National Academies Press: OpenBook

Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001)

Chapter: Summary Table, Dietary Reference Intakes: Recommended Intakes for Individuals, Elements

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Suggested Citation:"Summary Table, Dietary Reference Intakes: Recommended Intakes for Individuals, Elements." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

FOOD AND NUTRITION BOARD, INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE–NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES: RECOMMENDED INTAKES FOR INDIVIDUALS, ELEMENTS

Life Stage Group

Calcium (mg/d)

Chromium (μg/d)

Copper (μg/d)

Fluoride (mg/d)

Iodine (μg/d)

Iron (mg/d)

Infants

0–6 mo

210*

0.2*

200*

0.01*

110*

0.27*

7–12 mo

270*

5.5*

220*

0.5*

130*

11

Children

1–3 y

500*

11*

340

0.7*

90

7

4–8 y

800*

15*

440

1*

90

10

Males

9–13 y

1,300*

25*

700

2*

120

8

14–18 y

1,300*

35*

890

3*

150

11

19–30 y

1,000*

35*

900

4*

150

8

31–50 y

1,000*

35*

900

4*

150

8

51–70 y

1,200*

30*

900

4*

150

8

> 70 y

1,200*

30*

900

4*

150

8

Females

9–13 y

1,300*

21*

700

2*

120

8

14–18 y

1,300*

24*

890

3*

150

15

19–30 y

1,000*

25*

900

3*

150

18

31–50 y

1,000*

25*

900

3*

150

18

51–70 y

1,200*

20*

900

3*

150

8

> 70 y

1,200*

20*

900

3*

150

8

Pregnancy

≤ 18 y

1,300*

29*

1,000

3*

220

27

19–30 y

1,000*

30*

1,000

3*

220

27

31–50 y

1,000*

30*

1,000

3*

220

27

Lactation

≤ 18 y

1,300*

44*

1,300

3*

290

10

19–30 y

1,000*

45*

1,300

3*

290

9

31–50 y

1,000*

45*

1,300

3*

290

9

h Because 10 to 30 percent of older people may malabsorb food-bound B12, it is advisable for those older than 50 years to meet their RDA mainly by consuming foods fortified with B12 or a supplement containing B12.

i In view of evidence linking folate intake with neural tube defects in the fetus, it is recommended that all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 μg from supplements or fortified foods in addition to intake of food folate from a varied diet.

Suggested Citation:"Summary Table, Dietary Reference Intakes: Recommended Intakes for Individuals, Elements." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×

Magnesium (mg/d)

Manganese (mg/d)

Molybdenum (μg/d)

Phosphorus (mg/d)

Selenium (μg/d)

Zinc (mg/d)

30*

0.003*

2*

100*

15*

2*

75*

0.6*

3*

275*

20*

3

80

1.2*

17

460

20

3

130

1.5*

22

500

30

5

240

1.9*

34

1,250

40

8

410

2.2*

43

1,250

55

11

400

2.3*

45

700

55

11

420

2.3*

45

700

55

11

420

2.3*

45

700

55

11

420

2.3*

45

700

55

11

240

1.6*

34

1,250

40

8

360

1.6*

43

1,250

55

9

310

1.8*

45

700

55

8

320

1.8*

45

700

55

8

320

1.8*

45

700

55

8

320

1.8*

45

700

55

8

400

2.0*

50

1,250

60

12

350

2.0*

50

700

60

11

360

2.0*

50

700

60

11

360

2.6*

50

1,250

70

13

310

2.6*

50

700

70

12

320

2.6*

50

700

70

12

j It is assumed that women will continue consuming 400 μg from supplements or fortified food until their pregnancy is confirmed and they enter prenatal care, which ordinarily occurs after the end of the periconceptional period—the critical time for formation of the neural tube.

Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamine E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001). These reports may be accessed via www.nap.edu.

Suggested Citation:"Summary Table, Dietary Reference Intakes: Recommended Intakes for Individuals, Elements." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page 772
Suggested Citation:"Summary Table, Dietary Reference Intakes: Recommended Intakes for Individuals, Elements." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10026.
×
Page 773
Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc Get This Book
×

This volume is the newest release in the authoritative series issued by the National Academy of Sciences on dietary reference intakes (DRIs). This series provides recommended intakes, such as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs), for use in planning nutritionally adequate diets for individuals based on age and gender. In addition, a new reference intake, the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), has also been established to assist an individual in knowing how much is "too much" of a nutrient.

Based on the Institute of Medicine's review of the scientific literature regarding dietary micronutrients, recommendations have been formulated regarding vitamins A and K, iron, iodine, chromium, copper, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, and other potentially beneficial trace elements such as boron to determine the roles, if any, they play in health. The book also:

  • Reviews selected components of food that may influence the bioavailability of these compounds.
  • Develops estimates of dietary intake of these compounds that are compatible with good nutrition throughout the life span and that may decrease risk of chronic disease where data indicate they play a role.
  • Determines Tolerable Upper Intake levels for each nutrient reviewed where adequate scientific data are available in specific population subgroups.
  • Identifies research needed to improve knowledge of the role of these micronutrients in human health.

This book will be important to professionals in nutrition research and education.

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