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Framework for Acquiring Sustainable Facilities Sustainable development as an integrated concept for buildings seeks to reverse the trends in the architectural and engineering communities that focus on first costs and treat each discipline's contribution to the whole building as separate and independent efforts. The precepts for sustainability are that all resources are limited and it is less expensive short and long term to build in harmony with the environment. The legacy of great architecture and building throughout the world is a history of design and construction performed in concert with the natural elements and geography. Sustainable development principles can be applied to all phases of facilities acquisition and operation. Through an integrated approach, sustainable development can achieve synergies that reduce resource requirements, increase energy efficiencies, and create a healthy environment--all at a lower life-cycle cost. The primary objective of this study is to develop a framework to show how long- established requirements for value engineering and life-cycle costing can be used to support sustainable development for federal facilities. In some cases, current federal agency practices may need to be adapted or modified. As agencies gain more experience with sustainable development, additional strategies and best practices will emerge. Some may become standard practice over time. In the short teen, however, because of the wide range of missions, programs, customers, and budget constraints, agency strategies to support sustainable development will need to be determined case by case. FORMAT . The framework is organized according to the facility acquisition phases outlined in Chapter 2: Requirements assessment Conceptual planning Programming/budgeting Design Construction Start-up To facilitate the decision making required in each phase' sustainable development considerations are posed as questions. In the initial phases sustainable development issues 23
24 Sustainable Federal Facilities are considered at the macro level; as one moves through each phase, issues are considered at increasingly detailed levels. Sustainable development considerations are further organized by the principles formulated to implement Executive Order 13123 related to siting, energy, materials, water, indoor environmental quality, and operation and maintenance practices. Examples of practical actions and strategies that can be employed to support the principles are highlighted. Examples of sustainable operation and maintenance practices that can be used after the building is acquired are also provided. , Requirements Conceptual assessment planning Value engineering J Programming/ budgeting -T FIGURE 3-] Framework format. Design J ~ Construction , 1 ~ Value engineering Start-up In the task group's framework, value engineering and life-cycle cost analyses to evaluate a range of sustainable development opportunities are used in conceptual planning, design, and construction. Using value engineering and life-cycle costing in the conceptual planning phase is not standard federal practice. It, however, is during conceptual planning and design that the decisions having the greatest impact on cost and on the ultimate sustainability of a facility are made, including decisions affecting operations, maintenance, and disposal. Therefore, the task group believes that conducting a macro-level value engineering analysis as part of conceptual planning will be cost effective and will provide objective information for evaluating sustainable strategies incorporated in alternative designs, systems, and materials. The task group also supports using value engineering and life-cycle costing in design and construction. If there are tradeoffs to be made, it is clear that the earlier in the process that value engineering is employed the greater the potential benefits for sustainable development and cost savings. . . . . . . . DOCUMENTING OBJECTIVES, DECISIONS, AND ASSUMPTIONS Because team members will change during the 3-5 years of the federal acquisition process, it is important that agency objectives, decisions, and assumptions for sustainable development be clearly and completely documented during each phase of acquisition. Key aspects to be documented include the project philosophy, (i.e., what is to be achieved by acquiring a facility), sustainable development objectives, design goals, choice of . materials, technologies, and systems. For each aspect, the decisions made, the
Frameworkfor Acquiring Sustainable Facilities 25 assumptions underlying those decisions and specific alternatives considered and rejected need to be clearly and concisely documented. Standards and responsibilities for documentation should be agreed on and assigned at the beginning of each phase. The purpose of the documentation is to create an institutional record that might otherwise not exist because of changes in leadership, staff turnover, project delays, budget cuts, and so forth. The cumulative record of decisions relating to a project can be reviewed at each subsequent decision point or to help integrate new team members into the process. Employing a macro-level value engineering analysis in the conceptual planning phase and a value engineering study at the (resign phase will support this process. If value engineering is applied only as a measure to mitigate project cost overruns, having a iffily documented history of the project philosophy, objectives, and decisions will help to avoid tradeoffs that may compromise sustainable development's strategic advantages. INTEGRATED PROJECT TEAM APPROACH It is essential to use an integrated project team approach from conceptual planning through start-up to implement this framework effectively. An integrated project team should include the primary stakeholders (representatives of the facility owner, users, and operators) architects, engineers, interior designers, planners, value engineers, environmental designers and engineers, energy managers, contracting officers , , 1 ~ · 1 ~ , ^^ rem 1 ~ ^ , ~ · ~ . · ~ ~ constructors, and facility engineering start. the level of team member involvement Will vary depending upon the decisions to be made, the acquisition phase, and the contract method. Nevertheless, including the perspectives and expertise of the various team members throughout the process is important. Using an integrated project team approach will better enable the owner, designers, constructors, managers, operators and users of a facility to establish objectives for sustainability, functionality and performance and ensure they are reflected in the acquired facility. make informed decisions about tradeoffs among resources, materials, mission objectives, and building performance for the short and long term. ensure that contract documents are written to support design, construction, and performance objectives. facilitate a better understanding of how the materials and systems being considered in the conceptual planning and design phases will affect first costs and life-cycle costs, operations and maintenance practices, and the ultimate performance of a facility over its lifetime. The report fiddling Value to the Facility Acquisition Process: Best Practices for Reviewing Facility Designs (FFC, 2000) identifies IS best practices for (1esign review. Six of the ~ ~ relate to teamwork and collaboration; three relate to an integrated project
