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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Definition of Pain and Distress and Reporting Requirements for Laboratory Animals: Proceedings of the Workshop Held June 22, 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10035.
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DEFINITION OF PAIN AND DISTRESS AND REPORTING REQUIREMENTS FOR LABORATORY ANIMALS

PROCEEDINGS OF THE WORKSHOP HELD JUNE 22, 2000

Committee on Regulatory Issues in Animal Care and Use

Institute for Laboratory Animal Research

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Definition of Pain and Distress and Reporting Requirements for Laboratory Animals: Proceedings of the Workshop Held June 22, 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10035.
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NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of these proceedings was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the project were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by Grant No. N01-0D-4-2139 between the National Academies and the National Institutes of Health of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

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Definition of Pain and Distress and Reporting Requirements for Laboratory Animals: is available from the

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Definition of Pain and Distress and Reporting Requirements for Laboratory Animals: Proceedings of the Workshop Held June 22, 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10035.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

National Academy of Sciences

National Academy of Engineering

Institute of Medicine

National Research Council

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Definition of Pain and Distress and Reporting Requirements for Laboratory Animals: Proceedings of the Workshop Held June 22, 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10035.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Definition of Pain and Distress and Reporting Requirements for Laboratory Animals: Proceedings of the Workshop Held June 22, 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10035.
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COMMITTEE ON REGULATORY ISSUES IN ANIMAL CARE AND USE

Adele Douglass,

American Humane Association, Washington, D.C.

Randall J. Nelson,

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Tennessee, Memphis, Tenn.

William S. Stokes,

Environmental Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Science, Research Triangle Park, N.C.

Jerrold Tannenbaum,

Department of Population and Health Reproduction, University of California School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, Calif.

Joanne Zurlo,

Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing, Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, Md.

Staff

Ralph B. Dell, Director

Kathleen A. Beil, Administrative Assistant

Susan S. Vaupel, Editor

Marsha K. Williams, Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Definition of Pain and Distress and Reporting Requirements for Laboratory Animals: Proceedings of the Workshop Held June 22, 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10035.
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INSTITUTE FOR LABORATORY ANIMAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

Peter A. Ward (Chair),

Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Mich.

Bennett Dyke,

Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, Tex.

Rosemary W. Elliott,

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, N.Y.

G. F. Gebhart,

Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa

Gail E. Herman,

Children's Hospital Research Foundation, Columbus, Ohio

Hilton J. Klein,

Department of Laboratory Animal Resources, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, Pa.

Margaret S. Landi,

Department of Laboratory Animal Science, SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals, King of Prussia, Pa.

William Morton,

Regional Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash.

Randall J. Nelson,

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Tennessee, Memphis, Tenn.

Robert J. Russell,

Harlan Sprague Dawley, Inc., Indianapolis, Ind.

William S. Stokes,

Environmental Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, N.C.

Michael K. Stoskopf,

Departments of Clinical Sciences and Technology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, N.C.

John G. Vandenbergh,

Department of Zoology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, N.C.

Thomas Wolfle,

Annapolis, Md.

Joanne Zurlo,

Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing, Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, Md.

Staff

Ralph B. Dell, Director

Kathleen A. Beil, Administrative Assistant

Susan S. Vaupel, Editor

Marsha K. Williams, Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Definition of Pain and Distress and Reporting Requirements for Laboratory Animals: Proceedings of the Workshop Held June 22, 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10035.
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COMMISSION ON LIFE SCIENCES

Michael T. Clegg (Chair),

Department of Botany and Plant Science, University of California, Riverside, Calif.

Paul Berg (Vice Chair),

Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, Calif.

Frederick R. Anderson,

Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft, Washington, D.C.

Joanna Burger,

Division of Life Sciences, and Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, N.J.

James E. Cleaver,

University of California Cancer Center, San Francisco, Calif.

David Eisenberg,

UCLA-DOE Laboratory of Structural Biology and Molecular Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Calif.

Neal L. First,

Department of Animal Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisc.

David J. Galas,

Keck Graduate Institute of Applied Life Science, Claremont, Calif.

David V. Goeddel,

Tularik, Inc., South San Francisco, Calif.

Arturo Gomez-Pompa,

Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside, Calif.

Corey S. Goodman,

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Calif.

Jon W. Gordon,

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, N. Y.

David G. Hoel,

Department of Biometry and Epidemiology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, S.C.

Barbara S. Hulka,

Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N.C.

Cynthia J. Kenyon,

Department of Biochemistry, University of California, San Francisco, Calif.

Bruce R. Levin,

Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, Ga.

David M. Livingston,

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Mass.

Donald R. Mattison,

March of Dimes, White Plains, N.Y.

Elliot M. Meyerowitz,

Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif.

Robert T. Paine,

Department of Zoology, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash.

Ronald R. Sederoff,

Department of Forestry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, N.C.

Robert R. Sokal,

Department of Ecology and Evolution, State University of New York at Stony Brook, N.Y.

