 118, 145, 176–177

tantrums, 115, 123, 125, 145, 213

teachers response to, 116, 130

time factors, 116–117, 119, 120, 123, 134, 163

Boys, see Gender factors

Brain, see Neurobiological factors

C

CARS, see Childhood Autism Rating Scale

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 208

Central coherence theory, 89

Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT), 25, 26, 196

Child-centered approaches, 63

Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), 27, 156, 169, 196, 197

Childhood disintegrative disorder, 3, 12, 213

Children’s Unit, 142, 146, 148, 150, 154, 155, 158, 161, 163–164, 165, 167

Classification issues, 2–3, 13, 25, 27–28, 69, 176–177

see also Assessment;

Diagnosis

behavioral problems, 115–116

features of autism, 11–12, 212

historical perspectives, 31, 32–33, 47

The Clinical Practice Guidelines for Autism/ Persuasive Development Disorders, 118–119

Clinical trials, 6, 8, 15–17, 90, 131, 194, 197– 198, 199–201, 204, 218–219, 222– 223

Clonidine, 129

Cognitive deficits, 5, 82–92, 212

see also Communication deficits;

Language factors

comprehensive programs, 142, 144, 145, 156–157, 162, 168–169, 172

Denver Model, 80, 142, 145–146, 147, 150, 153, 155–156, 157, 159, 160, 163, 164, 165, 167, 188, 189

executive functioning, 84, 89

intelligence, 27–28, 82, 90, 108, 193

see also Mental retardation

intelligence quotients (IQs), 5, 44, 70, 84–87, 88, 90, 108, 168, 170–171, 172, 184, 201, 217

age factors, 47, 71, 201, 206

interventions, general, 6, 86, 90–92, 220, 229

joint attention and, 83, 89

memory, 57, 83, 85, 88, 89

reading skills, 62–63, 78–79, 83, 91

Collaborative Program for Excellence in Autism, 209

Communication deficits, 1, 5, 12, 47–65, 71, 79, 83, 105, 115, 205

see also Auditory perception;

Joint attention;

Language factors;

Social factors

age factors, 50, 54, 123, 160

assessment, 26, 27, 28–30, 51–52, 74, 167

augmentative and alternative communication, 51, 55, 56–63, 136–137

communication training, 121

comprehensive programs, 142, 144, 149, 160, 162, 167

diagnosis, 25, 26, 47, 212

facilitated communication, 61–62

familial factors, 47

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Educating Children with Autism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10017.
×

functional communication, 49–50, 61–62, 64–65, 123, 160, 221

initiation of communication/ spontaneous communication, 6, 41, 47, 48, 49, 53, 54, 55, 64, 70, 71, 161, 169, 204, 221

goals of education, 40–41, 50–51, 72

historical perspectives, 47, 48

nonverbal communication, 3, 5, 25, 30, 47, 48, 58–59, 63–64, 69, 84, 85, 88, 95, 123, 214

augmentative and alternative communication, 51, 55, 56–63

comprehensive programs, 142, 144

pivotal behaviors, 53, 55–56

professional education, 184, 185

spontaneous, 6, 41, 47, 48, 49, 53, 54, 55, 64, 70, 71, 161, 169, 204, 221

symbol use, 29, 49, 50, 54, 55–56, 58, 82, 123, 142, 160, 218

symbolic play, 42, 49–50, 70–71, 76–77

voice output communication aid, 59–60, 63

Communication Participation Model, 57

Community factors, 1, 11, 15, 32, 199

Denver Model, 80, 142, 145–146, 147, 150, 153, 155–156, 157, 159, 160, 163, 164, 165, 167, 188, 189

interventions, general, 5, 7, 9, 218

Comprehensive programs, 17–18, 55–56, 133, 140–172, 204–205, 206–207

adaptive behavior, 144, 169

assessment, 142, 144, 156–158, 167

videotapes, 155, 156, 157–158, 171

behavioral problems, 116, 119–120, 125, 143, 144–145, 146, 147–149, 150, 157, 163, 169;

see also Children’s Unit;

Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center;

Young Autism Project

Children’s Unit, 142, 146, 148, 150, 154, 155, 158, 161, 163–164, 165, 167

cognitive development, 142, 144, 145, 156–157, 162, 168–169, 172

Denver Model, 80, 142, 145–146, 147, 150, 153, 155–156, 157, 159, 160, 163, 164, 165, 167, 188, 189

communication deficits, 142, 144, 149, 160, 162, 167

cost factors, 153, 155, 172

curricula, 142, 143–145, 149, 158, 159, 165, 189

developmental theory and approaches, 144, 147–148, 149, 164

Denver Model, 80, 142, 145–146, 147, 150, 151, 153, 155–156, 157, 159, 160, 163, 164, 165, 167, 188, 189