26 Sustainable Federal Facilities team approach, as follows: Number 5. Ensure that all interested parties participate in design reviews from the planning and design phases, so that all perspectives are represented as the design evolves. Broad participation creates early project endorsement or "buy-in," reducing the potential of later disagreement or need for changes. At a minimum, involve representatives of the owner, the user, the A/E, construction management staff' maintenance and operations staff, and special staff, such as procurement, safety, and fire protection. Where possible and appropriate, include the construction contractor, permitting-agency staff, and independent specialists for value engineering and independent review. Err on the side of excess participatio~it is cost-effective protection against unexpected and expensive fixes or oversights. , , , _ ~ Number 6. Use the same A/E throughout the facility acquisition process to maximize continuity and allow participants to build and apply their experience baseline. Using the same A/E for conceptual planning, detailed design, construction support engineering services, and start-up takes advantage of the A/E's intimate understanding of both the owner and his project needs, and supports continuity of personnel involved. Number S. Participants should commit for the duration of the activity to ensure continuity. Changing participants from any of the organizations involved in reviewing the design can disrupt the work flow and threaten the stability of good teaming relationships. . _ ~ c~ ~ _ Each of these best practices is implicit in the task group's support of an integrated project team approach for acquiring sustainable facilities. PERFORMANCE MEASURES Executive Order 13123 establishes goals for energy efficiency and sustainable facilities. At the beginning of the acquisition process, when agencies are setting goals and objectives for a facility's performance' it is equally important to establish measures and methods for determining how well those goals and objectives are being met. For example, if an agency establishes a goal of reducing energy consumption by 30 percent in comparison to a traditional building, the agency must also establish the baseline against which energy consumption in the sustainable facility will be measured and the means for measuring, such as a metering or monitoring system. At the appropriate phase, the agency can ensure that the metering or monitoring system is purchased and installed. Creating sustainable facilities through an integrated design approach is a relatively new practice. Both successes and failures will occur, so both good and bad performance should be documented through performance measurement. In this way, agencies can learn from and improve upon past experience. Establishing quantifiable and
Frameworkfor Acquiring Sustainable Facilities 27 qualitative objectives and measures at the beginning of the acquisition process and measuring performance after occupancy is a key component of acquiring sustainable facilities. FRAMEWORK Requirements Assessment Phase ~ N ~ assessment J | .: ~ Design 1 planning | ~ budgeting J I ~ ~J The key decisions to be made in the requirements assessment phase relate to . . . . meeting mission or program requirements. . Determine whether the agency needs a facility to meet a requirement or whether it can employ other strategies. If a facility is required, determine the total scope needed. Determine the functions and number of personnel to be housed. Identify the geographic location. · Ascertain whether the agency will own or lease the facility. Decisions made in this phase will begin to establish the parameters for sustainable development. Issues to be addressed include the following: · Mission or program. Is the mission or program a continuing one or of specific or indefinite duration? Alternatives to facility acquisition. Are there management strategies, such as redeployment of staff, telecommuting, or the use of alternative workplaces, that can be employed to meet the requirement? Are there other methods that can be used to acquire needed services? · Facility acquisition. How will a facility support this mission or program over the short and long term (i.e., what is to be accomplished by acquiring a facility?~. Can a facility acquired to meet the current mission be adapted and reused for other purposes if the mission or program changes? ' Executive Order 13 ~ 23 identifies Energy Star as one such performance measure. Additional information regarding Energy Star is located in Chapter 5: Resources.
28 Sustainable Federal Facilities . Program needs. What are the primary drivers in identifying the need for the facility? Security, national defense, research and development, other? If these drivers are found to be unnecessarily restricting options for sustainable development, can they be challenged? Scope. How much space (gross square feet) is required to accommodate mission or program functions in both the short and long term? What are the minimum requirements? Is it appropriate to provide some increase in scope to accommodate possible future needs (e.g., mission change, environmental regulations)? Siting factors. Does the facility need to be located in a specific geographic location to serve the function? Is its location based on statutory or administrative requirements? Will the facility support a stand-alone Unction or does it need to be proximate to other Unctions and facilities? Finance. Based on the length of mission, space, and location needs, is it more cost effective to own or lease a facility? Energy efficiency goals. How will this facility contribute to meeting Executive Order 13123 goals for reducing greenhouse gases emissions, reducing energy usage, expanding the use of renewable energy, reducing the use of petroleum, and reducing water consumption? Conceptual Planning Phase Requirements ~ Conceptual ~ Programming/ assessment planning budgeting r value ~ l engineering | 1_ ~ . ~ [ Design Construction [ engineering Value The key decisions to be made in the conceptual planning phase are the site of the facility. whether to acquire a new facility or rehabilitate an existing one. the preferred approach for space and functional requirements. the agency's expectations for facility performance, quality, cost, and schedule and for meeting the goals of Executive Order ~ 3 ~ 23. the performance measures to be used to determine how well the agency's objectives are being met.
