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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
×

Index

A

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome. See AIDS/HIV

ACTH. See Adrenocorticotropic hormone

Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). See Leukemia

Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) See Leukemia

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML). See Leukemia

ADA. See American Diabetes Association Adipose tissue

TCDD distribution, I: 130, 131, 168–169, 259, 269, 280;

IV: 42, 43, 64, 116, 117

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), IV: 59

Aerial spraying, I: 3, 24;

III: 135, 137, 139;

IV: 117, 120, 123, 150, 160, 303

military early research, I: 25–26;

III: 28;

IV: 150

records of, I: 84–85, 287

See also Herbicide application methods;

Herbicides

AFHS. See Air Force Health Study

Aflatoxin, I: 453;

IV: 267

Africa, sub-Saharan, II: 181;

III: 282;

IV: 267

Age and aging

acute lymphocytic leukemia incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 384;

IV: 9, 378

acute myeloid leukemia incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 384;

IV: 378

bone cancer incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 302;

IV: 288

brain cancer incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 356;

IV: 351

breast cancer incidence in US women, data for selected age groups, III: 324;

IV: 314

cancer age-specific incidence, I: 436–438

chronic lymphocytic leukemia incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 384;

IV: 378

chronic myeloid leukemia incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 384;

IV: 378

diabetes prevalence, data by age, III: 492

epidemiologic studies, control of aging effects, II: 261–262;

III: 409;

IV: 3, 13, 23

female reproductive system cancer

incidence, data by type, for selected age groups, III: 329, 330;

IV: 321

gastrointestinal tract cancer incidence, data by type for selected age groups, III: 267;

IV: 250

Hodgkin’s disease incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 372;

IV: 365

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
×

immune system, IV: 31, 79

laryngeal cancer incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 292;

IV: 277

latency and, II: 261–262, 273, 275;

III: 409, 414–415, 425, 428, 430;

IV: 254, 256, 264, 265

leukemia incidence, data by type, for selected age groups, III: 384;

IV: 378

liver/intrahepatic bile duct cancers incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 282;

IV: 267

lung cancer incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 296;

IV: 281

melanoma incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 313;

IV: 300

multiple myeloma incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 377

nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 289;

IV: 273

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma age of onset, I: 436

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 362;

IV: 356

prostate cancer incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 334;

IV: 10, 327

renal cancers incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 352;

IV: 346

reproductive disorders, IV: 51–52, 59, 63, 66, 71, 80, 200

soft-tissue sarcoma age of onset, I: 436

soft-tissue sarcoma incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 306;

IV: 292

TCDD half-life, IV: 24, 28, 45

testicular cancer incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 343;

IV: 33

urinary bladder cancer incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 347;

IV: 340

See also Demographic data, Vietnam veterans

Agent Blue, I: 27, 89–90, 93, 97, 100;

III: 136, 137;

IV: 118

volume used in Operation Ranch Hand, data, III: 136

Agent Green, I: 27, 90, 92, 114;

III: 136, 137, 140, 146;

IV: 118

volume used in Operation Ranch Hand, data, III: 136;

IV: 123

Agent Orange, II: 308;

III: 130, 159, 315, 344, 359, 389, 407, 444, 460, 462, 489, 491;

IV: 117–118, 150, 156

Air Force research activities, II: 31–32;

III: 28–29

birth defects association, II: 298, 300;

III: 435;

IV: 400

cancer latency issues, II: 260–276;

III: 407–431;

IV: 284

chemical composition, I: 27;

II: 102;

IV: 119

chloracne association, II: 317, 318;

III: 479;

IV: 138, 463

congressional hearings, II: 27–28;

III: 25

defoliant effectiveness, I: 90

Department of Veterans Affairs activities,

II: 29–31, 153, 156–157;

III: 27–28;

IV: 15

Environmental Protection Agency research

activities, II: 32;

III: 29–30

exposure opportunity index (EOI), II: 290–291;

III: 146, 147, 148;

IV: 124, 405

federal government action/research, I: 45–60;

II: 27–32;

III: 27–32;

IV: 13

health effects of, concerns, I: 2;

II: 19–23, 26–27;

III: 19–20, 236, 237, 240, 242, 243

International Agency for Research on Cancer research activities, III: 30

legislation, I: 47–52;

II: 28–29;

III: 26–27;

IV: 1, 15

Orange II formulation, I: 90;

III: 137;

IV: 119

product liability litigation, I: 34–35

spontaneous abortion, II: 283;

IV: 399–400, 409–412

suspension of use, I: 92–93;

II: 26

TCDD as contaminant of, I: 91, 114, 126–127;

II: 102;

III: 140;

IV: 133–135

Vietnam amount used, I: 1, 27, 74, 90, 97–98, 106;

II: 1, 26;

III: 136;

IV: 115, 118–119

Vietnam military application, I: 1, 3, 27, 74, 84–85, 90, 92–93, 97–107, 543–545;

II: 1, 26–27;

III: 1, 25, 136, 137, 138, 140;

IV: 125–126

Vietnam surplus disposal, I: 93–94

Vietnam veterans’ concerns, I: 32–34;

II: 26–27

Vietnam veterans’ increased disease risk, II: 22–23;

III: 22–23, 272;

IV: 8–9, 12, 256, 270, 275, 279, 284, 290, 296, 305, 311, 318, 323, 332, 338, 343, 348, 353, 359, 367, 374, 381, 388

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
×

volume used in Operation Ranch Hand, data, II: 136;

IV, 120, 123, 150

See also Herbicides;

Incineration, of Agent Orange

Agent Orange, the Deadly Fog, I: 33

Agent Orange Act of 1991. See Public Law 102–104

Agent Orange Briefs, I: 56;

II: 31;

III: 28

Agent Orange Registry (AOR), I: 20, 53, 56, 729;

II: 29, 31, 153, 228;

III: 28, 344

See also Department of Veterans Affairs (DVA)

Agent Orange Review, I: 56;

II: 31;

III: 28

Agent Orange Scientific Task Force, I: 60–61

Agent Orange Study, I: 19, 57, 58–59, 63–64, 276–278;

II: 102;

III: 147, 148;

IV: 124

Agent Orange Task Force, II: 24–26;

III: 24–25, 148;

IV: 124

See also Department of Veterans Affairs, U.S. (DVA)

Agent Orange Validation Study, III: 240;

IV: 156, 159, 160, 162, 283, 304, 327, 403

Agent Orange Victims International, I: 34

Agent Orange Working Group, I: 19, 46, 58, 277, 743

research methodology, I: 728

Agent Orange II. See Agent Orange

Agent Pink, I: 27, 90, 92, 114;

III: 136, 137, 140, 146;