Developmental Intervention Model, 142, 145, 147, 148, 150, 152, 153, 156–157, 160–161, 164, 168

discrete trials, 112, 141, 143, 144–145, 147, 148, 150, 163–164, 170

Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, 112, 143, 146, 148, 150, 151, 153, 154, 160, 164, 165, 167– 168

emotional factors, 142, 144, 148, 156–157

familial/parental factors, 142, 143, 144– 145, 149, 150, 152–154, 157, 170, 215

funding, 141, 143, 146

historical perspectives, 144, 146–147

individualized attention, general, 142, 159, 164–165

Individualized Support Program, 143, 145, 146, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 157–158, 160, 161, 162, 163, 168

language factors, 144, 145, 156–157, 160, 167, 168, 172

Learning Experiences Alternative Program (LEAP), 143–144, 145, 146, 148, 150–155 (passim), 157, 158, 160, 161–162, 163, 168–169, 206–207

local education authorities (LEAs), 165, 178, 182, 213–214, 215–216

peer interactions, 142, 146, 148, 150, 157, 161, 162, 165, 171

Pivotal Response Model, 144, 147–153 (passim), 157, 161, 162, 169

play, 142, 161, 162

preschool programs, 143–144, 145, 146, 161, 165

Denver Model, 80, 142, 145–146, 147, 150, 151, 153, 155–156, 157, 159, 160, 163, 164, 165, 167, 188, 189

Individualized Support Program, 143, 145, 146, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 157–158, 160, 161, 162, 163, 168

Learning Experiences (LEAP), 143– 144, 145, 146, 148, 150–155 (passim), 157, 158, 160, 161–162, 163, 168–169, 206–207

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Educating Children with Autism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10017.
×

professional education, 154–156, 158– 159, 167, 185, 188–189, 224–225

school-based programs, 147, 157, 162, 165, 169;

see also “preschool programs” supra

social factors, general, 142, 144, 148–149, 156–157, 161–162, 165, 172

standards, 141, 155

state government role, 146, 165

time factors, 119, 142, 150, 151–152, 153– 154, 155–156, 161, 163, 167–168, 170

Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH) program, 34, 35–36, 60, 80, 136–137, 144, 145, 146, 147, 150, 151, 152, 155, 158, 160, 161, 162, 164, 169–170, 188, 189

Walden Early Childhood Programs, 79, 112, 136, 145, 146, 148–149, 150, 153, 154, 155, 160, 161–162, 165, 171

Young Autism Project, 112, 144–145, 146, 148, 150, 151, 153, 155, 158, 161, 162, 163, 170–171, 187–188, 206

Computer applications

assistive learning technologies, 2, 3, 12, 56–57, 59–63, 91–92, 103, 136, 184

voice output communication aid, 59– 60, 61, 63

comprehensive programs, 157, 167

Internet, 214, 215

Core deficits, 5, 43, 47, 48–50, 54, 55–56, 63, 89, 128, 162

see also Communication deficits;

Joint attention

Cost and cost-effectiveness factors, 90, 180, 182

committee study methodology, 19

comprehensive programs, 153, 155, 172

family financial support, 153, 222

Council for Exceptional Children, 191

Court cases, see Litigation Creative Curriculum, 158

Cultural factors, familial, 34–35

Cure Autism Now, 194, 228

Curricula, 31, 40–41, 74, 120, 181, 186, 219, 226

comprehensive programs, 142, 143–145, 149, 158, 159, 165, 189

individualized education plans (IEPs), 36, 38, 109, 118, 119, 124, 127, 131, 154, 177–178, 180–181, 182, 207, 215–216, 217, 219–221

D

Delivering Individualized Support for Young Children with Autism, 191

Denver Model, 80, 142, 145–146, 147, 150, 151, 153, 155–156, 157, 159, 160, 163, 164, 165, 167, 188, 189

Department of Education, 141

see also Office of Educational Research and Improvement;

Office of Special Education Programs

Department of Health and Human Services, see Centers for Disease Control and Prevention;

terms beginning “National Institute…”

Developmental, Individual Difference, Relationship-Based Model, 158

Developmental Intervention Model, 142, 145, 147, 148, 150, 152, 153, 156– 157, 160–161, 164, 168

Developmental theory and approaches, vii, x, 2–3, 6, 11–12, 13, 19, 82–92, 105– 106, 135–136, 203–204, 210, 213, 220

see also Age factors;

Cognitive deficits;

Language factors;

Mental retardation

atypical autism, 3, 24, 213

auditory perception, 31

behavioral problems, 12, 117, 119, 126

communication and symbolic abilities, 50, 51, 53–54

comprehensive programs, 144, 147–148, 149, 164

Denver Model, 80, 142, 145–146, 147, 150, 151, 153, 155–156, 157, 159, 160, 163, 164, 165, 167, 188, 189