Frameworkfor Acquiring Sustainable Facilities 29 Sustainable development starts with matching the mission or program requirement to a site. The location of a facility affects a wide range of environmental factors, such as the energy consumed by workers for commuting, the impact on local ecosystems, and the extent to which existing structures and infrastructures are used. All other factors being relatively equal, reusing or renovating existing facilities will typically use fewer resources and thus be more sustainable than constructing a new one. Similarly, facilities or sites located in areas already served by infrastructure will, in general, use fewer resources and disturb less natural habitat and thus be more sustainable than sites that require the extension of water, sewer, roads, or utilities or involve the destruction of natural habitat. Sites or facilities served by public transportation will generally have less effect on nonrenewable energy sources, such as petroleum, because they offer commuters transportation options other than individual automobiles. However, there are always exceptions. For example, if an existing facility is a semi-permanent building with poor energy efficiency, demolishing and replacing it with a more permanent, energy-efficient facility may be more sustainable in the long term. Thus, a case-by-case analysis is necessary. Siting Considerations . Can the mission requirement be met by an existing facility that is vacant, has sufficient excess capacity, or can be rehabilitated? · Can any required functions be combined, simplified, or served elsewhere? · Can functions be collocated or allow for multipurpose usage to decrease the amount of space required? · What is the best, most appropriate use of a site? Are there ecologically sensitive areas, such as endangered species habitats, forests, meadows, wetlands, and waterfronts, that should be protected? Are there culturally sensitive areas, such as historical and archeological sites, that should be preserved? Is any portion of the site contaminated with hazardous materials or toxic substances that may restrict use or require cleanup prior to construction? Actions that can be taken to optimize site potential include . · recognizing that some sites may not be suitable for new or additional development. · minimizing development of open space by selecting already developed land or brownfields. · taking advantage of passive and active energy opportunities by identifying the site's solar angle and radiant energy impacts. integrating the building into the natural setting. · preserving natural attributes.
30 Energy Considerations Sustainable Federal Facilities Are existing buildings well served by infrastructure (i.e., water, sewer, and utilities)? · Are vacant sites under consideration served by infrastructure? Can existing facilities and equipment be renovated to incorporate energy-eff~cient systems and equipment? Will a renovation be cost effective in the short or long term? Actions that can be taken to minimize nonrenewable energy consumption include reducing the use of petroleum by commuters by choosing sites served by public transportation. choosing sites that can be served by alternative fuels for use by agency vehicles. using the natural attributes of a site for optimal lighting, ventilation, heating, cooling, and water conservation. integrating technologies, including solar energy, to further enhance energy conservation. Materials Considerations Can existing facilities and equipment be renovated using recycled content and environmentally preferable materials? Will the use of such materials and equipment affect mission or program achievement? · Will such a renovation be cost effective in the short or long term? How will the use of such materials affect the ultimate disposal of the building? Actions that can be taken to use environmentally preferable products include using locally available materials when possible. identifying renewable products and components to ensure continuing use of sustainable products. · avoiding endangered, nonrenewable products. establishing goals to maximize the use of environmentally preferable products in the building design. · reviewing the life cycle assessment of products being considered. identifying environmentally preferable products by using life cycle assessment tools, such as the Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability (BEES) software.
Framework for Acquiring Sustainable Facilities Water Considerations · What are the water resource limitations of a site regarding the number and type of facilities that can be accommodated? If the facility has high water requirements, do the plans take this into consideration? What impacts will storm water and sediment runoff have during construction and operation? Actions that can be taken to protect and conserve water include · siting facilities to accommodate the watershed drainage. · siting facilities to take advantage of the visual and thermal qualities of water in land use planning. providing for rainwater catchment and segregation of graywater from potable water systems and onsite waste-treatment or graywater distribution systems. developing strategies for mitigating runoff. Indoor Environmental Quality Considerations What effects will materials and systems chosen for a new building or renovation of an existing building have on indoor environmental quality? What effects could the design of the facility have on human health or productivity? Actions that can be taken to enhance indoor environmental air quality include using natural ventilation. establishing lighting and acoustic criteria for the facility design. establishing objectives for using materials that minimize noise pollution and toxic emissions. establishing objectives for maximizing daylighting. providing for sufficient replenishment of fresh air. Operation and Maintenance Considerations · Are existing buildings energy efficient? · Can any deficiencies be addressed through repair or replacement of existing systems? What operations, maintenance, and repair procedures will be needed to optimize the use of specified materials and systems?