IV: 118, 122–123

volume used in Operation Ranch Hand, data, III: 136;

IV: 123

Agent Purple, I: 27, 89, 92, 114;

III: 136, 140, 146;

IV: 118, 122–123

Operation Ranch Hand, IV: 123

TCDD in, I: 126;

IV: 122

volume used in Operation Ranch Hand, data, III: 136

Agent White, I: 27, 90, 92–93, 97, 115, 189;

III: 136, 137;

IV: 118–119,

volume used in Operation Ranch Hand, data, III: 136

Agricultural/forestry workers brain tumors, I: 320, 523;

II: 136

Canadian Farmer Cohort, II: 135–136

cancers, I: 13, 37, 320–323, 443, 447, 454;

II: 133–137, 179

case-control studies, I: 326–341, 486–488;

II: 118–122, 138–140;

III: 185–195, 228–232

cohort studies, I: 318–323;

II: 118–120, 135– 137, 197–198;

III: 178–185, 224–228;

IV: 197–202

epidemiologic studies, I: 37, 318–323;

II: 118–120, 135–137, 232–234, 238–239, 241–243;

III: 178–195, 224–232, 284–285, 335, 364–365, 379–380, 387–388;

IV: 134, 141–142, 145, 257, 260, 263, 265, 271, 285, 290, 296, 306, 312, 318, 324, 333, 338, 349, 353, 360, 368, 374, 381, 401

female reproductive and breast cancers, I: 510–511;

IV: 324–325

hepatobiliary cancer, I: 454;

II: 183–184;

III: 284–285;

IV: 271

herbicide exposure assessment, I: 265–266;

III: 154–157;

IV: 202

Hodgkin’s disease, I: 550–553;

II: 135

Irish agricultural workers study, II: 136–137

kidney cancer, I: 515

leukemia, I: 332–335, 566–568;

II: 136;

III: 387–388

malignant lymphoma in, IV: 201

multiple myelomas, I: 11–12, 558–561;

II: 138–139, 238–239, 241–243;

III: 379–380

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, I: 9, 256–257, 530–540;

II: 138, 139, 232–234;

III: 364–365;

IV: 359–361

prostate cancer, I: 11, 518, 519, 575;

II: 8–9;

III: 335;

IV: 327–329

reproductive outcomes, I: 510–511, 598

respiratory cancer, I: 11, 466;

II: 197–198

soft-tissue sarcomas, I: 37, 326–328, 479– 481, 486–488

sperm dysfunction, I: 632

suicide, I: 650

See also Forests;

Professional pesticide/herbicide applicators

Agricultural Health Study, IV: 142

See also Iowa

Agricultural herbicides, I: 24, 35, 39, 174–175, 181;

II: 137–139

See also Herbicides

Agriculture. See Agricultural/forestry workers;

Agricultural herbicides;

Food crops;

Forests

Ah receptor (AhR), I: 3, 123, 134;

II: 3–4, 51–53, 54–56, 57–62;

III: 54–58, 129;

IV: 25–26, 29–30, 42, 47, 50–58, 60, 68, 69, 70–73, 76, 80, 82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 90, 93, 94, 95, 99–100

animal studies and, I: 114, 123;

II: 3–4, 51–53, 54–56, 57–62, 92–93;

III: 33, 34, 35, 54–58, 62–63, 67–69, 129;

IV: 48–49, 61–62, 64–67, 74–75

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
×

anti-estrogenicity and, II: 62;

III: 67–69

biological consequences of activation, II: 57;

III: 62;

IV: 56–60, 323

blood abnormalities, I: 125

cacodylic acid acute toxicity, I: 188

cacodylic acid carcinogenicity, I: 118, 119, 187;

IV: 5, 387

cacodylic acid chronic exposure, I: 188–189

cacodylic acid developmental toxicity, I: 189

cacodylic acid genotoxicity, I: 187–188

cacodylic acid mechanism of action, I: 188–189

cacodylic acid and mechanism of toxicity,

II: 50–51;

IV: 24

cacodylic acid pharmokinetics, I: 186–187

cacodylic acid renal toxicity, II: 50–51

cacodylic acid reproductive toxicity, I: 189

cacodylic acid toxicity summary, II: 50;

III: 48;

IV: 38

cacodylic acid toxicokinetics, I: 188–189;

IV: 24, 27, 38

combinatorial interactions, II: 57–58

DNA binding capability and transcription, activation of, II: 56–57;

III: 58–61

free radicals and, II: 60;

III: 64–65

growth/differentiation signaling, III: 62–63

growth factor and, II: 59

inconsistencies in, II: 57–62

ligand-independent activation, II: 58

multiple forms of, II: 57

nervous system and, I: 161

protein kinases and, II: 60–62;

III: 65–67;

IV: 69–71

redox signaling, III: 64–65;

IV: 67–69

signaling interactions, II: 59–62;

III: 62–69;

IV: 60–61, 64, 71–74

structural and functional aspects of, II: 54–56;

III: 54–58;

IV: 54–56

TCDD biologic plausibility and, I: 3, 133–138, 452–453;

IV: 4, 25–26, 29, 42, 47–53, 322, 386

TCDD carcinogenicity and, I: 118, 439

TCDD hepatotoxicity and, I: 151, 152, 457;

II: 3–4

TCDD immunotoxicity and, I: 122, 150

TCDD reproductive toxicity and, I: 123

TCDD teratogenicity and, I: 159–160

transcriptional-independent responses, II: 58–59

See also ARNT

AIDS/HIV, I: 338, 527, 541, 695;

II: 326;

IV: 144, 214, 356, 47, 476

Air Force. See U.S. Air Force

Air Force Health Study (AFHS), I: 62–63, 260, 272, 622;

II: 284, 293–295, 336;

III: 23, 25, 29, 239, 438–439, 495, 505, 514;

IV: 13, 232, 233, 234, 235

appropriation for, I: 51

autoimmune disease in, I: 698

basal/squamous cell skin cancer in, III: 318, 321, 322;

IV: 309

baseline mortality studies, II: 151

birth defects in offspring, II: 286, 293–295;

III: 436, 438, 439;

IV: 402

bone cancer in, III: 303;

IV: 289

cancer and latency in, III: 423, 424, 425, 427

circulatory disease in, I: 703–705, 706;

II: 336;

III: 514, 517;

IV: 508–509

data sources, I: 385–386;

II: 150–151

diabetes mellitus in, I: 684;

II: 330;

III: 495, 498–500, 502;

IV: 485–487

epidemiological studies, II: 31, 32, 149, 150–152, 154–156, 293–295;