Developmental Intervention Model, 142, 145, 147, 148, 150, 152, 153, 156–157, 160–161, 164, 168

pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), 2–3, 12, 24, 113, 206, 212, 213

social development, 15–16, 31, 66–69, 71– 72, 81, 105

state-funded programs, 23

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Educating Children with Autism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10017.
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Diagnosis, 2–4, 11, 13, 16, 23–24, 25–26, 30, 85, 93, 94, 104–105, 195–197, 210, 211–214, 227

see also Assessment;

Screening

age factors, 3–4, 23, 25, 93, 94, 195–197, 212

behavioral problems, 2, 3–4, 25, 196, 211–212

communication deficits, 25, 26, 47, 212

language factors, 23, 25, 212, 214

multidisciplinary, 23, 26, 30, 214

time factors, 3, 25, 211, 214, 219

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), 197

Discrete trials, 6, 122, 133–134, 137, 219

communication skills, 50, 53, 54, 64

comprehensive programs, 112, 141, 143, 144–145, 147, 148, 150, 163–164, 170

defined, 133

professional training, 187

Young Autism Project, 112, 144–145, 146, 148, 150

Dopamine, 118

Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, 112, 143, 146, 148, 150, 151, 153, 154, 160, 164, 165, 167– 168

Drug treatment, 116, 128–131, 132

DSM-IV, see Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

E

Early intervention, general, vii, 6, 7, 9, 12, 37, 38, 123, 221, 222

see also Preschool programs

assessment, 29, 30, 196

committee charge and methodology, 2, 13–14, 20

comprehensive programs, 143–144, 145, 146–147, 151, 162, 165, 166, 171– 172

diagnosis, 4, 23

drug treatments, 129

goals of, 41–42, 43

personnel education, 7, 8, 190

Early Intervention Profile and Preschool Profile, 157, 167

Echolalia, 29, 47, 49, 105, 163

Education of All Handicapped Children Act, 1, 12

Electroencephalograms, 30

Emotional factors, 1, 61, 66–67, 69, 79

attachment constructs, 67

comprehensive programs, 142, 144, 148, 156–157

parental, 32, 34, 39, 66–67, 153

Epidemiology

behavioral problems, 118

prevalence, 17, 24–25, 125, 212–213

Ethical issues, 6, 8

Ethnicity, see Racial and ethnic factors

Executive functioning, 84, 89

F

Facilitated communication, 61–62

Familial factors, 3–4, 6, 32–39, 214–216, 218– 219, 223

see also Parental factors

behavioral problems, 3–4, 69–70, 115, 116, 120, 121–122, 123

comprehensive programs, 142, 143, 144– 145, 149, 150, 152–154, 157, 170, 215

genetic/neurological, 11, 26, 30, 38–39, 117

professional development, 8, 226, 229

research design and description, 8–9, 198–199, 205–206, 229

Federal government role, 7, 9, 13, 190–191, 222–224

see also Funding;

Legislation;

specific departments and agencies

Federal Interageny Coordinating Council, 222–223

Females, see Gender factors

Fidelity of treatment, 8, 9, 91, 194, 206–207, 209, 210, 227, 228

Functional behavioral assessment, 15, 27, 48, 120, 122–124, 127, 130, 131– 132, 134, 135, 213

Functional communication, 49–50, 61–62, 64–65, 123, 160, 221

initiation of communication/ spontaneous communication, 6, 41, 47, 48, 49, 53, 54, 55, 64, 70, 71, 161, 169, 204, 221

Functional Emotional Assessment Scale, 156–157

Funding, 7, 9, 23, 175, 182, 195, 210, 223, 224, 226, 227–228, 229

comprehensive programs, 141, 143, 146

professional development, 8, 187, 188, 189, 191

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Educating Children with Autism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10017.
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G

Gender factors

IQ scores, 85

parents of autistic children, 33, 34, 37, 66, 67, 221

prevalence of autism, 24

Generalization of learning, 5, 8, 35, 43, 64, 77, 108, 138, 139, 163–164, 184, 203, 216, 221

see also Maintenance of behaviors and skills

Genetic factors, 11, 26, 30, 38–39, 117

Gilliam Autism Rating Scale, 196

Girls, see Gender factors

Government role, see Federal government role;

Legislation;

State government role

Governor’s Council for Developmental Disabilities, 223

Group instruction, 90, 91, 137–138, 159, 217

Growth curve analysis, 207–208, 210

H

Haloperidol, 129

Hearing, see Auditory perception

Heterogeneity, 2, 47–48, 69–71, 86, 186, 193, 197, 201, 207, 208, 211, 217

see also terms beginning “Individ…”

