National Academies Press: OpenBook

Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001)

Chapter: Summary Table, Dietary Reference Intakes: Recommended Intakes for Individuals, Vitamins

« Previous: Index
Suggested Citation:"Summary Table, Dietary Reference Intakes: Recommended Intakes for Individuals, Vitamins." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

FOOD AND NUTRITION BOARD, INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE–NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES: RECOMMENDED INTAKES FOR INDIVIDUALS, VITAMINS

Life Stage Group

Vitamin A (μg/d)a

Vitamin C (mg/d)

Vitamin D (μg/d)b,c

Vitamin E (mg/d) d

Vitamin K (μg/d)

Thiamin (mg/d)

Infants

0–6 mo

400*

40*

5*

4*

2.0*

0.2*

7–12 mo

500*

50*

5*

5*

2.5*

0.3*

Children

1–3 y

300

15

5*

6

30*

0.5

4–8 y

400

25

5*

7

55*

0.6

Males

9–13 y

600

45

5*

11

60*

0.9

14–18 y

900

75

5*

15

75*

1.2

19–30 y

900

90

5*

15

120*

1.2

31–50 y

900

90

5*

15

120*

1.2

51–70 y

900

90

10*

15

120*

1.2

> 70 y

900

90

15*

15

120*

1.2

Females

9–13 y

600

45

5*

11

60*

0.9

14–18 y

700

65

5*

15

75*

1.0

19–30 y

700

75

5*

15

90*

1.1

31–50 y

700

75

5*

15

90*

1.1

51–70 y

700

75

10*

15

90*

1.1

> 70 y

700

75

15*

15

90*

1.1

Pregnancy

≤ 18 y

750

80

5*

15

75*

1.4

19–30 y

770

85

5*

15

90*

1.4

31–50 y

770

85

5*

15

90*

1.4

Lactation

≤ 18 y

1,200

115

5*

19

75*

1.4

19–30 y

1,300

120

5*

19

90*

1.4

31–50 y

1,300

120

5*

19

90*

1.4

NOTE: This table (taken from the DRI reports, see www.nap.edu) presents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). RDAs and AIs may both be used as goals for individual intake. RDAs are set to meet the needs of almost all (97 to 98 percent) individuals in a group. For healthy breastfed infants, the AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life stage and gender groups is believed to cover needs of all individuals in the group, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake.

a As retinol activity equivalents (RAEs). 1 RAE = 1 μg retinol, 12 μg β-carotene, 24 μg α-carotene, or 24 μg β-cryptoxanthin. To calculate RAEs from REs of provitamin A carotenoids in foods, divide the REs by 2. For preformed vitamin A in foods or supplements and for provitamin A carotenoids in supplements, 1 RE = 1 RAE.

Suggested Citation:"Summary Table, Dietary Reference Intakes: Recommended Intakes for Individuals, Vitamins." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

Riboflavin (mg/d)

Niacin (mg/d)e

Vitamin B6 (mg/d)

Folate (μg/d)f

Vitamin B12 (μg/d)

Pantothenic Acid (mg/d)

Biotin (μg/d)

Choline (mg/d)g

0.3*

2*

0.1*

65*

0.4*

1.7*

5*

125*

0.4*

4*

0.3*

80*

0.5*

1.8*

6*

150*

0.5

6

0.5

150

0.9

2*

8*

200*

0.6

8

0.6

200

1.2

3*

12*

250*

0.9

12

1.0

300

1.8

4*

20*

375*

1.3

16

1.3

400

2.4

5*

25*

550*

1.3

16

1.3

400

2.4

5*

30*

550*

1.3

16

1.3

400

2.4

5*

30*

550*

1.3

16

1.7

400

2.4h

5*

30*

550*

1.3

16

1.7

400

2.4h

5*

30*

550*

0.9

12

1.0

300

1.8

4*

20*

375*

1.0

14

1.2

400i

2.4

5*

25*

400*

1.1

14

1.3

400i

2.4

5*

30*

425*

1.1

14

1.3

400i

2.4

5*

30*

425*

1.1

14

1.5

400

2.4h

5*

30*

425*

1.1

14

1.5

400

2.4h

5*

30*

425*

1.4

18

1.9

600j

2.6

6*

30*

450*

1.4

18

1.9

600j

2.6

6*

30*

450*

1.4

18

1.9

600j

2.6

6*

30*

450*

1.6

17

2.0

500

2.8

7*

35*

550*

1.6

17

2.0

500

2.8

7*

35*

550*

1.6

17

2.0

500

2.8

7*

35*

550*

b calciferol. 1 μg calciferol = 40 IU vitamin D.

c In the absence of adequate exposure to sunlight.

d As α-tocopherol. α-Tocopherol includes RRR-α-tocopherol, the only form of α-tocopherol that occurs naturally in foods, and the 2R-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (RRR-, RSR-, RRS-, and RSS-α-tocopherol) that occur in fortified foods and supplements. It does not include the 2S-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (SRR-, SSR-, SRS-, and SSS-α-tocopherol), also found in fortified foods and supplements.

e As niacin equivalents (NE). 1 mg of niacin = 60 mg of tryptophan; 0–6 months = preformed niacin (not NE).

f As dietary folate equivalents (DFE). 1 DFE = 1 μg food folate = 0.6 μg of folic acid from fortified food or as a supplement consumed with food = 0.5 μg of a supplement taken on an empty stomach.

g Although AIs have been set for choline, there are few data to assess whether a dietary supply of choline is needed at all stages of the life cycle, and it may be that the choline requirement can be met by endogenous synthesis at some of these stages.

Suggested Citation:"Summary Table, Dietary Reference Intakes: Recommended Intakes for Individuals, Vitamins." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page 770
Suggested Citation:"Summary Table, Dietary Reference Intakes: Recommended Intakes for Individuals, Vitamins." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page 771
Next: Summary Table, Dietary Reference Intakes: Recommended Intakes for Individuals, Elements »
Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc Get This Book
×

This volume is the newest release in the authoritative series issued by the National Academy of Sciences on dietary reference intakes (DRIs). This series provides recommended intakes, such as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs), for use in planning nutritionally adequate diets for individuals based on age and gender. In addition, a new reference intake, the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), has also been established to assist an individual in knowing how much is "too much" of a nutrient.

Based on the Institute of Medicine's review of the scientific literature regarding dietary micronutrients, recommendations have been formulated regarding vitamins A and K, iron, iodine, chromium, copper, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, and other potentially beneficial trace elements such as boron to determine the roles, if any, they play in health. The book also:

  • Reviews selected components of food that may influence the bioavailability of these compounds.
  • Develops estimates of dietary intake of these compounds that are compatible with good nutrition throughout the life span and that may decrease risk of chronic disease where data indicate they play a role.
  • Determines Tolerable Upper Intake levels for each nutrient reviewed where adequate scientific data are available in specific population subgroups.
  • Identifies research needed to improve knowledge of the role of these micronutrients in human health.

This book will be important to professionals in nutrition research and education.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!