III: 28–29, 206–207, 218, 237–240, 303, 309–310, 313–314, 318, 321, 322, 339, 340, 385, 436, 438, 439, 446–447, 449, 452–453, 457–458, 481, 486, 495, 498–500, 502, 505, 506, 507, 510, 513, 514, 517;

IV: 291, 294–295, 298, 301, 305–306, 308–311, 313, 327, 329, 331, 334–36, 342, 345, 347, 350, 352, 355, 357, 362, 366, 370, 373, 376, 380, 383

exposure assessment in, I: 279–280, 281, 386;

II: 4–5, 101, 103, 109;

III: 6, 146–147, 157–158, 162;

IV: 123–124

gastrointestinal ulcers in, I: 691;

III: 510, 513

immune system disorders in, I: 696

infertility in, II: 280;

III: 446–447, 449

lipid abnormalities in, I: 689;

II: 333;

III: 505, 506, 507;

IV: 494

liver toxicity in, II: 332;

III: 510, 513;

IV: 502

low birthweight in, I: 626, 627;

III: 457–458

melanoma in, III: 313–314;

IV: 303–304

methodology, I: 230–231, 385–386, 445, 757–762

multiple myelomas in, I: 562;

II: 244, 245;

IV: 373

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
×

neurological disorders in, I: 659;

IV: 441–443, 445, 454–455, 459

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in, I: 541;

IV: 362

participants, I: 722–723;

II: 150–152

perinatal death in offspring, III: 452–453

peripheral nervous system disorders in, I: 665;

IV: 454–455

porphyria cutanea tarda in, I: 681–682;

II: 321–322;

III: 481

recommendations for, I: 16–17, 722–724;

II: 23, 24;

IV: 13

reproductive outcomes in, I: 601, 612–613, 632, 633, 727;

II: 293–295;

III: 436, 438, 439, 446–447, 449, 452–453, 457–458;

IV: 403

respiratory cancers in, I: 469;

II: 201

respiratory disorders in, I: 711–712;

III: 486

role of, I: 53

skin cancers in, II: 209;

IV: 303

skin disorders in, I: 678

soft tissue sarcoma in, I: 492–493;

III: 309–310;

IV: 294–29

spina bifida in offspring, II: 9, 295–296;

III: 7, 8, 9–10, 438

spontaneous abortions in, II: 283–284

status of, I: 53;

II: 31–32

TCDD half-life estimates, I: 260–261;

II: 104–105;

III: 37, 50, 157–158

TCDD serum levels, I: 273, 281, 285, 656;

II: 101, 103, 105, 109, 351, 356, 357;

III: 146, 147

See also Operation Ranch Hand;

U.S. Air Force;

Vietnam veterans

Aktiengesellschaft, Germany, IV: 137

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), II: 331, 332;

III: 45, 509, 510;

IV: 37

Alaskan natives

Inuit, III: 50–51

See also Race/ethnicity

Alberta, Canada, II: 135–136, 232, 242, 246;

III: 234–235, 319–320;

IV: 149, 198, 229, 312–313

Alberta Cancer Registry, III: 235

Alberta Health Care Insurance Plan, III: 235

Alcohol consumption, I: 507

ALL. See Leukemia

Allergies, II: 327, 329;

III: 487–488;

IV: 469–470

See also Immune system disorders

Alsea, Oregon, I: 42–43, 372–373, 598

ALT. See Alanine aminotransferase

AL-type primary amyloidosis See Amyloidosis

American Association for the Advancement of Science, I: 29, 92

Herbicide Assessment Commission, I: 30–31

American Cancer Society, I: 334;

II: 177, 181, 189, 191, 204, 205, 209, 211, 217, 223, 228, 231, 239, 245;

III: 267, 282, 289, 292, 295, 296, 302, 304, 312, 322, 324, 329, 334, 343, 347, 351, 356, 362, 371, 377, 383;

IV: 250, 267, 273, 277, 281, 287, 291, 299, 300, 314, 320, 326, 335, 339, 345, 350, 355, 364, 371, 377

Cancer Prevention Study, II: 239;

III: 229

American College of Epidemiology, II: 25

American Diabetes Association (ADA), III: 492, 493, 502

American Industrial Hygiene Association, II: 25

American Journal of Epidemiology, II: 281

American Legion, I: 60, 278–279, 399, 601–602, 626, 633;

II: 113, 157;

IV: 133, 158

Vietnam veterans’ epidemiological studies,

III: 212–213, 243

American Public Health Association, II: 25

American Thoracic Society Epidemiology Standardization Questionnaire, II: 136

d-Aminolevulinic acid synthetase, I: 153–154

Amitrole, I: 323

AML. See Leukemia

Amyloidosis, IV: 2, 7, 11, 511–513

Anencephaly, IV: 404–405

Angina, I: 708;

IV: 135

See also Circulatory disorders Animal studies;

III: 394–396, 524;

IV: 254, 256, 269, 275, 279, 290, 293–294, 296 2,4-D carcinogenicity, I: 118–119, 176–178;

II: 48;

III: 47, 396;

IV: 37 2,4-D chronic exposure, I: 179–180;

IV: 34 2,4-D developmental toxicity, I: 124, 180–181;

III: 46 2,4-D disease outcomes and mechanisms of toxicity, II: 48–49;

III: 38–39, 44–47;

IV: 30–32, 35 2,4-D genotoxicity, I: 178–179;

IV: 28, 33 2,4-D immunotoxicity, I: 122–123, 181;

III: 46, 423;

IV: 36 2,4-D lethality, III: 44–45;

IV: 35

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
×

2,4-D mechanism of action, II: 47–48;

III: 44;

IV: 33

2,4-D mechanism of toxicity, II: 48–49;

IV; 28, 37

2,4-D neurotoxicity, II: 48;

III: 45–46, 473;

IV: 30, 35

2,4-D pharmacokinetics, I: 175

2,4-D reproductive toxicity, I: 124, 180, 181;

III: 46;

IV: 29, 36

2,4-D toxicity profile update summary, II: 46;

IV: 33

2,4-D toxicokinetics, II: 46–47;

III: 43–44;

IV: 24, 27

2,4,5-T acute toxicity, I: 184

2,4,5-T carcinogenicity, I: 118, 119, 182–184;

III: 396

2,4,5-T chronic exposure, I: 184

2,4,5-T developmental/reproductive toxicity, I: 124, 185;

II: 49–50

2,4,5-T genotoxicity, I: 184

2,4,5-T immunotoxicity, I: 123

2,4,5-T mechanism of action,

III: 47–48

2,4,5-T mechanism of toxicity, II: 49–50;

IV: 37

2,4,5-T pharmacokinetics, I: 182

2,4,5-T toxicity profile update summary, II: 49;

IV: 37

2,4,5-T toxicokinetics, II: 49;

