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APPENDIX D Committee and Staff Biographies COMMITTEE BIOGRAPHIES Mary-Lou Pardue, Ph.D. (Chair), is the first Boris Magasanik Professor of Biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and has been on the MIT faculty for more than 25 years. She earned a bachelor's degree in biology from the College of William and Mary, a master's degree in radiation biology from the University of Tennessee, and a doctoral degree in biology from Yale University. Dr. Pardue is an internationally known cell biologist and geneticist. Her research interests include chromosome structure, especially the structures of telomeres and transposable ele- ments, and the mechanisms by which genes carry out functions and affect the development of higher organisms. Her laboratory has analyzed the molecular mechanisms by which cells respond to stress, especially the heat shock response. She is a past president of the American Society for Cell Biology and the Genetics Society of America. Dr. Pardue is a member of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). In addition to previous com- mittee service, Dr. Pardue has served as an elected councilor of NAS and as chair of the NAS Section on Genetics. Daniel L. Azarnoff, M.D., is president of D. L. Azarnoff Associates and senior vice president of Clinical and Regulatory Affairs of Cellegy Phar- maceuticals. He has more than 20 years of academic experience in re- search and clinical medicine. For 8 years Dr. Azarnoff served as president of research and development for the Searle Pharmaceutical Company, and for the past 14 years he has served as a consultant in drug develop- 243
244 EXPLORING THE BIOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO HUMAN HEALTH meet. Before joining Searle he was Distinguished Professor of Medicine and Pharmacology and director of the Clinical Pharmacology Toxicology Center at the University of Kansas Medical Center, a job he held for 16 years. He has published more than 175 articles in scientific and medical journals. Dr. Azarnoff is a member of the Institute of Medicine and a fellow of the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists, New York Academy of Sciences, American Association for the Advancement of Science, and American College of Physicians. He maintains a teaching appointment at the schools of medicine of the University of Kansas and Stanford University. Dr. Azarnoff has been on the editorial boards of several journals and on committees of the U.S. Food and Drug Adminis- tration, World Health Organization, American Medical Association, Na- tional Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, and National Institutes of Health, advising them on drugs and drug development. Sheri Berenbaum, Ph.D., is professor of physiology at the Southern Illi- nois University School of Medicine. She earned a bachelor's degree in psychology and mathematics from City College of the City University of New York and a doctoral degree in psychology from the University of California, Berkeley, and she completed her fellowship in behavioral ge- netics at the University of Minnesota. Before joining the faculty at South- ern Illinois University she was associate professor of psychology and of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at the University of Health Sciences/ The Chicago Medical School. Before taking her current position, she was professor of behavioral and social sciences at Southern Illinois University. Dr. Berenbaum's research focuses on the development of individual dif- ferences in cognition and social behavior, with particular emphasis on the development of sex-typed behaviors, including gender identity. Her labo- ratory is analyzing the effects of high prenatal levels of androgens in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Dr. Berenbaum recently received the 1999 Faculty University Woman of Distinction Award from Southern Illinois University. She serves on the National Institutes of Health Study Section on Risk Prevention and Health Behavior. Karen I. Berkley, Ph.D., is McKenzie Professor in the Program of Neuro- science at Florida State University. She also holds appointments as visit- ing professor and senior clinical fellow at University College, London, and the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, respectively. She earned a bachelor's degree in biology from Brown University and a doctoral degree in physiology, biophysics, and psychology from the University of Washington. Dr. Berkley's re- search focuses on the neural mechanisms of pelvic pain, cannabinoid functions within pelvic organs, sex differences in pain, and linking of basic research to the clinic. Dr. Berkley has authored numerous journal