Hierarchical linear modeling, 207–208, 210

Historical perspectives

behavioral problems, 120

cognitive development, 82

communication deficits, 47, 48

comprehensive programs, 144, 146–147

definition/explanation of autism, 31, 32–33, 47

litigation, 176, 178, 179, 180–181, 182, 222, 224

prevalence of autism, 24

social development issues, 66, 67, 68

I

IDEA, see Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

IEPs, see Individualized education plans

IFSP, see Individual Family Service Plan

Imitation, 25, 42, 44, 50, 54, 56, 58, 69, 72, 73, 75, 80, 83–84, 95, 163, 218

echolalia, 29, 47, 49, 105, 163

Incidental learning, 6, 54, 78, 119, 134, 150, 164, 184

Walden Early Childhood Programs, 79, 112, 136, 145, 146, 148–149, 150, 153, 154, 155, 160, 161–162, 165, 171

Independence, 5, 216, 218

see also Generalization of learning;

Maintenance of behaviors and skills

problem solving, 4, 124, 142, 163

self-help skills, 162, 167

toilet training, 103, 105–106, 107, 110, 114

Individual differences, see Heterogeneity

Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP), 36, 178, 180–181, 217

Individual instruction, 31, 73, 83, 90, 91, 120, 137–138, 139, 142, 149

Individualized attention, 4, 6, 7, 31, 34, 144, 149, 153, 219, 220, 221

comprehensive programs, 142, 159, 164– 165

drug treatment and, 129

Individualized education plans (IEPs), 36, 38, 109, 118, 119, 124, 127, 131, 154, 177–178, 180–181, 182, 207, 215–216, 217, 219–221, 223

local education authorities (LEAs), 178, 182, 215–216

Individualized Support Program, 143, 145, 146, 149, 150, 152, 153, 154, 157– 158, 160, 161, 162, 163, 168

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), 2, 7, 13, 115, 119, 122, 124, 127, 132, 138, 176–179, 181– 182, 216, 222, 229

see also Individualized education plans

Infants and Young Children, 141

Initiation of communication/spontaneous communication, 6, 41, 47, 48, 49, 53, 54, 55, 64, 70, 71, 161, 169, 204, 221

Instructional strategies, 17–18, 78–81, 90–92, 112–114, 133–139, 216–218, 227

see also Comprehensive programs;

Preschool programs;

School-based programs;

Teachers;

terms beginning “Individual…”

group instruction, 90, 91, 137–138, 159, 217

incidental teaching/learning, 6, 54, 78, 119, 134, 150, 164, 184

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Educating Children with Autism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10017.
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Walden Early Childhood Programs, 79, 112, 136, 145, 146, 148–149, 150, 153, 154, 155, 160, 161–162, 165, 171

naturalistic teaching and learning, 15, 42, 134, 142, 148, 149, 159, 184

peer-mediated, 71, 72, 73–74, 77–78, 80, 81, 91, 109–110, 111, 133, 134, 138, 182, 217, 218, 221

comprehensive programs, 142, 146, 148, 150, 157, 161, 162, 165, 171

Intelligence, 27–28, 82, 90, 108, 193

see also Mental retardation

Intelligence quotients (IQs), 5, 44, 70, 84–87, 88, 90, 108, 168, 170–171, 172, 184, 201, 217

age factors, 47, 71, 201, 206

Interdisciplinary approaches, 4, 7, 219

assessment of children, 4, 23–24, 28, 30

committee study at hand, vii–x, 14

diagnosis of autism, 23, 26, 30, 214

Internet, 214, 215

IQ, see Intelligence quotients

J

Joint attention, 5, 48, 50, 55–56, 63, 65, 123, 217

diagnosis of autism, 25

cognitive development and, 83, 89

goals of educational services, 42, 44, 73, 77

social development and, 48, 69, 73, 77, 213

L

Language factors, 1, 2, 3, 5, 12, 42, 44, 47– 65, 70, 87–88, 95, 118, 138–139, 205, 217, 219, 220

see also Auditory perception;

Communication deficits;

Nonverbal communication

assessment of deficits, 27, 28, 29–30, 31, 52, 138–139, 167, 179, 215–216

augmentative and alternative communication, 51, 55, 56–63, 136–137

comprehensive programs, 144, 145, 156– 157, 160, 167, 168, 172

diagnosis of autism, 23, 25, 212, 214

echolalia, 29, 47, 49, 105

goals of education, 40–41, 50–51, 72

IQ and age of language development, 47, 70, 71

literacy, 62–63, 78–79, 83, 91

professional education, 184

reading skills, 62–63, 78–79, 83, 91

theory of mind, 89

Learning Accomplishment Profile, 74

Learning Experiences Alternative Program (LEAP), 143–144, 145, 146, 148, 150–155 (passim), 157, 158, 160, 161–162, 163, 168–169, 206–207