III: 47;

IV: 37

Ah receptor, I: 3, 123, 134;

II: 3–4, 51–53, 54–56, 57–62;

III: 54–58, 129;

IV: 4, 30, 386

amyloidosis, IV: 512

blood abnormalities, I: 125;

IV: 496

breast cancer, IV: 29, 317–318

cacodylic acid acute toxicity, I: 188

cacodylic acid carcinogenicity, I: 118, 119, 187;

IV: 5, 387

cacodylic acid chronic exposure, I: 188–189

cacodylic acid developmental toxicity, I: 189

cacodylic acid genotoxicity, I: 187–188

cacodylic acid mechanism of action, II: 50;

III: 49–50

cacodylic acid mechanism of toxicity, II: 50–51;

IV: 24

cacodylic acid pharmacokinetics, I: 186–187

cacodylic acid renal toxicity, II: 50–51

cacodylic acid reproductive toxicity, I: 189

cacodylic acid toxicity summary, II: 50;

IV: 38

cacodylic acid toxicokinetics, II: 50;

III: 48;

IV: 24, 27, 38

characteristics of, I: 111–114;

IV: 48

epidemiologic studies, IV: 359, 361, 369, 381

evidentiary role, I: 228;

IV: 85, 106, 385, 515–516

generalizability, I: 112, 113, 114, 118, 122–123, 160;

IV: 26, 85, 426, 459

hepatic abnormalities, I: 124–125, 688;

IV: 25, 57, 59–60

human health relevance of toxicology, III: 35–36;

IV: 26, 48

male-mediated disorders, I: 593–594

nonhuman primates, I: 151

picloram in, I: 118, 119, 125, 190–192;

III: 51

squamous cell carcinomas, IV: 284

TCDD acute toxicity, II: 75–76

TCDD and bladder cancer in;

IV: 342

TCDD and bone cancer in;

IV: 290

TCDD and Hodgkin’s disease in;

IV: 367

TCDD and leukemia disease in;

IV: 380

TCDD and multiple myeloma in;

IV: 374

TCDD and nasal and nasopharyngeal cancer in;

IV: 275

TCDD and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in;

IV: 358

TCDD and prostate cancer in;

IV: 332

TCDD and soft-tissue sarcoma in;

IV: 279

TCDD carcinogenicity, I: 3, 116, 138–142;

II: 3, 65–68;

IV: 26, 305, 311

TCDD cardiovascular toxicity, I: 171;

II: 76;

III: 74–75

TCDD dermal toxicity, I: 173–174;

II: 76

TCDD developmental toxicity, I: 123–124, 156–157, 159–160;

II: 3, 71, 72–73;

III: 92–105;

IV: 58

TCDD disease outcomes, II: 3;

III: 39–43, 71–105;

IV: 3, 23

TCDD endocrine effects, III: 83–84

TCDD gastrointestinal toxicity, I: 169–170;

IV: 256

TCDD hepatotoxicity, I: 124–125, 151–156;

II: 3, 73–75;

III: 76–79

TCDD immunotoxicity, I: 119–122, 146– 151;

II: 3, 68–71;

III: 85–92;

IV: 3, 26

TCDD-induced diabetes, IV: 488

TCDD-induced wasting syndrome, I: 162–166;

II: 76–77;

III: 80–83;

IV: 57, 76

TCDD lethality, III: 71–73;

IV: 76

TCDD mechanism of action, II: 3, 54–65;

III: 51–53, 54–58, 62–63, 67–69;

IV: 3, 24

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
×

TCDD mechanism of toxicity, II: 65–77

TCDD metabolic toxicity, I: 166–169

TCDD neurotoxicity, I: 160–166;

II: 3, 75;

III: 84–85;

IV: 352, 458

TCDD pharmacokinetics, I: 127–133

TCDD renal toxicity, II: 77;

III: 75–76;

IV: 348

TCDD reproductive toxicity, I: 123–124, 156–159;

II: 3, 71–72;

III: 92–105;

IV: 26, 64, 323, 337, 411, 432, 434

TCDD respiratory tract toxicity, I: 170

TCDD toxicity update summary, II: 51–53

TCDD toxicokinetics, II: 3, 53–54;

III: 4–5, 33;

IV: 3, 23, 41, 47

toxicity, potential health risks and contributing factors, III: 106, 107, 108

Anthropometry. See Body weight

AOR. See Agent Orange Registry

Apoptosis, TCDD and, II: 3, 67

Arctic, Inuit natives, III: 50–51

Argentina, III: 224

Arkansas, I: 373–374, 663;

III: 234;

IV: 149, 231

Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, I: 494

Army. See U.S. Army

Army Chemical Corps. See U.S. Army Chemical Corps

Army Reserve Personnel Center, II: 152

ARNT, II: 4, 45, 55, 56, 57, 58, 66;

III: 38, 54–58, 63;

IV: 30, 47–56, 61, 67, 69–73, 86

See also Ah receptor (AhR)

Arsenic

cacodylic acid component, IV: 117–118

respiratory cancer and latency, II: 268;

III: 420

Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, I: 135, 153, 155–156, 170

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). See Ah receptor (AhR)

Asbestos, respiratory cancer and latency, II: 268;

III: 420

Asia, III: 471

Asian Americans, II: 188

See also Race/ethnicity

Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), II: 331, 333;

III: 45, 509;

IV: 37

Assembly of Life Sciences (ALS), I: 62, 63

Association of Birth Defect Children, II: 292

AST. See Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)

Asthma, I: 708, 711, 713;

IV: 199

See also Respiratory disorders

Ataxia, I: 658

See also Motor/coordination dysfunction;

Neurobehavioral toxicity

Atlanta Congenital Defects Program, I: 387

Atlanta, Georgia, II: 241, 296;

III: 229

CDC Birth Defects Study, II: 9;

III: 438;

IV: 237

Atlantic Ocean, III: 108

Australia, I: 61, 91, 340, 406, 418, 444, 470, 488–489, 537, 546, 614–615, 633, 702, 710;

II: 113, 132, 149, 160, 202, 293;

III: 216–217, 218, 237, 244–245;

IV: 8, 10, 144, 150, 159, 210, 304

Air Force veterans, III: 244

Army veterans, III: 244, 245;

IV: 159

Australian National Service Vietnam veterans, III: 273, 286

Bureau of Statistics Health Interview Survey, 1989–1990, III: 245, 485, 511, 517

Department of Defense, III: 244, 245

Department of Veterans Affairs, III: 244, 245

Electoral Commission rolls, III: 245

Health Insurance Medicare, III: 245

herbicide use by forces, III: 137–138

lung cancer mortality in Vietnam veterans,

III: 424

National Death Index, III: 245

Navy veterans, III: 244

Victorian Cancer Registry, III: 232;