APPENDIX D 245 articles and book chapters and is on the editorial boards of several leading neuroscience and pain professional journals. She has previously served on the Institute of Medicine Committee on a National Neural Circuitry Database and the U.S. National Committee for the International Brain Research Organization. Anne Fausto-Sterling, Ph.D., is professor of biology and women's stud- ies in the Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology and Biochemis- try at Brown University and has served on the faculty at Brown for more than 20 years. She has been a visiting professor at various universities and colleges in both the United States and Europe. She is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and has been the recipient of grants and fellowships in both the sciences and humanities. Her current laboratory research focuses on the evolution and regenera- tive ability of sexual and asexual systems of reproduction in the group of flatworms known as Planaria. She is also the author of scientific publica- tions in the field of Drosophila (fruit fly) developmental genetics. Professor Fausto-Sterling has written broadly and critically about the role of race and gender in the construction of scientific theory and the role of such theories in the construction of ideas about race and gender. Her book Myths of Gender: Biological Theories about Women and Men, published in 1985 and again in revised form in 1992 (New York: Basic Books) analyzes the biological basis of behavior among men and women. Her new book, Sexing the Body: Gender Politics and the Construction of Sexuality (New York: Basic Books), was published in January 2000. This book urges the use of developmental systems theory as a means to move beyond the fruitless attempts to understand sex and gender by using nature-nurture dualism. Daniel D. Federman, M.D., is senior dean for alumni relations and clini- cal teaching and the Carl W. Walter Professor of Medicine and Medical Education at Harvard Medical School. He graduated from Harvard Col- lege and Harvard Medical School and performed his internship and resi- dency at Massachusetts General Hospital. Dr. Federman conducted re- search and trained in endocrinology at the National Institutes of Health, the University College Hospital Medical School in London, and Massa- chusetts General Hospital. He has served as a physician, as chief of the Endocrine Unit, and as associate chief of medical services at the Massa- chusetts General Hospital and was later Arthur F. Bloomfield Professor of Medicine and chairman of the Department of Medicine at Stanford Uni- versity Medical School. Beginning in 1977, Dr. Federman served as dean for students and alumni and professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School. He has served as chairman of the Board of Internal Medicine and president of the American College of Physicians. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and recently served as cochair of the IOM
246 EXPLORING THE BIOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO HUMAN HEALTH Committee on the Ethical and Legal Issues Relating to the Inclusion of Women in Clinical Studies. Barbara Ann Gilchrest, M.D., is professor and chair of the Boston Uni- versity School of Medicine Department of Dermatology. She earned a bachelor's degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1967 and a medical degree from Harvard Medical School in 1971, and she completed residencies in internal medicine and dermatology at the Harvard Medical School-affiliated hospitals. She has previously served on the faculties of the Harvard Medical School and Tufts University School of Medicine and as a senior scientist at the U.S. Department of Agricul- ture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University. Dr. Gilchrest's research focuses on skin aging and the effects of ultraviolet light on human skin. Dr. Gilchrest is a member of the Institute of Medi- cine (IOM) and chair of the IOM Section on Internal Medicine, Pathology, and Dermatology. Melvin M. Grumbach, M.D., is the first Edward B. Shaw Professor of Pediatrics at the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medi- cine, where he served as chairman of the Department of Pediatrics for more than two decades. He earned a medical degree from the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons and completed a pediatric residency at Babies Hospital, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center. Af- ter his residency, Dr. Grumbach served as a captain in the U.S. Air Force Medical Corps. He completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Before arriving at the University of California, San Francisco, Dr. Grumbach was director of the Pediatric Endocrine Division for 10 years and was associate professor of pediatrics at Columbia University. Dr. Grumbach is a leader in research on the hormonal control of growth and maturation. As an endocrinologist and pediatrician, he has studied the development and function of the human endocrine and neuroendocrine systems from fetal life through puberty, including studies of the endocrinology of growth, puberty, sex differen- tiation, and disease-causing pathology. He is a past president of the Endo- crine Society, the American Pediatric Society, and the Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society and was recently elected honorary president of the International Endocrine Society. His current research focuses on deciphering the unexpected effects in the human of mutations in the gene encoding cytochrome P450 aromatase on growth, bone maturation and density, and sexual development. Dr. Grumbach is a member of the Na- tional Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine and is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