32 Sustainable Federal Facilities Actions that can be taken to optimize operations and maintenance practices include . conducting continuous commissioning through real-time monitoring of building systems and maintaining performance through digital direct controls. assessing the indoor air quality and energy consumption of existing facilities. modifying procedures to mitigate the impact of unsustainable operational of heating, practices (e.g., poor housekeeping or maintaining full loads lighting, or air conditioning during nonoperational hours). ensuring delivery of a complete builcling operations manual (operations ant] maintenance support information documentation). Value Engineering/lLife-Cycle Cost Analysis Once the project requirements have been establishe(l, the agency can bring together stakehoIclers to review the project scope. Value engineers should be included as part of the team to complete a limited life-cycle costing for the facility. Another approach could be a design charrette that uses a value engineering methodology or a value engineering study. In the conceptual planning phase, any value engineering effort will be at the macro-level, looking at such major project scope decisions as siting alternatives, utility needs, space requirements, preliminary budget estimates, and project alternatives The following questions can be addressed by a team of value engineers or a value . engineering stun y: . · Mission or program needs. Will the accomplishment of the agency's mission or program be substantially affected by renovating an existing facility rather than acquiring a new one? Facility functions. Are all the building functional requirements well understood? Have they been listed (required and desired)? Are there any areas where the functional requirements have been exceeded? Have the space and general layout been optimized to meet program requirements and intentions, access, and circulation? Is the amount of space programmed adequate for short- and long- term mission needs? Siting factors. When analyzing the alternatives, have the costs associated with drainage, utility supply and distance, requirements for access, visual impacts, habitat disturbance, surface runoff, and excavation been considered? Energy issues. Are alternative energy sources available? Can energy use be (,,, reduced or optimized? · Water. What are the relative costs and tradeoffs of the alternatives related to water and energy consumption and conservation, transportation impacts on energy use, water and air pollution, the reduction of hazardous, harming or toxic substances? Facility costs. If a facility is needed, what are the first costs and life-cycle costs of acquiring a new facility instead of reusing or renovating an existing one? What is the economic driver for the project, first cost or life-cycle cost? Does the agency
Frameworkfor Acquiring Sustainable Facilities 33 have the budget flexibility to increase first costs as a means to decrease the project's life-cycle costs? Programming/Butlgeting Phase , Requirements assessment Conceptual AL planning Design -up , ~ Construction The key decisions to be made in this phase are · which facilities to acquire and the timeframe for doing so. the amount of funds to be sought for design and construction. Sustainable development considerations to be addressed during the programming and budgeting phase include , ~ Requirements Conceptual assessment p I anning Value . . engineering · clearly stating agency goals and objectives for sustainable development in the program and budget documents. addressing first costs and life-cycle costs that justify any increase to first costs. considering potential benefits (e.g., productivity increases, employee retention). clearly stating objectives for meeting Executive Order 13123 requirements. Design Phase Programming/ budgeting - ~3 1 (~nn.ctrlletinn _ _ . - | Value engineering
34 : Sustainable Federal Facilities The key decisions to be made in this phase are selection of contractors to design and possibly to construct or renovate the facility. quality of design and construction expected. whether the agency will seek to meet a particular standard as guidance for integrating sustainable development. orientation of the building on the site with adjacent support facilities (access, roads, parking, utilities, and so forth). choice of systems and technologies. choice of materials. landscaping concepts. · how to integrate the various systems, materials, siting choices to achieve the lowest life-cycle costs. Typically, after funding has been approved, an agency identifies the strategy for selecting the entity that will prepare the detailed facility design. The first step may involve developing contract documents to solicit bids for design only (using a design-bid- build contract method) or possibly design and construction services (using a design-build contract) from private sector architectural and engineering finns and construction companies. Development of the contract documents will be facilitated if the agency has used an integrated project team that includes contract officers. Decisions made about the selection of materials, technologies, and systems to be incorporated into a building will significantly affect its operation and maintenance, its overall sustainability and the ease and cost of disposal. For example, floor tile instead of carpet may result in lower maintenance costs and longer service life, and thus be more sustainable during the buildings life. Building systems or materials containing or using toxic or hazardous materials will make it more difficult and costly to dismantle and dispose of the facility. Contract Considerations What level of sustainability is to be achieved? For example, is the building to achieve a certified, silver, gold, or platinum level of sustainability under a "green building" rating system such as the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environment Design (LEED, described in Chapters 4 and 51? Is the building to meet Energy Star goals? What are the implications for sustainable development if the agency specifies design criteria? If the agency uses a performance-based contract? What contract method will best support the achievement of sustainable development objectives? What are the implications of the choice of project delivery method (i.e., design-bid- build, design-build, or other processes for sustainable development)? If design-build is the contract method, how will the requirements and incentives related to sustainable construction practices and features be enforced? If design-bid-build is