LEAs, see Local education authorities

Legal issues, 14, 175–182

see also Legislation

litigation, 176, 178, 179, 180–181, 182, 222, 224

Legislation, 176–179

Americans with Disabilities Act, 179

Education of All Handicapped Children Act, 1, 12

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), 2, 7, 13, 115, 119, 122, 124, 127, 132, 138, 176–179, 181– 182, 216, 222, 229;

see also Individualized education plans

parental advocacy, 36–37

Rehabilitation Act, 179

Literacy, see Reading skills

Litigation, 176, 178, 179, 180–181, 182, 222, 224

Local education authorities (LEAs), 222, 223

comprehensive programs, 165, 178, 182, 213–214, 215–216

diagnosis of autism, 23, 214

individualized education plans (IEPs), 178, 182, 215–216

litigation, 180

parental support by, 38, 215–216

Longitudinal studies, 5, 9, 16–17, 42, 44, 95, 210, 217

epidemiologic, 17, 24–25, 118, 125, 212– 213

M

Maintenance of behaviors and skills, 8, 15, 35, 134, 135, 138, 203, 209, 221, 225, 227, 228

see also Generalization of learning

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Educating Children with Autism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10017.
×

adaptive behaviors, 106

comprehensive programs, 161, 163–164

personnel training, 184

problem behaviors, interventions, 115, 121, 122, 125–126, 127, 128, 131

professional education, 184

social development, 72, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 81

Males, see Gender factors

Massed trials, 133

Medical considerations, 30–31, 97, 104, 116

see also Genetic factors;

Neurobiological factors

diagnosis of autism, 26

drug treatment, 116, 128–131, 132

Memory, 57, 83, 85, 88, 89

Mental retardation, 1, 2, 27, 82, 84–85, 104, 105, 106, 125, 129, 176–177

diagnosis, 24

professional education, 184

Methodology, see Research methodology

Michigan Scales, 74

Minorities, see Racial and ethnic factors

Motor function, see Psychomotor function

Multidisciplinary approaches, see Interdisciplinary approaches

N

Naltrexone, 129

National Alliance for Autism Research, 194, 228

National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Systems, 141, 191

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 9, 194, 209–210, 226, 228

National Institute of Mental Health, 9, 194, 209, 210, 226, 229

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 9, 194, 209, 210, 229

National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, 9, 194, 209, 210, 229

National Institutes of Health, 141, 146, 191, 214, 222–223

National Resource Center for Paraprofessionals, 187

Naturalistic teaching and learning, 15, 42, 134, 142, 148, 149, 159, 184

Neurobiological factors, vii, 1, 11, 13, 30, 68, 83, 89–90, 211, 214

see also Psychomotor function;

Sensory perception

behavioral problems, 116, 117–118

psychopharmaceuticals, 116, 128– 131, 132

genetic, 11, 26, 30, 38–39, 117

seizures, 30, 85, 130

New York State Department of Health, 14

Nonverbal communication, 5, 25, 30, 47, 48, 58–59, 63–64, 69, 84, 85, 88, 95, 123, 214

augmentative and alternative communication, 51, 55, 56–63

comprehensive programs, 142, 144

O

Office of Educational Research and Improvement, 9, 208, 210, 214, 228

prevalence estimates, 25

professional education, 187, 191, 214, 226

Office of Special Education Programs, 4, 8, 9, 194, 212–213, 228

committee charge, vii, 2, 13

Outcomes, 3, 5, 8, 9, 15, 64, 65, 71, 73–80, 140, 151, 166–172, 193, 201–202, 205–206, 210, 216–217, 228, 229

see also Generalization of learning;

Independence;

Maintenance of behaviors and skills;

Recovery

clinical trials, 6, 15–17, 90, 131, 194, 197– 198, 199–201

goals of education, 40–44

IQ scores, 5, 44, 70, 71, 84–87, 88, 90, 108, 168, 170–171, 172, 184, 201, 206, 217

Overarousal theories, 68–69, 94

P

Paraprofessionals, 7–8, 145, 187, 188, 226

Parental factors, 4, 32–39, 66–69, 76, 105, 179–180, 181–182, 199, 214–216

advocacy, 32, 36–37, 39, 146, 214–215, 222

assessment of autistic children, 27, 28, 29, 31, 52, 179, 215–216

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Educating Children with Autism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10017.
×

behavioral problems, 3–4, 69–70, 115, 116, 120, 121–122, 123

comprehensive programs, 142, 143, 144– 145, 146, 149, 150, 152–154, 157, 170, 215

drug/nutritional treatment of children, 130

education of, 1, 12, 219, 226

emotional factors, 32, 34, 39, 66–67, 153

gender factors, 33, 34, 37, 66, 67, 221

litigation by, 176, 178, 179, 180–181, 182, 222, 224

local education authorities (LEAs) and, 38, 215–216

older children with autism, 36, 37–38, 78–79

sensory/motor deficits reported, 97, 105, 107

PECS, see Picture Exchange Communication System

Peer interactions, 69, 70, 75, 79, 99, 109, 112, 116, 178–179, 213

comprehensive programs, 142, 146, 148, 150, 157, 161, 162, 165, 171

instructional methods, other, 71, 72, 73– 74, 77–78, 80, 81, 91, 109–110, 111, 133, 134, 138, 182, 217, 218, 221