APPENDIX D 247 Shiriki Kumanyika, Ph.D., M.P.H., is associate dean for health promo- tion and disease prevention at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and professor of epidemiology in the Department of Biostatis- tics and Epidemiology. She earned an M.S. in social work from Columbia University, a Ph.D. in human nutrition from Cornell University, and an M.P.H. from Johns Hopkins University. Before arriving at the University of Pennsylvania, Dr. Kumanyika was professor of nutrition and epidemi- ology and head of the Department of Human Nutrition and Dietetics at the University of Illinois at Chicago. She has also held prior positions on the nutrition and epidemiology faculties of Pennsylvania State Univer- sity, Johns Hopkins University, and Cornell University. Her publications reflect more than 20 years of research related to cardiovascular diseases, obesity, nutritional epidemiology, and the health of minority populations, older populations, and women. Dr. Kumanyika was a member of the Institute of Medicine's Committee on Legal and Ethical Issues in the In- clusion of Women in Clinical Studies. From 1996 through 2000 she served as a member of the Advisory Council of the National Institutes of Health's National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Judith H. LaRosa, Ph.D., R.N., is a professor in the Department of Pre- ventive Medicine and Community Health at the State University of New York (SUNY) Downstate Medical Center at Brooklyn. Before arriving at SUNY Downstate Medical Center at Brooklyn, Dr. LaRosa was a profes- sor in and chair of the Department of Community Health Sciences, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, director of the Tulane Xavier National Center of Excellence in Women's Health, and associate director of the National Science Foundation's Louisiana Experi- mental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research. Dr. LaRosa was the first deputy director of the National Institutes of Health's (NIH's) Office of Research on Women's Health. She is coauthor of the legislatively man- dated report National Institutes of Health Guidelines on the Inclusion of Women and Minorities as Subjects in Clinical Research (Bethesda, MD: U.S. Depart- ment of Health and Human Services, 1994~. Dr. LaRosa has published extensively in professional and lay journals in the areas of women's health, heart disease, and workplace health promotion and disease prevention. She has coauthored a textbook, New Dimensions in Women's Health (New York: Tones and Bartlett, 1994~. Dr. LaRosa is a member of the National Institute for Nursing Research's Advisory Council. She has been a mem- ber of the Armed Forces Epidemiological Board and the Institute of Medicine's (IOM's) Board on Health Sciences Policy and has served on the IOM Committee on Defense Women's Health Research. Dr. LaRosa recently served on the Office of Research on Women's Health Task Force on the NIH Women's Health Research Agenda for the 21st Century.
248 EXPLORING THE BIOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO HUMAN HEALTH Michael D. Lockshin, M.D., is the director of the Barbara Volcker Center for Women and Rheumatic Disease at the Hospital for Special Surgery in New York, New York, and is professor of medicine at the loan and Sanford I. Weill College of Medicine of Cornell University. He received a bachelor's degree from Harvard College and an M.D. from Harvard Medi- cal School and did his clinical training at Bellevue Hospital and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Hospital, followed by a fellowship at Columbia-Presby- terian Medical Center. As an Epidemic Intelligence Service officer for the Public Health Service Communicable Disease Center, he was assistant professor of epidemiology at the University of Pittsburgh School of Public Health, working on health problems of coal miners. After a fellowship, he joined the Hospital for Special Surgery and Cornell University Medical College, rising to the position of professor of medicine and attending physician. In 1989 he moved to the National Institutes of Health as extra- mural director and then acting director of the National Institute of Arthri- tis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disorders and was then senior adviser to the director of the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, before returning to Cornell in 1997. Dr. Lockshin chaired the American Board of Internal Medicine Committee on Rheumatology and has held national offices in and many chairmanships of committees of the Arthritis Founda- tion and the American College of Rheumatology. He has served on the editorial boards of Arthritis and Rheumatism, Journal of Rheumatology, Lu- pus, American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, and other journals. His research interests include pregnancy and rheumatic disease, antiphospho- lipid antibody, and other topics related to systemic lupus erythematosus. He convened the first International Conference on Pregnancy and Rheu- matic Disease and the first Conference on Gender, Biology, and Human Disease. He is the author of more than 180 scientific papers and textbook chapters and Guarded Prognosis (New York: Hill and Wang, 1999~. fill Panetta, Ph.D., received a doctoral degree in organic chemistry from Dartmouth College and completed postdoctoral work