Frameworkfor Acquiring Sustainable Facilities 3s used how will the architects and engineers be compensated for any additional effort to find optimal solutions for achieving sustainable development goals? What are the implications of the choice of project delivery method for value engineering analyses? For example, the application of value engineering on design- build contracts may require special consideration. Value engineering should be used to evaluate the project requirements during the conceptual planning phase, which is normally done by the architectural and engineering firm prior to award of a design- build contract. It may be appropriate to use value engineering during design development with the design-build team; however, any design changes, either cost savings or increases, will need to be negotiated and balanced against sustainable goals. What are the implications of the contract selection procedure (e.g., lowest bid or best value) for meeting sustainable development objectives? If contractor selection is based on best value, life-cycle cost savings may be considered! a primary evaluation factor. Contract options and value engineering proposals that reduce life-cycle costs may also be considered. . What types of incentives and clauses should be added to contracts to promote sustainable features in the final design or construction? One example may be to Include a requirement tor a sustainable design consultant to ensure that sustainable features are incorporated and preserved throughout the design, construction, and start- up phases. Performance-based contracts can stipulate that the designer should maximize building energy efficiency and incorporate other resource-conserving, sustainable building features. Who will determine whether the incentive clauses have been met and how? What types of evaluations will be used to determine whether an architectural and engineering firm has the requisite experience to incorporate sustainable design features? What measures will be used to determine whether the design is sustainable? Will the construction contractor be responsible for sustainable construction practices, such as protection of trees on site and disposal of materials in an appropriate manner? Who will be responsible for monitoring and enforcing the implementation of such contract clauses? Will a team be established (e.g. architects, engineers, construction contractor, and operations and maintenance contractor) to be responsible for conducting a building start-up to ensure that all systems and equipment operate as intended? What level of commissioning is required? Who is liable for failures to meet these requirements? How will failures be remedied? · Will the A-E final or construction contractor be responsible for compiling a building operations manual containing the as-buiTt conditions, defining maintenance schedules, predicting life-cycle repair and replacement, and so forth? If so, what documentation standards will be used? Who will approve such a manual? When will the manual be submitted? · . . · . ~
36 Siting Considerations Sustainable Federal Facilities · How can the building footprint, including associated access and parking facilities, be minimized on the site? Does the site design allow for flexibility to accommodate future requirements? Can facilities be located near public transportation or can a shuttle service be provided? Can alternative means of transportation be encouraged? Actions that can be taken to optimize site potential include · orienting the proposed structures to take advantage of climatic factors such as sun angle and wind direction, thereby using passive measures to reduce energy consumption. · providing a central, public focus for a community of mixed-use facilities, using appropriate landscaping and providing amenities that promote social interaction and beneficial use of space in urban areas. · providing pedestrian-friendly settings, thereby minimizing dependence on motor vehicles. · minimizing distances between facilities. . · providing properly located sidewalks lighted for security and such traffic-calming measures as narrower roads with speed bumps. · reducing heat islands using landscaping and building design methods. mitigating noise levels, both from the surroundings and from building operations. · saving trees and vegetation. · providing bicycle racks and shower facilities. Energy Considerations Energy usage is affected by several aspects of facility and site design including the building envelope; heating, ventilation, air conditioning equipment; and lighting systems. A well insulated facility that minimizes air infiltration, but allows controlled ventilation (operable windows), and uses materials and colors that allow predictable radiant heat gain and reflection, can facilitate energy conservation in lighting, provision of fresh air, heating and cooling of the facility. · What utilities are available locally? · How will this facility integrate into a campus-wide or urban utility system? · Are thermal storage opportunities feasible? · Are passive solar energy techniques or active systems such as hydro, fuel cell, photovoltaic, and wind generating equipment, suited to the climate? If so, can they be incorporated without adversely affecting program or mission? · Can increasing the efficiency of the building envelope, the use of daylighting, or the application of passive techniques reduce heating and cooling requirements and lead to