Personal independence, see Independence

Personnel preparation, see Professional education and development

Pervasive development disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), 2–3, 12, 24, 113, 206, 212, 213

Pervasive Developmental Disorders Screening Test-II, 26, 196

Pharmaceuticals, see Drug treatment

Picture Communication Symbols, 58

Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS), 59, 136, 160

Pivotal behaviors, 34, 42, 112, 122, 134, 144– 153 (passim), 157, 160–163, 169

communication, 53, 55–56

social development, 69, 73, 76–77, 79

Pivotal Response Model, 144, 147–153 (passim), 157, 161, 162, 169

Play, 6, 28, 29, 38, 41, 42, 48, 49, 70, 74–75, 77– 78, 79, 80, 84, 112, 122, 218, 221

comprehensive programs, general, 142, 161, 162

Denver Model, comprehensive program, 80, 142, 145–146, 147, 150, 151, 153, 155–156, 157, 159, 160, 163, 164, 165, 167, 188, 189

diagnosis of autism, 25

symbolic, 42, 49–50, 70–71, 75, 76–77, 82– 83, 84

Playschool Model, 142

Policy issues, 7, 12, 19, 165, 175–182, 222– 224

see also Advocacy;

Federal government role;

Legal issues;

Legislation;

Litigation;

Standards;

State government role

Posture, 94, 96, 99, 101, 182

Preschool programs, 2, 12, 74, 89, 112, 146, 217, 219

see also Early intervention, general

committee charge, 2, 13

comprehensive programs, 143–144, 145, 146, 161, 165

Denver Model, 80, 142, 145–146, 147, 150, 151, 153, 155–156, 157, 159, 160, 163, 164, 165, 167, 188, 189

Individualized Support Program, 143, 145, 146, 149, 150, 152, 153, 154, 157–158, 160, 161, 162, 163, 168

Learning Experiences Alternative Program (LEAP), 143–144, 145, 146, 148, 150–155 (passim), 157, 158, 160, 161–162, 163, 168–169, 206–207

Prevalence, 17, 24–25, 125, 212–213

Problem solving, 4, 124, 142, 163

Professional education and development, 7–8, 72–73, 183–192, 194, 214, 224– 226

clinical practice guidelines, 118–119, 167

comprehensive programs, 154–156, 158– 159, 167, 185, 188–189, 224–225

curricula, 31, 40–41, 74, 120, 181, 186, 219, 226

comprehensive programs, 142, 143– 145, 149, 158, 159, 165, 189

individualized education plans (IEPs), 36, 38, 109, 118, 119, 124, 127, 131, 154, 177–178, 180–181, 182, 207, 215–216, 217, 219–221

medical personnel, diagnostic signs, 30

paraprofessionals, 7–8, 145, 187, 188, 226

state government role, 189, 190–191

teachers, 7, 8, 12, 130, 182, 184–186, 189– 190, 224–225

technical assistance, 8, 141, 146, 152, 184, 185, 190, 191, 223, 226

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Educating Children with Autism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10017.
×

Professional organizations, 4, 14, 62, 188, 214, 228

Psychomotor function, x, 15–16, 30, 83–84, 89–90, 93–102, 104, 109, 117, 163, 212, 218

see also Sensory perception

age factors, 93, 94, 97, 110

posture, 94, 96, 99, 101, 182

toilet training, 103, 105–106, 107, 110, 114

Punishment, see Aversive approaches

Q

Qualitative research, 28, 30, 62, 209

R

Racial and ethnic factors, 35, 39

Reading skills, 62–63, 78–79, 83, 91

Recovery, 43, 114, 166, 171, 216–217

IQ scores, 85–87

Recreational interventions, 144, 162, 177

Rehabilitation Act, 179

Research methodology, 6, 12–13, 64–65, 75– 76, 98, 131–132, 193–210

clinical trials, 6, 8, 15–17, 90, 131, 194, 197–198, 199–201, 204, 218–219, 222–223

committee study at hand, vii, 13–20, 141, 148

comprehensive programs, 166–172

controlled studies, 6, 8, 15

epidemiology, 17, 24–25, 118, 125, 212– 213

ethical issues, 6, 8

growth curve analysis, 207–208, 210

interdisciplinary approaches, vii, 14, 214, 219

longitudinal studies, 5, 9, 16–17, 42, 44, 95, 210, 217

qualitative research, 28, 30, 62, 209

sampling, 15, 24–25, 26, 50, 52, 64, 71, 76, 87, 194, 198, 201, 208–209, 229

single-subject designs, 15, 44, 52, 56, 64, 90, 91, 104, 111, 116, 120, 201–203, 204, 205, 217, 227

standards, 8–9, 14, 16, 196–197, 198, 199, 209–210

validity, external, 15, 26, 52, 62, 82

validity, internal, 15, 26, 28, 52, 98

Research recommendations, 4, 5, 8–9, 19–20, 39, 63–65, 81, 92, 102, 113–114, 131–132, 209–210, 211–229 (passim)