at the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Panetta joined Eli Lilly & Company in 1982 as senior organic chemist. In 1992 she served as group leader for the Diabe- tes Medicinal Chemists. She has also served as a member of the Athena Neurosciences/Eli Lilly Alzheimer's Research Team and as a CNS Chem- istry Group Leader. Dr. Panetta has recently been appointed research manager for the Lilly Center for Women's Health (LCWH). LCWH re- search programs focus on enhancing scientific innovation and expertise through basic and clinical research on the causes, treatment, and preven- tion of diseases that disproportionately or differentially affect women, as well as understanding the complexities of gender-based differences in drug response, metabolism, and safety. Dr. Panetta is the author of more than 80 publications and abstracts and 27 invited lectures and is
APPENDIX D 249 coinventor on 25 granted U.S. patents. Recently, Dr. Panetta organized and chaired a session on gender-specific drug discovery at the Medicinal Chemistry Gordon Research Conference. She served as a section editor for the Central and Peripheral Nervous System section and the Anti- Inflammatory Section of Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs and is on the Advisory Board for Current Drugs LTD. She is coeditor of a text- book, Major Psychiatric Illness in Women: Emerging Treatment and Research (Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press), which is in press. Carmen Sapienza, Ph.D., is professor of pathology and laboratory medi- cine and associate director of the Fels Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Biology at Temple University School of Medicine. Before his appointment at Temple, Dr. Sapienza was head of the Laboratory of De- velopmental Genetics at the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research (San Diego Branch) and was an associate professor in the Department of Medi- cine at the University of California, San Diego. Before moving to San Diego, Dr. Sapienza was head of the Laboratory of Developmental Genet- ics at the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research in Montreal and an associ- ate professor in the Department of Medicine at McGill University in Montreal. Dr. Sapienza received a B.A. in biology from the University of California, San Diego, an M.S. in oceanography from the University of Maine, and a Ph.D. in biochemistry from Dalhousie University in Halifax. He completed his postdoctoral fellowship at the Howard Hughes Medi- cal Institute in Salt Lake City. An accomplished researcher with more than 60 scientific publications, he is frequently invited to give presenta- tions at both national and international conferences. His current research is concentrated on discovering the genetic rules of genome imprinting. His laboratory was the first to recognize that the process of imprinting is genetically controlled and that the process is controlled by genes that are not, in general, linked to the locus at which the imprinting effect is ob- served. Dr. Sapienza serves on the editorial boards of the European Journal of Human Genetics and Mammalian Genome and has been a guest editor for Developmental Genetics. Sally E. Shaywitz, M.D., is codirector, along with Bennett Shaywitz, of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development-Yale Center for the Study of Learning and Attention and professor of pediat- rics at Yale University School of Medicine. Dr. Shaywitz received an M.D. and competed a residency and postdoctoral training in developmental pediatrics at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. After a 9-year hiatus to care for her children, she joined the Yale faculty. At Yale she initiated the Connecticut Longitudinal Study, a longitudinal study of a representa- tive sample of Connecticut schoolchildren. This study, which is ongoing, has provided the basic modern epidemiological framework for the preva-
250 EXPLORING THE BIOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO HUMAN HEALTH fence, course, conceptual model, and neurobiological changes over time for dyslexia. More recently, she has used functional imaging to study the underlying neurobiology of reading and dyslexia. Her and her husband's work has demonstrated sex differences in brain organization for language; a functional disruption in brain organization for adults and, more re- cently, for children with dyslexia; the influence of sex hormones (estro- gen) on brain organization and reading and language in postmenopausal women; and the functional neural architecture of components of attention in language processing. Current investigations by their laboratory focus on the use of functional imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy to study the neurobiology of fluency in reading. She is the author of more than 100 articles in scientific journals and 63 chapters in books. Dr. Shaywitz is a member of the Institute of Medicine and has been awarded the Distinguished Alumnus Award by the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, the Achievement Award in Women's Health by the Society for Women's Health Research, and the Sidney Berman Award of the Ameri- can Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. She recently served on the National