IV: 144

Vietnam veterans epidemiologic studies,

III: 9, 273, 285–286, 290, 294, 295, 298, 299, 303, 310, 311, 314, 315, 327, 329, 339, 340, 343, 346, 349, 353, 355, 359, 365, 380, 389, 469, 486, 489, 500, 506, 512–513, 517;

IV: 244–247, 255, 259, 262, 264, 266, 272, 276, 280, 283, 287, 295, 298–299, 305–308, 310, 313, 319, 323–326, 332, 334–335, 337, 339, 345, 350, 355, 362–363, 371, 376, 380, 383, 404–405

See also Tasmania

Austria, IV: 138–139, 189, 467–468, 500

Autoimmune disease, I: 697–699;

IV: 475–481

See also Immune system disorders;

Systemic autoimmune disease;

Systemic lupus erythematosus

Autoimmunity, I: 693, 697–699;

II: 7, 21, 327, 329;

III: 487–488;

IV: 476–477

See also Immune system disorders

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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B

B cell function, I: 147, 148

Baltic Sea, II: 329;

III: 108, 236, 272, 285, 358, 484, 515

Basal/squamous cell skin cancer

biologic plausibility, III: 322;

IV: 311

epidemiologic studies, III: 317–322, 323

herbicide environmental exposure and, III: 323;

IV: 229, 309

herbicide occupational exposure and, III: 321, 323;

IV: 309

herbicides association with, III: 317–322, 323

incidence, III: 319–320

mortality studies, III: 319, 321

scientific literature update, III: 319–320;

IV: 309

Vietnam veterans and, III: 323

See also Melanoma;

Skin cancer

BASF, I: 312–313, 444, 530, 550, 558;

II: 130–131, 238, 318–319, 325, 330–331, 332– 333, 334, 336;

III: 153, 154, 174, 221–222, 269–270, 273, 297, 349, 484, 495, 506, 511;

IV: 112, 188–189, 257, 260, 271, 285, 290, 301, 333, 343–344, 368, 382

Aktiengesellschaft, III: 221;

IV: 137

Dioxin Investigation Programme, II: 131

Occupational Safety and Employee Protection Department, II: 131

Basic helix-loop-helix (BHLH), II: 54, 55, 56;

IV: 49

Bayer, III: 154;

IV: 112

Beck’s Depression Inventory, I: 650, 651

Benefits. See Compensation, veterans

BHLH. See Basic helix-loop-helix (BHLH)

Bias, methodological. See Methodological bias

Binghamton, New York, III: 234;

IV: 149

Biochemical warfare, I: 29, 45

Biologic plausibility, II: 88, 92;

III: 2, 124, 128;

IV: 2–3, 16, 20–22, 26, 29, 106–107, 249, 385–388

Ah receptor-TCDD interaction, I: 3, 133–137, 439, 452–453;

III: 129;

IV: 48, 86

altered sperm parameters, I: 634;

III: 451

animal studies, I: 228;

II: 176;

III: 460–462, 474–475;

IV: 431–435

basal/squamous cell skin cancer, III: 322

birth defects, II: 298;

III: 444;

IV: 403

bladder cancer, III: 351;

IV: 342–343

bone cancer, I: 474;

III: 304;

IV: 290

brain tumors, I: 525;

III: 362;

IV: 352

breast cancer, II: 217;

III: 327, 329;

IV: 317–318

carcinogenicity, I: 116–118, 119, 146, 176–178, 182–184, 187, 190–191, 439, 451;

II: 176;

III: 394–397;

IV: 385–387

childhood cancer, I: 630;

II: 300;

IV: 426

chloracne, I: 678;

II: 320–321;

III: 480;

IV: 466

circulatory disorders, I: 708;

III: 518;

IV: 510

diabetes mellitus, I: 692;

II: 335;

III: 502–503;

IV: 488

endometrial cancer, IV: 322

evidentiary role of, I: 111, 114, 223–224, 240–241, 434;

II: 88, 92, 176;

III: 23, 106–107

female reproductive system cancers, I: 512;

III: 334;

IV: 323

fetal/neonatal/infant death, I: 624;

III: 453

gastrointestinal tract cancers, III: 281–282;

IV: 256

gastrointestinal ulcers, III: 513–514

genitourinary tract cancers, I: 521–522

genotoxicity, I: 178–179, 184, 187–188, 191

hepatobiliary cancer, I: 453, 457;

III: 286, 288;

IV: 270

Hodgkin’s disease, I: 557;

III: 377;

IV: 367

hyperlipidemia, I: 692

immunotoxicity, I: 122, 146–151, 181, 192, 699;

III: 491

infertility, I: 634;

II: 282;

III: 451

laryngeal cancer, III: 295;

IV: 279

leukemia, I: 571;

III: 390;

IV: 380–381

liver disorders, I: 691–692;

II: 335;

III: 513–514;

IV: 270

low birthweight outcomes, I: 628;

III: 458

lung cancer, III: 302;

IV: 284

male-mediated reproductive outcomes, I: 593–595;

III: 451;

IV: 413, 416–417, 426

melanoma, III: 317;

IV: 305

motor/coordination dysfunction, I: 661;

III: 475;

IV: 448

multiple myeloma, I: 12, 563;

III: 383;

IV: 374

nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer, I: 460;

III: 292;

IV: 275

neurobehavioral disorders, II: 314;

III: 474–475

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
×

neuropsychological disorders, I: 658;

IV: 457–459

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, I: 549;

III: 366;

IV: 358–359

peripheral nervous system disorders, I: 666

porphyria cutanea tarda, I: 679, 682;

II: 323;

III: 482;

IV: 468

prostate cancer, III: 343;

IV: 331–332

renal cancers, III: 356;

IV: 348

renal toxicity, I: 179–180

reproductive outcomes, I: 123–124, 180–181, 185, 189, 192, 605, 618, 628;

II: 300–301;

III: 458, 460–462;

IV: 411

respiratory cancers, I: 472

respiratory disorders, I: 713;

III: 486

skin cancer, I: 503;

IV: 305, 311

soft-tissue sarcoma, I: 500;

III: 311;

IV: 296

squamous cell carcinomas, IV: 284

testicular cancer, III: 347;

IV: 337

See also TCDD biologic plausibility

Biological samples, I: 20–21, 729–730

Biomarkers

chloracne as, I: 4, 10, 172–173, 262, 401, 672–674;

II: 318

exposure assessment and, I: 259–262, 280–284;

II: 101–104;

III: 146–147;

IV: 111, 123, 479, 448

research recommendations, I: 17, 725;

II: 25

sperm parameters as, I: 631

Bionetics Research Laboratory, I: 30

Birth defects

biologic plausibility, III: 444;