Retardation, see Mental retardation

Rett’s syndrome, 3, 12

Risperidone, 129

S

Sampling, 15, 24–25, 26, 50, 52, 64, 71, 76, 87, 194, 198, 201, 208–209, 229

Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised, 74

School-based programs, 7–8, 12, 31, 112, 115, 139, 177–179, 183–186, 216– 218

see also Local education authorities;

Preschool programs;

Teachers

advocacy, 37

assessment of children, 31, 222

committee charge, 2, 13

comprehensive programs, 147, 157, 162, 165, 169

curricula, 31, 40–41, 74

diagnosis, 23, 26

individual instruction, 31, 73, 83, 90, 91, 120, 137–138, 139, 142, 149

individualized education plans (IEPs), 36, 38, 109, 118, 119, 124, 127, 131, 154, 177–178, 180–181, 182, 207, 215–216, 217, 219–221, 223

local education authorities (LEAs), 178, 182, 215–216

parental involvement, 4, 31, 33, 38, 184, 223

School Psychology Review, 141

Screening, 4, 25–26, 27, 28, 195–197

see also Diagnosis

age factors, 4, 25, 195–197

Screening Test for Autism in Two Year Olds, 25, 26, 196

Secretin, 130

Seizures, 30, 85, 130

Self-help skills, 162, 167

Self-injurious behavior, 49, 115, 116, 117– 118, 123, 125, 128–129

tantrums, 115, 123, 125, 145, 213

Self-stimulatory behavior, 55, 105, 111, 213

Sensory perception, x, 15–16, 42, 83–84, 89, 93–102, 110, 123, 127, 131, 176–177

see also Psychomotor function

age factors, 93, 94, 97, 110

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Educating Children with Autism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10017.
×

assessment, 30, 212

auditory perception, 30, 31–32, 42, 83, 85, 98, 99–101, 123, 131, 212

visual perception, 57, 62–63, 69, 83, 85, 90, 94, 95, 96, 98, 100–101, 123, 131, 137–138, 144, 212;

see also Nonverbal communication

Serotonin, 129

Sign language, see Nonverbal communication

Single-subject designs, 15, 44, 52, 56, 64, 90, 91, 104, 111, 116, 120, 201–203, 204, 205, 217, 227

Sleeping, 107–108

toilet training, 103, 105–106, 107, 110, 114

Social factors, 1, 2, 5, 11, 12, 15, 66–81, 83, 115, 119, 212–213

see also Adaptive behavior;

Behavioral problems;

Communication deficits;

Community factors;

Cultural factors;

Familial factors;

Imitation;

Joint attention;

Parental factors;

Peer interactions

adults, interactions with, general, 6, 49, 56, 59, 68–69, 70, 73

assessment, 27, 28, 52, 74–75, 212, 214

comprehensive programs, 142, 144, 148– 149, 156–157, 161–162, 165, 172

developmental theory, 15–16, 31, 66–69, 71–72, 81, 105

goals of education, 40–41, 42, 71–75, 212– 213, 221

historical perspectives, 66, 67, 68

incidental learning, 6, 54, 78, 119, 134, 150, 164, 184

Walden Early Childhood Programs, 79, 112, 136, 145, 146, 148–149, 150, 153, 154, 155, 160, 161–162, 165, 171

interventions, general, 6, 31, 71–81, 212– 213, 216, 217, 218, 229

maintenance of behaviors, 72, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 81

pivotal behaviors, 69, 73, 76–77, 79

professional education, 184, 186, 187

reading skills and, 78–79, 83

recreational interventions, 144, 162, 177

Society for Clinical Child Psychology, 14

Socioeconomic status, 35, 39

Spontaneous communication, see Initiation of communication/spontaneous communication

Standards

see also Outcomes

assessment instruments, 25–30 (passim), 74, 75, 85, 88, 91, 96, 108–109, 135– 136, 156–158, 167, 169, 196–197