Research Council's Committee on the Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children and serves on the National Academy of Sciences' Committee on Women in Science and Engineering. lohn G. Vandenbergh, Ph.D., is a professor in the Department of Zool- ogy at North Carolina State University. He received a B.A. degree from Montclair State College and an M.S. degree from Ohio University and completed a Ph.D. at Pennsylvania State University. He spent 3 years studying the behavior and endocrinology of free-ranging rhesus mon- keys in Puerto Rico as a scientist with the National Institutes of Health, U.S. Public Health Service. He then moved to North Carolina and joined the research program at Dorothea Dix Hospital, a large mental hospital. There he studied the relationship between hormones and behavior in rodents, monkeys, and humans. Next he moved to North Carolina State University to become head of the Department of Zoology. After leading the department through a major growth period, he left administration to focus on teaching and managing a research program in behavioral endo- crinology. Twenty-one graduate students have received advanced de- grees under his direction, and nine postdoctoral fellows have completed training in his laboratory. He has published two books, 26 chapters in books, and 78 articles in scientific journals. He is a present or past member of several editorial and research boards. Currently he serves as a member of the Board of the North Carolina Association for Biomedical Research, as a member of the Council of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Re- search (National Research Council, National Academies), and as a con- sulting scientist to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
APPENDIX D 251 Huntington F. Willard, Ph.D., is the Henry W. Payne Professor and chair- man of the Department of Genetics at Case Western Reserve University and director of the Center for Human Genetics at Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals of Cleveland. He is also president and director of The Research Institute of University Hospitals of Cleve- land. Dr. Willard did his early training in genetics at Harvard University and received a Ph.D. in 1979 from the Department of Human Genetics at Yale University. After a postdoctoral fellowship at Johns Hopkins Uni- versity, Dr. Willard held appointments in the Department of Medical Genetics at the University of Toronto and in the Department of Genetics at Stanford University. Dr. Willard's research focuses on aspects of the molecular structure and function of human chromosomes and the human genome. His goal is to understand the chromosomal mechanisms involved in gene control or implicated in genetic disorders, including the mecha- nisms of X-chromosome inactivation. He has been a member of the Ameri- can Society of Human Genetics since 1975 and is currently President of that Society. He is also an original member of the Human Genome Orga- nization. Dr. Willard serves on the Mammalian Genetics Study Section of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and in the past has served as chairman of the Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Re- search Committee of NIH. He has served on the editorial boards of nu- merous journals and is currently coeditor of Human Molecular Genetics. Dr. Willard is coauthor of Genetics in Medicine (Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders), a widely used medical and graduate student textbook, now published in its sixth edition. Board on Health Sciences Policy Liaison Mary Woolley is the President of Research!America, a nonprofit, mem- bership-supported, grassroots public education and advocacy organiza- tion committed to making health-related research a much higher national priority. Under her leadership, Research!America's membership has more than tripled as it has earned the attention and respect of research, media, and community leaders with its signature public opinion surveys, advo- cacy resource materials, and public service advertising campaigns. Ms. Woolley received a B.S. from Stanford University and an M.A. from San Francisco State University. She studied advanced management at the University of California, Berkeley. In her early career, Ms. Woolley served as San Francisco project director for the then largest-ever National Insti- tutes of Health-funded clinical trial, the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. In 1981 she became administrator of the Medical Research Institute of San Francisco and in 1986 was named the institute's executive director and chief executive officer. Ms. Woolley serves on the University of Cali- fornia, Berkeley, School of Public Health Dean's Council and the board of