Frameworkfor Acquiring Sustainable Facilities 37 downsizing or elimination of traditional heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems? What are the functional air requirements of the spaces being served? What are the energy goals? What energy design standard will be used? What level of individual temperature control is desired? What are the natural ventilation opportunities? · Are all design assumptions embodied in current standards questioned in calculating heating and cooling loads and plug loads? Can the specification of energy-efficient equipment alter plug loads? What are the functional needs for light? . How can energy-efficient lighting systems be used to support natural light sources? Actions that can be taken to minimize nonrenewable energy consumption include · using such renewable energy resources as solar power, particularly for facilities off the utility power grid and where peak use of commercial power can be reduced. · allowing for adaptability of features (i.e., solar screening for summer, stone masonry during winter) to account for seasonal changes in solar radiant heat gain. · using trees and other vegetation to redirect prevailing winds to the facility and to shade the structure. reducing the facility's surface-to-volume ratio while maintaining useable program ^, - . . e~lclencles. using colors that reflect or absorb solar radiation. increasing absorption wall mass to enhance thermal storage (e.g., Trombe walls, where desirable). applying controllable natural ventilation, or airtight insulation exceeding code, to match the climactic conditions. · placing and sizing openings appropriate to the solar angles. specifying efficient e- and R- values for windows, doors and wall insulation, and considering whether windows will be operable based on space functionality and coordination with ventilation system controls. incorporating structural measures including overhangs, light wells, photovoltaic cladding, ceiling height, and facility dimensions that will leverage increased energy efficiency of the integrated mechanical and electrical systems. Optimizing the sizing of heating, ventilation and air conditioning equipment against reduced heating and cooling loads of lighting and the building envelope. Optimizing cross-ventilation or use of ceiling fans where natural ventilation is feasible. selecting energy-efficient heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and humidity conditioning equipment, and high efficiency variable speed motors and fans. conditioning the humidity of the air to appropriate comfort levels as an integrated Function of the system. complying with indoor air quality standards while minimizing energy required to
38 Sustainable Federal Facilities condition fresh intake air and using heat exchangers between intake and exhaust ducts. · locating equipment for ease of maintenance, including easy access to filtration equipment for maintaining air quality. · using on-demand water heaters where hot water use is minimal and using high- eff~ciency, solar-assisted water heaters. minimizing pipe lengths and insulating piping where central hot water storage is required. applying cogeneration to produce heat and hot water from a single power source (e.g., reuse the hot water or steam generated by fuel cells). specifying Energy Star office equipment and appliances (computers, copiers, printers, fax machines, refrigerators, microwaves, washers and dryers, etc.) and selecting energy efficient installed equipment, such as elevators and water heaters. using shared natural daylighting, (e.g., skylights, clerestories, light shelves, etc.) to reduce the need for artificial lighting. using area-specific lighting levels that will allow reduced ambient lighting levels and energy-efficient, low-heat-producing, electronically ballasted lamps and fixtures with automatic controls. . . . . Materials Considerations include . · What materials can be used that will result in less construction waste? · What materials and products will minimize the costs and environmental impacts of disposing of the facility? Actions that can be taken to support using environmentally preferable products · designing building dimensions to allow for use of resource-eff~cient systems (e.g., matching building dimensions to standard-size furniture and interior fittings to eliminate waste created through custom fittings. using demountable and reusable interior building components to accommodate program changes. specifying durable, low-maintenance materials or encouraging the use of recyclable assemblies and products that can be easily Reconstructed at the end of their useful lives. specifying locally available materials with manufacturing processes that optimize energy expended on materials production and transportation and maximize benefits to local economies. specifying materials harvested on a sustained-yield basis, such as lumber from certified forests. · eliminating the use of materials that pollute or are toxic during their manufacture, use, or reuse. identifying materials covered by the Recovered Materials Advisory Notices
Frameworkfor Acquiring Sustainable Facilities . 39 issued by the Environmental Protection Agency under its comprehensive procurement guidelines. applying the Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability (BEES) software developed by the National Institute for Standards and Technology to select materials with the desired combination of environmental benefits (see Chapter 5 for additional information about this software). Water Considerations . · What measures can be taken to ensure water use is as efficient as possible? What opportunities are there for the presence of water to enhance optimization of mechanical and electrical systems? What measures can be taken to reduce, control, and treat surface runoff? Can rainwater collection cisterns and separate graywater systems for below-ground irrigation be incorporated to eliminate the use of potable water? Actions that can be taken to protect and conserve water include installing water recovery systems and water-conserving cooling towers. planting indigenous plants that have adapted to natural water availability. using beneficial landscaping practices to minimize irrigation. using porous materials on paved surfaces to minimize runoff and pre-treating surface runoff. using pervious surfaces for low-traffic-volume roadways and parking areas and biofiItration swales and retention ponds to maximize infiltration and minimize runoff. installing an on-site biological waste treatment facility. using water efficiently through ultra-Iow-flow fixtures, water-conserving cooling towers, eliminating leaks, and other actions. eliminating lead-bearing products in potable water. recovering nonsewage and graywater for on-site use. Indoor Environmental Quality Considerations · Can interior and exterior environments be designed to protect occupant health and enhance worker productivity? Actions that can be taken to enhance indoor environmental quality include: providing a well-designed interior environment that is visually and acoustically pleasing. providing thermal comfort with maximum personal control over temperature and humidity.