IQ scores, 5, 44, 70, 84–87, 88, 90, 108, 168, 170–171, 172, 184, 201, 217

age factors, 47, 71, 201, 206

attachment process, 67

behavioral problems, response to, 115, 118–119, 125

clinical practice guidelines, 118–119, 167

committee study at hand, 14, 15

comprehensive programs, 141, 155

curricular, 40–41

fidelity of treatment, 8, 9, 91, 194, 206– 207, 209, 210, 227, 228

goals of education, 40–44, 50–51, 71–75, 77, 212–213, 218, 221

policy, 175

professional, 7, 118–119, 187, 191, 224, 227–228

research design and description, 8–9, 14, 16, 196–197, 198, 199, 209–210

State government role, 7, 14, 222–224

comprehensive programs, 146, 165

diagnosis of autism, 23

professional education, 189, 190–191

Stereotypic behavior, 61, 94, 96, 97, 98, 117, 118, 145, 176–177

Student/teacher ratios, 120, 159, 219, 220– 221

individual instruction, 31, 73, 83, 90, 91, 120, 137–138, 139, 142, 149

Symbol use, 29, 49, 55–56, 58, 82, 218

see also Nonverbal communication

age factors, 50, 54, 123, 160

comprehensive programs, 142

Symbolic play, 42, 49–50, 70–71, 75, 76–77, 82–83, 84

System for Augmenting Language, 61

T

Tantrums, 115, 123, 125, 145, 213

TEACCH, see Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH) program

Teachers, 1, 4, 31, 114, 133, 157, 179

assessment of autistic children, 27, 31, 52

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Educating Children with Autism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10017.
×

behavioral problems of children, 116, 130

communication interventions, 54–55

diagnosis by, 26

education of, 7, 8, 12, 130, 182, 184–186, 189–190, 224–225

individualized education plans (IEPs), 178

parents as, 35–36, 39, 109, 144–145, 146

student/teacher ratios, 120, 159

individual instruction, 31, 73, 83, 90, 91, 120, 137–138, 139, 142, 149

Technical assistance, 8, 141, 146, 152, 184, 185, 190, 191, 223, 226

Technology, assistive, see Assistive technology

Theory of mind, 83, 88–89

Time factors, 2, 11

see also Age factors

behavioral problems, 116–117, 119, 120, 123, 134, 163

diagnosis, 3, 25, 211, 214, 219

interventions, duration and time intervals, 6, 35–36, 86, 91, 113, 119, 120, 123, 133, 134, 193, 217, 218, 219, 220

assistive technology, 63

comprehensive programs, 119, 142, 150, 151–152, 153–154, 155–156, 161, 163, 167–168, 170

parental time spent with child, 34, 35– 36, 152, 153

professional training, 155–156

social deficits, 31

variability in child over time, 86

Toilet training, 103, 105–106, 107, 110, 114

Transfer of learning, see Generalization of learning

Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH) program, 34, 35–36, 60, 80, 136–137, 144, 145, 146, 147, 150, 151, 152, 155, 158, 160, 161, 162, 164, 169–170, 188, 189

V

Validity, external, 15, 26, 52, 62, 82

Validity, internal, 15, 26, 28, 52, 98

Videotapes, 94, 155, 156, 157–158, 171

Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 74, 108–109, 169

Visual perception, 57, 100–101, 62–63, 69, 83, 85, 90, 94, 95, 96, 98, 100–101, 123, 131, 137–138, 144, 212

see also Nonverbal communication

Voice output communication aid, 59–60, 61, 63

W

Walden Early Childhood Programs, 79, 112, 136, 145, 146, 148–149, 150, 153, 154, 155, 160, 161–162, 165, 171

Women, see Gender factors

World Wide Web, see Internet

Y

Young Autism Project, 112, 144–145, 146, 148, 150, 151, 153, 155, 158, 161, 162, 163, 170–171, 187–188, 206

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Educating Children with Autism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10017.
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Educating Children with Autism Get This Book
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Autism is a word most of us are familiar with. But do we really know what it means?

Children with autism are challenged by the most essential human behaviors. They have difficulty interacting with other people-often failing to see people as people rather than simply objects in their environment. They cannot easily communicate ideas and feelings, have great trouble imagining what others think or feel, and in some cases spend their lives speechless. They frequently find it hard to make friends or even bond with family members. Their behavior can seem bizarre.

Education is the primary form of treatment for this mysterious condition. This means that we place important responsibilities on schools, teachers and children's parents, as well as the other professionals who work with children with autism. With the passage of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1975, we accepted responsibility for educating children who face special challenges like autism. While we have since amassed a substantial body of research, researchers have not adequately communicated with one another, and their findings have not been integrated into a proven curriculum.

Educating Children with Autism outlines an interdisciplinary approach to education for children with autism. The committee explores what makes education effective for the child with autism and identifies specific characteristics of programs that work. Recommendations are offered for choosing educational content and strategies, introducing interaction with other children, and other key areas.

This book examines some fundamental issues, including:

  • How children's specific diagnoses should affect educational assessment and planning
  • How we can support the families of children with autism
  • Features of effective instructional and comprehensive programs and strategies
  • How we can better prepare teachers, school staffs, professionals, and parents to educate children with autism
  • What policies at the federal, state, and local levels will best ensure appropriate education, examining strategies and resources needed to address the rights of children with autism to appropriate education.

Children with autism present educators with one of their most difficult challenges. Through a comprehensive examination of the scientific knowledge underlying educational practices, programs, and strategies, Educating Children with Autism presents valuable information for parents, administrators, advocates, researchers, and policy makers.

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