IV: 403

definition of, I: 605–606;

II: 286;

III: 435;

IV: 400

epidemiologic studies, II: 140, 286–296;

III: 436, 437–438, 443;

IV: 247, 403

epidemiology, I: 606;

II: 286;

III: 435–436

evaluation of epidemiologic data, I: 615–618;

IV: 144–145, 403

herbicide association first reports, I: 1

herbicide association in, I: 13–14, 618;

II: 7, 11, 20, 286–296;

III: 436–444;

IV 400–405

herbicide environmental exposure studies, I: 608–609;

II: 140, 287–288, 297;

III: 437

herbicide occupational exposure studies, I: 607–608;

II: 286–287, 297;

III: 437;

IV: 197

Ranch Hand participants’ children and, II: 293–296;

III: 436, 438, 439;

IV: 18

risk factors of, I: 606–607;

II: 298;

III: 444

scientific literature update, III: 437, 439–443;

IV: 401–402

Seveso, Italy, study, II: 287;

III: 436

summary, II: 295–296;

IV: 400–401

TCDD biologic plausibility in, I: 618;

II: 298;

III: 460–461

Vietnam veterans’ children and, I: 609–615, 618;

II: 288–296, 297, 298;

III: 435, 436, 437–438;

IV: 403

See also Cleft lip/palate;

Neural tube defects;

Reproductive disorders;

Spinabifida;

Teratogenicity

Birth Defects Study, II: 9, 290–291, 296;

III: 147, 436, 438, 439;

IV: 405, 429

See also Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Births. See Birth defects;

Low birthweight;

Perinatal death;

Preterm delivery (PTD)

Bladder cancer and disorders biologic plausibility, III: 351;

IV: 342–343

epidemiologic studies, I: 515–517;

II: 225–227;

III: 347–351;

IV: 19, 339–347, 385, 387

epidemiology;

II: 223;

III: 347

herbicide association in, I: 12, 521, 576;

II: 7, 12, 21, 225–227, 250;

III: 3, 10, 21, 132, 347–351;

IV: 19, 31, 40

herbicide environmental exposure and, III: 349, 350–351;

IV: 341

herbicide occupational exposure and, III: 348, 350;

IV: 340–341

histopathology, I: 513

incidence, I: 513

incidence, data by age/gender/race, for selected age groups, III: 347;

IV: 340

risk factors, I: 513–514

scientific literature update, II: 226–227;

III: 348–349;

IV: 340

TCDD, association with, IV: 19, 24

Vietnam veterans’ risk, I: 513, 517, 522;

II: 223, 226;

III: 349, 351

See also Genitourinary cancers

Body mass index (BMI), II: 281;

III: 499, 502

Body weight, loss of and TCDD, II: 3

Boehringer-Ingelheim, I: 313;

III: 153–154;

IV: 111–112

Bone cancer

biologic plausibility, III: 304

children and, I: 628

chondrosarcomas of the skull, III: 2, 10, 266, 304

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
×

epidemiologic studies, III: 303–305

epidemiology, I: 472–473;

II: 204;

III: 302

herbicide association in, I: 13, 473–474, 577;

II: 6, 11, 20, 204–205, 249–250;

III: 7, 10, 303–305

herbicide environmental exposure and, III: 303, 305;

IV: 289

herbicide occupational exposure and, III: 303, 305;

IV: 288

incidence of, data by gender/race, for selected age groups, III: 302;

IV: 288

scientific literature update, II: 204–205;

III: 303;

IV: 288

Vietnam veterans’ risk, I: 473, 474;

II: 204;

IV: 290

Vietnam veterans’ studies, III: 303, 305;

IV: 289

Boston Hospital for Women, II: 291–292

Brain tumors, I: 339;

IV: 350

2,4-D exposure and, I: 119, 176–177

agricultural workers and, I: 320;

II: 136

biologic plausibility, III: 362;

IV: 352

clinical features, I: 522

epidemiologic studies, II: 136, 229–230;

III: 356–361;

IV: 198

epidemiology, I: 522–523;

II: 228–229;

III: 356

herbicide association in, I: 12, 525, 576;

II: 7, 12, 21, 229–230, 250;

III: 8, 12, 21, 356–362;

IV: 19

herbicide environmental exposure and, III: 358, 361;

IV: 351

herbicide occupational exposure and, III: 357–358, 360;

IV: 351

incidence, data by gender/race, for selected age groups, III: 356;

IV: 351

scientific literature update, II: 229–230;

III: 357–359;

IV: 351

TCDD, association with, IV: 19

Vietnam veterans’ risk, I: 525;

II: 228–229, 230;

IV: 353

Vietnam veterans’ studies, III: 358–359, 361;

IV: 352

Breast cancer

agricultural workers and, I: 510;

IV: 140

biologic plausibility, II: 217;

III: 327, 329;

IV: 318

epidemiologic studies, II: 214–216, 217;

III: 324–328;

IV: 318–320

epidemiology, I: 505, 506–507;

II: 213–214;

III: 322, 324;

IV: 144

herbicide association in, I: 13;

II: 6, 11, 12, 20, 89, 213–217, 249–250;

III: 7, 10, 324–329;

IV: 24, 29, 38, 73

herbicide environmental exposure studies, I: 511, 512;

III: 328;

IV: 315

herbicide occupational exposure studies, II: 214–216;

III: 324–326, 328;

IV: 315

histopathology, I: 505–506

incidence in US women, data by race, for selected age groups, III: 324;

IV: 314

risk, estimated, II: 218

risk factors, I: 507

scientific literature update, III: 326–327;

IV: 315

Vietnam veterans’ risk, I: 213, 216–217, 505, 511;

III: 329;

IV: 318

Vietnam veterans’ studies, III: 326, 328;

IV: 316

See also Reproductive system cancers,

women

British Columbia, Canada, III: 10, 227–228, 338, 439–440, 447–448, 449, 452, 453, 457;

IV: 419

Cancer Incidence File, III: 227

Death File, III: 227

Division of Vital Statistics, III: 452, 457

Health Surveillance Registry, III: 227, 439

Bronchitis, I: 708, 711, 713

See also Respiratory disorders

Bronchus cancer. See Lung cancer

Brown, Jesse, II: 24;

III: 24, 25

Bureau of Census, III: 231

Bureau of Labor Statistics, I: 79, 80

n-Butyl esters, I: 27;

IV: 117–119

C

Ca Mau peninsula, I: 100, 104

Cacodylic acid, I: 88–89;

II: 4;

III: 5, 19, 32, 135, 136, 137, 218;

IV: 22, 117–118, 133

acute toxicity, I: 188

animal studies, I: 185–189;