Charles F. Stevens, MD,

Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, Calif.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Definition of Pain and Distress and Reporting Requirements for Laboratory Animals: Proceedings of the Workshop Held June 22, 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10035.
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Shirley M. Tilghman,

Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.

Raymond L. White,

Department of Oncological Sciences, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah

Staff

Warren Muir

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Definition of Pain and Distress and Reporting Requirements for Laboratory Animals: Proceedings of the Workshop Held June 22, 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10035.
×

Preface

In this first in a proposed series of workshops on regulatory issues in animal care and use, the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR) has addressed the existing and proposed requirements for reporting pain and distress in laboratory animals. The Animal Welfare Act, administered by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), mandates that pain and distress in laboratory animals be minimized. USDA is considering two policy changes with regard to this specific mandate. Firstly, since there has been no functional definition of “distress,” USDA has prepared such a definition and requested feedback from the scientific community on its usefulness for regulatory and reporting requirements. (See Appendix B.)

The second issue concerns the pain and distress categorization scheme for reporting to USDA. Various groups and individuals have questioned the efficacy of the current categories, and specific changes have been proposed by the Humane Society of the United States. USDA is considering these and other potential changes to the existing scheme. Thus, given these potential changes to animal welfare policy, the aim of the ILAR/NIH joint workshop was to provide feedback to the USDA. The speakers were asked to address these two issues as well as to comment upon whether the information contained in the 1992 ILAR report Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals is still useful to investigators in assisting them to comply with regulations. The speakers provided perspectives based on their individual expertise in the areas of science of pain and distress, animal welfare policy, protocol review, and/or as representatives of relevant organizations or institutions. The following proceedings are an edited transcript of their presentations.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Definition of Pain and Distress and Reporting Requirements for Laboratory Animals: Proceedings of the Workshop Held June 22, 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10035.
×
This page in the original is blank.
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Definition of Pain and Distress and Reporting Requirements for Laboratory Animals: Proceedings of the Workshop Held June 22, 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10035.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Definition of Pain and Distress and Reporting Requirements for Laboratory Animals: Proceedings of the Workshop Held June 22, 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10035.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Definition of Pain and Distress and Reporting Requirements for Laboratory Animals: Proceedings of the Workshop Held June 22, 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10035.
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Page R2
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Definition of Pain and Distress and Reporting Requirements for Laboratory Animals: Proceedings of the Workshop Held June 22, 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10035.
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Page R3
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Definition of Pain and Distress and Reporting Requirements for Laboratory Animals: Proceedings of the Workshop Held June 22, 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10035.
×
Page R4
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Definition of Pain and Distress and Reporting Requirements for Laboratory Animals: Proceedings of the Workshop Held June 22, 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10035.
×
Page R5
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Definition of Pain and Distress and Reporting Requirements for Laboratory Animals: Proceedings of the Workshop Held June 22, 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10035.
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Page R6
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Definition of Pain and Distress and Reporting Requirements for Laboratory Animals: Proceedings of the Workshop Held June 22, 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10035.
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Page R7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Definition of Pain and Distress and Reporting Requirements for Laboratory Animals: Proceedings of the Workshop Held June 22, 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10035.
×
Page R8
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Definition of Pain and Distress and Reporting Requirements for Laboratory Animals: Proceedings of the Workshop Held June 22, 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10035.
×
Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Definition of Pain and Distress and Reporting Requirements for Laboratory Animals: Proceedings of the Workshop Held June 22, 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10035.
×
Page R10
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Definition of Pain and Distress and Reporting Requirements for Laboratory Animals: Proceedings of the Workshop Held June 22, 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10035.
×
Page R11
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2000. Definition of Pain and Distress and Reporting Requirements for Laboratory Animals: Proceedings of the Workshop Held June 22, 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10035.
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Page R12
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In this first in a proposed series of workshops on regulatory issues in animal care and use, the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR) has addressed the existing and proposed requirements for reporting pain and distress in laboratory animals. The Animal Welfare Act, administered by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), mandates that pain and distress in laboratory animals be minimized. USDA is considering two policy changes with regard to this specific mandate. Firstly, since there has been no functional definition of "distress," USDA has prepared such a definition and requested feedback from the scientific community on its usefulness for regulatory and reporting requirements.

The second issue concerns the pain and distress categorization scheme for reporting to USDA. Various groups and individuals have questioned the efficacy of the current categories, and specific changes have been proposed by the Humane Society of the United States. USDA is considering these and other potential changes to the existing scheme. Thus, given these potential changes to animal welfare policy, the aim of the ILAR/NIH joint workshop was to provide feedback to the USDA. The speakers were asked to address these two issues as well as to comment upon whether the information contained in the 1992 ILAR report Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals is still useful to investigators in assisting them to comply with regulations. The speakers provided perspectives based on their individual expertise in the areas of science of pain and distress, animal welfare policy, protocol review, and/or as representatives of relevant organizations or institutions. The following proceedings are an edited transcript of their presentations.

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