National Academies Press: OpenBook

Multiple Sclerosis: Current Status and Strategies for the Future (2001)

Chapter: Appendix D: Kurtze's Expanded Disability Status Scale

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Kurtze's Expanded Disability Status Scale." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Multiple Sclerosis: Current Status and Strategies for the Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10031.
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Page 385

Appendix D

Kurtzke's Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS)

0

Normal neurologic exam

1.0

No disability, minimal signs in one functional system

1.5

No disability, minimal signs in more than one functional system

2.0

Minimal disability in one functional system

2.5

Minimal disability in two functional systems

3.0

Moderate disability in one functional system, or mild disability in three or four functional systems though fully ambulatory

3.5

Fully ambulatory but with moderate disability in three or four functional systems

4.0

Fully ambulatory without aid, self-sufficient, up and about some 12 hours a day despite relatively severe disability. Able to walk without aid or rest some 500 meters

4.5

Fully ambulatory without aid, up and about much of the day, able to work a full day, may otherwise have some limitation of full activity or require minimal assistance, characterized by relatively severe disability. Able to walk without aid or rest for some 300 meters

5.0

Ambulatory without aid or rest for about 200 meters; disability severe enough to preclude full daily activities (e.g. to work full day without special provisions)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Kurtze's Expanded Disability Status Scale." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Multiple Sclerosis: Current Status and Strategies for the Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10031.
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Page 386

5.5

Ambulatory without aid or rest for about 100 meters; disability severe enough to preclude full daily activities

6.0

Intermittent or unilateral constant assistance (cane, crutch, or brace) required to walk about 100 meters with or without resting

6.5

Constant bilateral assistance (canes, crutches, or braces) required to walk about 20 meters without resting

7.0

Unable to walk beyond about 5 meters even with aid. Essentially restricted to a wheelchair. Wheels self in standard wheelchair and transfers alone. Active in wheelchair about 12 hours a day

7.5

Unable to take more than a few steps. Restricted to wheelchair. May need aid to transfer. Wheels self but cannot carry on in standard wheelchair a full day. May require a motorized wheelchair

8.0

Unable to walk at all, essentially restricted to bed, chair or wheelchair but may be out of bed much of the day. Retains many self-care functions. Generally has effective use of the arms

8.5

Essentially restricted to bed much of the day. Has some effective use of arm(s). Retains some self-care functions

9.0

Helpless bed patient. Can communicate and eat

9.5

Totally helpless bed patient. Unable to communicate effectively or eat/ swallow

10

Death due to Multiple Sclerosis

SOURCE: Kurtzke JF. 1983. Rating neurologic impairment in multiple sclerosis: an expanded disability status scale (EDSS). Neurology.;33:1444-52.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Kurtze's Expanded Disability Status Scale." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Multiple Sclerosis: Current Status and Strategies for the Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10031.
×
Page 385
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Kurtze's Expanded Disability Status Scale." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Multiple Sclerosis: Current Status and Strategies for the Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10031.
×
Page 386
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Multiple sclerosis is a chronic and often disabling disease of the nervous system, affecting about 1 million people worldwide. Even though it has been known for over a hundred years, no cause or cure has yet been discovered-but now there is hope. New therapies have been shown to slow the disease progress in some patients, and the pace of discoveries about the cellular machinery of the brain and spinal cord has accelerated.

This book presents a comprehensive overview of multiple sclerosis today, as researchers seek to understand its processes, develop therapies that will slow or halt the disease and perhaps repair damage, offer relief for specific symptoms, and improve the abilities of MS patients to function in their daily lives.

The panel reviews existing knowledge and identifies key research questions, focusing on:

  • Research strategies that have the greatest potential to understand the bio- logical mechanisms of recovery and to translate findings into specific strategies for therapy.
  • How people adapt to MS and the research needed to improve the lives of people with MS.
  • Management of disease symptoms (cognitive impairment, depression, spasticity, vision problems, and others).

The committee also discusses ways to build and financially support the MS research enterprise, including a look at challenges inherent in designing clinical trials. This book will be important to MS researchers, research funders, health care advocates for MS research and treatment, and interested patients and their families.

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