II: 50–51;

III: 34, 38, 48, 49–50, 396;

IV: 5

carcinogenicity, I: 118, 119, 187;

II: 40;

III: 396

chemical properties/structure, I: 111, 114, 186;

II: 38;

III: 32

chronic exposure, I: 188–189

developmental toxicity, I: 124, 189

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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dimethylarsenic radical formation and, II: 4

disease outcomes, III: 34, 50;

IV: 25, 31

domestic use, I: 185–186

genotoxicity, I: 119, 187–188

kidney toxicity, I: 125;

II: 42

mechanism of action, II: 50;

III: 38, 49–50

mechanisms of toxicity, II: 50–51

metabolism, I: 115, 116

Operation Ranch Hand, use in, IV: 117

pharmacokinetics, I: 186–187

renal toxicity, II: 50–51

reproductive toxicity, I: 124, 189;

II: 42;

IV: 403

toxicity update summary, II: 50;

IV: 23, 33, 38

toxicokinetics, II: 50;

III: 32–33, 48;

IV: 24, 27–29

Vietnam formulations, I: 186

volume used in Operation Ranch Hand, data, III: 136

Calcium, homeostasis of and 2,4,5-T, II: 4

California, I: 341;

III: 232

See also Irvine, California

Camp Drum, New York, I: 25–26, 89

Canada, I: 11, 319–320, 323, 374–375, 443, 467–468, 537–539, 620, 650;

II: 8, 132, 135–136, 140, 219–220, 243, 248;

III: 226, 232, 303, 309, 335, 344, 348, 353;

IV: 141, 199, 209, 257, 296, 333, 353, 360, 374, 381

Census of Agriculture, 1971, II: 135

Census of Population, 1971, II: 135

Central Farm Register, 1971, II: 135

Central Farm Register, 1981, II: 135

Mortality Data Base, II: 135;

III: 227

Mortality Study of Canadian Male Farm Operators, II: 135–136;

III: 224;

IV: 140, 198–200

Saskatchewan Cancer Foundation, II: 139

Saskatchewan Hospital Services Plan, II: 139

Statistics Canada, III: 227

See also Alberta, Canada;

British Columbia,

Canada;

Manitoba, Canada;

New Brunswick, Canada;

Ontario, Canada;

Saskatchewan, Canada

Cancer

age-specific incidence, I: 436–438;

IV: 250, 267, 273, 277, 281, 288, 292, 300, 314, 321, 327, 335, 346, 351, 356, 365, 372, 378

agriculture workers and, I: 320–323, 443;

II: 136, 137–138

biologic plausibility, I: 116–118, 119, 434;

II: 176;

III: 394–397;

IV: 249, 256, 270, 275, 279, 284, 290, 296, 305, 311, 318, 322, 323, 331, 332, 337, 342, 343, 348, 352, 358, 359, 367, 374, 380, 381, 385

children and, I: 14, 594–595, 628–631;

IV: 345, 399, 400, 417–429

clinical features, I: 433–436

epidemiologic studies, I: 45, 317, 320–323, 325–326, 367, 383–384, 391–393, 443– 445;

II: 133–138, 147–148;

IV: 182, 251–255, 268–269, 274–275, 277–278, 282–283, 288–289, 292–295, 302–304, 309–310, 315–316, 321–323, 327–329, 336–337, 340–342, 346–347, 351–352, 356–358, 365–367, 372–373, 379–380

epidemiology, I: 433, 435–438, 442, 525;

II: 175;

III: 265–266

herbicide association, insufficient evidence for determining, I: 13–14, 577–578;

II: 249–250;

III: 393;

IV: 268, 270, 274, 279, 286, 302, 305, 311, 314, 318, 321, 323, 336, 337, 338, 340, 342, 346, 348, 374, 378, 380, 384

herbicide association, limited/suggestive evidence of, I: 10–12, 574–576;

II: 247– 249;

III: 393;

IV: 256, 278, 279, 283, 331, 373, 384, 385

herbicide association, no evidence of, I: 12–13, 576–577;

II: 250;

III: 393–394;

IV: 254, 256, 269, 289, 317

herbicide association, sufficient evidence of, I: 8–10, 572–574;

II: 175, 176, 247;

III: 390, 392;

IV: 295, 358, 367, 384

herbicide environmental exposure

epidemiologic studies, I: 444, 469;

II: 147–148;

IV: 254, 269, 274, 278, 282, 289, 293, 302, 309, 315, 321, 329, 336, 341, 347, 351, 357, 366, 372, 379

herbicide exposure measures, II: 175, 176;

III: 265–266

herbicide occupational exposure studies, I: 443–444;

II: 133, 134;

IV: 251, 268, 274, 282, 288, 292, 302, 309, 315, 321, 327, 336, 340, 346, 351, 356, 365, 372, 379

herbicide/pesticide applicators and, I: 320–321, 323, 325–326, 443, 447, 466–468, 488, 491;

II: 137–138;

IV: 276

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
×

herbicides, categories of association in, I: 572

mortality studies, I: 442–445;

II: 133, 134, 136, 137, 263;

III: 410–411, 421, 422, 423, 424, 426, 427, 429;

IV: 251–254, 268–270, 277, 282, 288, 289, 292, 293, 294, 299, 302, 303, 305, 327, 329, 330, 331, 332, 336, 341, 346, 347, 351, 352, 356, 357, 358, 365, 366, 367, 372, 373, 379, 380

multistage model, I: 142–143, 434, 439

P450 induction to, I: 144–145, 170

phenoxy herbicide association in, I: 483;

III: 422, 423, 429

research priorities, I: 19, 727

research recommendations, I: 19, 727

risk assessment, I: 442–443, 578;

II: 251, 276;

III: 430–431

site groupings for ICD-9 cancer codes, III: 537–539

TCDD animal studies, I: 138–142;

II: 176;

III: 394, 396;

IV: 306, 311, 317

TCDD genotoxicity, I: 143–144

TCDD in initiation/promotion, I: 116, 142–143, 434, 439

TCDD in P450 induction to, I: 144–145

Vietnam civilians, II: 148

Vietnam veterans, expected incidence, I: 439–440, 442, 452, 460–461, 473, 475, 501, 505, 513, 522, 526, 564;

II: 176–177;

III: 266–267

Vietnam veterans’ risk, I: 391–393, 401, 402–403, 405, 436–438, 444–445, 578;

II: 251, 276;

III: 397, 430–431;

IV: 256, 270, 275, 279, 284, 290, 296, 305, 311, 318, 323, 332, 338, 343, 348, 353, 359, 367, 374, 381, 388

See also Carcinogen(s);

Latency effects in cancer studies;

specific cancers;

specific cancer sites

Carcinogen(s) 2,4-D as, I: 118–119, 176–178;