252 EXPLORING THE BIOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO HUMAN HEALTH the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute and is a founding member of the Board of Associates of the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Re- search. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine and is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Ms. Woolley has served as president of the Association of Independent Research Institutes, editor of the Journal of the Society of Research Administrators, a reviewer for the National Institutes of Health and National Science Foundation, and a consultant to several research organizations. Ms. Woolley has a 20-year editorial and publication history on science advocacy and research-re- lated topics. Her op-ed pieces and letters to the editor are published in newspapers from coast to coast; and she has been published in Science, Nature, Issues in Science and Technology, New England Journal of Medicine, The Scientist, and other research-oriented periodicals. She is a sought-after speaker and is frequently interviewed by science, news, and policy jour- nalists. For her work on behalf of medical research, she has been awarded the Distinguished Contribution to Research Administration Award from the Society for Research Administrators, the American Hospital Associa- tion Silver Touchstone Award for Public Affairs Programming, the Co- lumbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons Dean's Award for Distinguished Service, the Federation of American Societies for Experi- mental Biology Special Award for Science Advocacy, and the Friends of the National Institute for Nursing Research's Health Advocacy Award. IOM STAFF Theresa M. Wizemann, Ph.D., is a senior program officer for the Board on Health Sciences Policy at the Institute of Medicine and served as the study director for Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health. She earned a bachelor's degree in medical technology from Douglass Col- lege of Rutgers University and master's and doctoral degrees in microbi- ology and molecular genetics, jointly from Rutgers University and the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New lersey. She did a post- doctoral fellowship in infectious diseases at The Rockefeller University in New York. Dr. Wizemann came to the Institute of Medicine from the Office of Senator Edward M. Kennedy, Senate Committee on Health Edu- cation, Labor and Pensions, where she handled various health and sci- ence policy issues as a congressional fellow. Before the fellowship, she led a vaccine research team at MedImmune, Inc., a leading biotechnology company in Maryland. Dr. Wizemann has expertise in microbiology, im- munology, and infectious diseases and has a particular interest in women's and children's health. Thelma L. Cox is a project assistant for the Board on Health Sciences Policy. During her more than 10 years at the Institute of Medicine (IOM)
APPENDIX D 253 she has also provided assistance to the Division of Health Care Services and the Division of Biobehavioral Sciences and Mental Disorders. Ms. Cox has worked on several IOM reports, including Designing a Strategyfor Quality Review and Assurance in Medicare; Evaluating the Artificial Heart Program of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Federal Regulation of Methadone Treatment; Legal and Ethical Issues Relating to the Inclusion of Women in Clinical Studies; Review of the Fialuridine (FIAU/FIAC) Clinical Trials; and Cancer Research Among Minorities and the Medically Underserved. She has received the National Research Council Recognition Award and two IOM Staff Achievement Awards. Andrew Pope, Ph.D., is director of the Board on Health Sciences Policy at the Institute of Medicine. With expertise in physiology and biochemistry, his primary interests focus on environmental and occupational influences on human health. Dr. Pope's previous research activities focused on the neuroendocrine and reproductive effects of various environmental sub- stances on food-producing animals. During his tenure at the National Academy of Sciences and since 1989 at the Institute of Medicine, Dr. Pope has directed numerous reports on topics that include injury control, dis- ability prevention, biological markers, neurotoxicology, indoor allergens, and the enhancement of environmental and occupational health content in medical and nursing school curricula. Most recently, Dr. Pope directed studies on National Institutes of Health priority-setting processes, fluid resuscitation practices in combat casualties, and organ procurement and transplantation. Sarah Pitluck was a research associate for the Board on Health Sciences Policy at the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Ms. Pitluck helped support IOM's Committee on Understanding the Biology of Sex and Gender Dif- ferences and the Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine. She received an undergraduate degree in political science at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, before completing a master's degree in public policy and public administration at the London School of Economics and Political Science. Ms. Pitluck's master's thesis addressed the sources of divergent policies toward screening for prostate cancer in the United States and the United Kingdom. Additional IOM studies with which she assisted were Fluid Resuscitation: State of the Science for Treating Combat Casualties and Civilian Injuries; Organ Procurement and Transplantation Policy: Assessing Current Policies and the Potential Impact of the DHHS Final Rule; Managed Care Systems and Emerging Infections: Chal- lenges and Opportunities for Strengthening Surveillance, Research, and Preven- tion; and Rational Therapeutics for Infants and Children. She resigned from the IOM staff on tune 5, 2000.