40 Sustainable Federal Facilities . . . assuring acoustic privacy and comfort through the use of sound-absorbing material and equipment isolation. controlling disturbing odors through contaminant isolation and providing proper ventilation. providing separate chemical storage areas with separate ventilation. complying with air quality standards with optimal energy use to condition fresh air and installing a permanent air-monitoring system to assure compliance. · locating air intake ducts away from fume-producing areas, such as loading docks and driveways. · using separate ventilation for interior work areas that produce noxious fumes. · reducing or eliminating materials (paint, carpet, particleboard, adhesives) that contain toxic or hazardous substances, such as lead, asbestos, and volatile organic compounds, that affect human health. creating a high-performance luminous environment through integration of natural and artificial light sources. · replacing ozone-depleting substances such as chlorinated fluorocarbons in refrigeration equipment and specifying PCB-free transformers and other electrical equipment. eliminating asbestos in existing and new buildings. providing radon infiltration barriers. Operations and Maintenance Considerations Does the design accommodate the requirements of the facility operators through simplification of scheduled maintenance? · What will be the format of the facility operating manual? · Will the systems dictate additional training for staff to ensure proper operation and maintenance? Actions that can be taken to optimize operations and maintenance practices nclude having the facility manager and building engineering staff on the integrated project team before and during design to ensure that maintainability considerations are incorporated into the design. specifying low-maintenance, durable, environmentally preferable materials and equipment. positioning equipment to allow for easy access for maintenance. adopting sustainability goals that reduce life-cycle operation and maintenance costs and reflecting those savings in budget documents. providing for electronic transfer of as-built drawings, product information, warranties, operation and maintenance instructions, and preventive maintenance schedules from the construction contractor to the facility owner's computer-aided facilities management system
Frameworkfor Acquiring Sustainable Facilities 41 · providing digital direct controls to allow real-time monitoring and operations control of building systems to maintain peak performance. Value Engineering and Life-Cycle Costing Study As the site and building design elements are identified, value engineering with life-cycle costing can be employed to analyze the Unctions of systems and materials, both individually and in relation to each other, for the purpose of achieving lowest life- cycle cost consistent with the required performance of the facility. A full value engineering study is appropriate at this point. All aspects of a facility's design -- siting, structural, architectural, mechanical, electrical, and systems integration -- can be reviewed for optimum functional balance across construction costs, user requirements, sustainability, and life-cycle costs. An independent team conducts the study, which is then reviewed by the responsible agents in the agency. In the design phase the value engineering study can identify and provide alternatives for · materials and equipment that are highly technical and will require additional training for operation and maintenance personnel to operate them appropriately. · Tow-value, long-lead-time items. · repetitive or similar items that appear in the design. · designs that are pushing the state of the art or are of very recent origin, which may involve costs that outweigh the functions performed. · complex items or processes with little or no value added to the facility. · items that have remained unchanged for many years and lack technological improvements. Construction Phase - Requirements ~ ~ Conceptual ~ ~ Programming/ ~ | ~ J I planning ~ ~ Start-up - ~ ~ ~ ~ Construction W; clue ~ ~ Value ~ ~ engineering J engineering J ,
42 Sustainable Federal Facilities The key decisions to be made in the construction phase are evaluation, analysis, and consideration of change orders that may affect facility sustainability. approval of value engineering change proposals. how to avoid compromising sustainable development strategies and objectives due to cost overruns. implementation of monitoring procedures. determining whether changes have been made that require additional training of operations and maintenance staff. A significant challenge in the construction phase is managing changes resulting from such sources as scope of work changes by the owner, errors and omissions in the plans and specifications, and unknown or changed site conditions. The construction manager and the contractor may be inclined to deviate from the original design for a number of reasons. Making substitutions or changes in building design, components, or materials may affect the sustainability of the building. For example, cost overruns during construction may require scope reductions where high value, non-essential items are a tempting target. However, eliminating some high priced, high performance technologies (e.g., low e-value windows) may increase the first cost and life-cycle costs of other interdependent building system technologies, (e.g., heating, ventilation, air conditioning equipment) or otherwise result in unsatisfactory building performance. The design engineer can advise about the scope changes that can be accommodated without negatively affecting facility performance. A similar circumstance may arise where standard construction practice deviates from the design drawings. Field changes, such as the placement of air ducts, may produce results that do not meet the sustainability objectives or goals. To preserve the benefits of sustainable development, it is essential to monitor the process to ensure that the contractor complies with the design drawings and specifications, including selecting materials and equipment with the specified performance characteristics. Siting Considerations · Can the environment of the construction site be preserved or restored? What effects will construction activity have on adjacent or nearby habitats, runoff to rivers and ponds, and dust distribution? 1 Actions that can be taken to optimize site potential include ensuring that trees and vegetation identified for preservation during design are saved. stockpiling and redistributing topsoil. replanting trees, particularly where benefit of shading on the facility envelope is cost effective. installing storm water retention ponds and filtration barriers to prevent siltation
Frameworkfor Acquiring Sustainable Facilities and pollution of the watershed. · designating parking, storage, work, and cleaning areas, (e.g., wash-down areas for concrete mixers) to minimize impact on the environment. planting vegetation (e.g., grass) to reduce runoff and mitigate dust. 43 Energy Considerations · Are there methods that can be used to conserve energy during construction? · Are there ways to ensure that energy conservation methods are not changed during construction? Actions that can be taken to minimize nonrenewable energy consumption include consulting with the designer before modifying the design to reflect common construction industry practices, to ensure such modifications do not affect design performance. conserving energy to the degree possible during construction operations. constructing to the greatest extent possible in the factory and assembling on site in the largest practicable units. Materials Considerations · Does the contractor have a material recycling plan that calls for segregating materials for either reuse on the project or for sale to commercial recyclers? · When submitting materials for approval for conformance to specifications, are judgments concerning which materials are environmentally preferable being reviewed prior to approval? Actions that can be taken to use environmentally preferable products include · recycling or salvaging construction waste and excess building materials through demolition planning and waste separation. · reusing forms for concrete pours. · ensuring conformance with specifications and calling for the use of environmentally preferable products. Water Considerations · Are water resources protected during construction? Actions that can be taken to protect and conserve water include installing filtration barriers to prevent siltation and pollution thereby preserving the watershed.
44 Indoor Environmental Quality Considerations Sustainable Federal Facilities · Can the production of harmful waste be reduced or eliminated? · Can construction workers be protected from the hazards of such waste? Actions that can be taken to enhance indoor environmental quality include · flushing out the building of volatile organic compounds and other out-gases prior to sealing the building (although eliminating materials that produce these products is the preferred solution). · implementing a commissioning plan to ensure proper operation and optimal performance of all energy-consuming equipment. Operation and Maintenance Considerations Have measures been taken to ensure a smooth transfer of the completed building to the owner and operators and to familiarize the operator with the proper functioning and maintenance requirements of all building systems? Actions that can be taken to optimize operations and maintenance practices include conducting building commissioning to ensure that all systems are working as specified and that the operator staff is familiar with the procedures for maintaining efficient performance. electronically transferring as-built drawings, product information, warranties, operation and maintenance instructions, and maintenance schedules from the construction contractor to the facility owner's computer-aided facilities management system. Value Engineering and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Value engineering can be successfully integrated into the project management/construction management (PM/CM) aspect of a project. When used for fast track, bid packaging, or increased project management application, value engineering as part of the manager's scope of work is an effective tool for preserving the sustainable qualities of facilities development. Since the PM/CM is responsible for cost, schedule, and quality control, value engineering is an effective tool that should be used. The regulatory basis for the application of value engineering to design and construction projects is the Federal Acquisition Regulations, (Parts 48 and 52~. It states that, as required by Section 36 of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act (41 U.S.C. 401, et seq.), "agencies shall establish and maintain cost-effective value
Frameworkfor Acquiring Sustainable Facilities engineering procedures and processes" and that 4s value engineering is the formal technique by which contractors may ( ~ ) voluntarily suggest methods for performing more economically and share in any resulting savings or (2) be required to establish a program to identify and submit to the Government methods for performing more economically. Value engineering attempts to eliminate, without impairing essential functions or characteristics, anything that increases acquisition, operation, or support costs. Start-Up Phase Requirements: ~ Conceptual ~ ~ Programming/ assessment planning _ budgeting The key decisions to be made in the start-up phase are acceptance of the facility. ~ - ~ Design [ - 3, Start-up · the level of ongoing training to be provided to operations and maintenance staff and facility users. During the start-up phase, systems and components are tested to ensure that all systems are working as specified and that the building operators are familiar with the procedures necessary to maintain the facility at optimum performance. It is also desirable to inform facility users about how their daily activities will affect energy performance and about the sustainable features of the facility. Post-Start-Up: Operation and Maintenance of the Facility include If a facility's systems and equipment are not operated properly, sustainable development integration may not achieve the anticipated energy savings, indoor environmental quality standards, or expected service life. Actions that can be taken to optimize site potential after the facility is occupied · promoting car pooling by giving priority parking and subsidizing public
46 . . . . Sustainable Federal Facilities transportation. minimizing travel by supporting telecommuting programs and enabling teleconferencing. providing securable bicycle racks in observable areas. Actions that can be taken to minimize nonrenewable energy consumption include operating and maintaining the facility in a manner that ensures optimal performance. consulting with the designer of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems when correcting deficiencies. properly training maintenance personnel. inviting occupants to bring performance issues to the attention of the facility manager. installing automated monitors and controls to measure energy, water, waste, temperature, moisture, and ventilation. monitoring building performance to document energy savings and to identify deviations from design targets. tuning the building systems as necessary. ~ . · . · ~ perIOrm perlOC .1C reCOmMlSSlOnlIlg. Actions that can be taken to use environmentally preferable products include using recyclecl content materials and high-efficiency equipment when replacing building components during routine maintenance. providing for collection of recyclable materials and placing containers where it is convenient for building occupants. establishing a recycling and waste management plan that seeks to eliminate disposal off site. Actions that can be used to protect and conserve water include using environmentally beneficial landscaping practices and planting with native species to minimize the need for irrigation, fertilization, and pest control. · reusing graywater from systems provided for in the design to irrigate, where necessary. Actions that can be taken to enhance indoor environmental quality include · using properly sealed vacuum cleaners to prevent airborne dust and using cleaning supplies with minimal air quality impact. · cleaning heating, ventilation and air conditioning ducts and filters to eliminate airborne and waterborne bacteria, molds, dust mites, etc. · monitoring air quality to ensure proper functioning of the ventilation system and detection of contaminants.
Frameworkfor Acquiring Sustainable Facilities Actions that can be taken to optimize operations arid maintenance practices include 47 monitoring facility performance through a policy of scheduled recommissioning, metering, and annual reporting. training facility occupants, facilities managers, and maintenance crews in sustainable design concepts and requirements. using energy-efficient equipment for trimming and mowing to minimize air pollution. comporting, mulching, and recycling organic materials. complying with the facility operations manual, operating the systems as intended, and maintaining the equipment at optimal performance. monitoring facility performance and documenting energy savings and deviations from design targets, tuning the systems as necessary. REFERENCE FFC (Federal Facilities Council). 2000. Adding Value to the Facility Acquisition Process: Best Practices for Reviewing Facility Designs. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.