II: 40, 48;

III: 47, 396;

IV: 5 2,4,5-T as, I: 118, 119, 182–184;

II: 40;

III: 396

cacodylic acid as, I: 118, 119, 187;

II: 40;

III: 396;

IV: 29, 31

herbicides as, I: 3, 40;

II: 273, 275;

III: 426, 428, 430;

IV: 10, 17, 267, 270, 341, 345, 511

mechanism of action, I: 434

picloram as, I: 118, 119, 190–191;

II: 40;

III: 396

TCDD as, I: 3, 116–118, 434, 439;

II: 3, 39–40, 65–68;

III: 394, 396;

IV: 3, 82–83, 134, 256, 274–275, 279, 284, 290, 296, 305, 311, 318, 330, 332, 337, 342, 348, 352, 358, 367, 374, 380, 385–387, 477

See also Cancer

Cardiovascular system disorders cardiomegaly, I: 703

circulatory disorders, I: 699–709;

IV: 182

lipid abnormalities in, I: 688

TCDD in, I: 171;

II: 76;

III: 74–75;

IV: 76, 135, 156–157;

IV: 23–26, 135, 156–157

See also Circulatory disorders;

Myocardial infarction

Case-control studies

agriculture/forestry workers, I: 326–341;

II: 138–140;

III: 185–195, 228–232

evidentiary role of, I: 234–235, 727;

II: 94–95, 178, 179, 180, 188;

III: 130;

IV: 105, 108

herbicide environmental exposure, II: 144–146, 148–149, 184, 186, 190, 193, 241;

III: 201–204;

IV: 227–231, 322

herbicide exposure assessment for, I: 256–257, 727;

IV: 9, 137, 144–146, 207–221, 336, 369, 401, 418–420, 428, 444–445, 447

herbicide occupational exposure, II: 122–127, 138–140, 183, 184, 186, 188, 190, 193, 200, 222, 240;

III: 173, 175, 185–196;

IV: 133, 136, 187, 192, 207–221, 328

paper/pulp workers, II: 126–127, 200;

IV: 147, 221–223

Vietnam veterans, II: 155–157, 159–160, 187, 223;

III: 208–217;

IV: 124, 236–245, 247, 420, 423–425, 427

Causality

statistical association vs., I: 7, 227, 239, 246;

II: 5, 19, 97, 247;

III: 6, 20, 132–133, 390;

IV: 6

CDC. See Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CDDs. See Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins

Cell-mediated immunity (CMI)

TCDD and, II: 69–70

Cell proliferation

TCDD and, II: 3, 67;

IV; 23, 60, 61, 63, 79, 82

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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Cellular retinoic acid binding protein, type II (CRABP-II), II: 73

Census Bureau. See Bureau of Census

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), I: 19, 40–41, 51;

II: 9;

III: 363, 517;

IV: 115, 123, 133

Agent Orange action/research, I: 57–62, 63–64;

II: 28;

III: 25;

IV: 125–126

Agent Orange Study, I: 276–278;

II: 102;

IV: 124

birth defects research, I: 387–389, 609–612;

II: 289;

IV: 124

epidemiological studies, II: 113, 155–156;

III: 26, 207–209, 218, 240;

IV: 156–157, 208, 235, 236, 237

exposure opportunity index, I: 274–276, 611–612;

II: 290–291;

III: 147–148

neural tube defects in children, studies by, IV: 18

research methodology, I: 728

TCDD half-life investigation, II: 104–105

validation study, I: 59, 260–261, 281–284, 285, 387, 742–743;

II: 103, 104;

III: 240

See also Birth Defects Study;

Cerebrospinal Malformation (CSM) Study;

General Birth Defects Study (GBDS);

Selected Cancers Study;

Vietnam Experience Study (VES)

Central nervous system (CNS). See Cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders;

Motor/coordination dysfunction;

Neurologic disorders

Cerebrospinal Malformation (CSM) Study, I: 610;

II: 289–290

Cerebrovascular disease, I: 702

stroke, I: 658, 659, 660

Cervical cancer, I: 13, 505, 509, 510, 512;

II: 6;

III: 329, 330, 332;

IV: 320–21, 324, 385

Chemical production. See Chemicals and chemical industry;

Herbicides;

Industrial accidents;

Production workers

Chemicals and chemical industry

Agent Orange product liability litigation, I: 34–35

hexachlorophene production, I: 40;

II: 128;

IV: 134–135, 138, 148

production workers exposure studies, I: 303–318;

II: 114–118, 128–135, 171–175, 182–183, 191, 193–197, 206–207, 232, 237–238, 273–274, 275;

III: 170–178, 218, 219–224, 284, 363–364, 378–379, 386–387, 420, 423, 426, 429;

IV: 133–140, 194–197, 252, 257, 258, 260, 262, 263, 265, 266, 271, 276, 280, 285, 286, 293, 296, 297, 301, 306, 307, 318, 319, 325, 327, 333, 334, 338, 343, 344, 348, 349, 353, 354, 360, 368, 374, 381, 382

TCDD contamination in production, I: 91, 126

See also Herbicides;

Industrial accidents

Chemoreception

characteristics of, I: 133–134

dioxin-responsive enhancers in, I: 135–136

estrogen-mediated, I: 145

TCDD dose-response linearity, I: 137–138

TCDD hepatotoxicity and, I: 154–155

TCDD-induced wasting syndrome and, I: 164

See also Ah receptor

Child mortality studies, II: 147

See also Deaths;

Mortality studies

Children

spina bifida in Vietnam veterans offspring,

II: 9–10, 296, 298, 309;

III: 7, 8, 9–10, 21, 24–25, 437–438

See also Child mortality studies;

Children, cancer in

Children, cancer in, I: 14, 594–595, 628–631;

II: 7, 11, 20;

IV: 399–400, 417–420, 422, 425–426, 427, 428, 432

epidemiologic studies, II: 299

epidemiology, II: 298;

IV: 422–425

herbicide association in, II: 299–300

scientific literature update, II: 299–300;

IV: 418–422

Seveso, Italy, study, II: 299;

IV: 428

Vietnam veterans’ offspring, II: 299;

IV: 426, 429

See also Wilm’s tumor

China, I: 458;

II: 188, 320;

III: 159, 289;

IV: 273

See also Shanghai, China

Chloracne, I: 39

animal studies, I: 173–174;

III: 480

biological plausibility, II: 320–321;

III: 480;

IV: 466

chemical production workers and, I: 308, 310, 316;

IV: 464, 466

clinical features, I: 672–673

diet and, I: 174;

IV: 463–464

epidemiologic studies, I: 674–678;

II: 318– 320;

III: 479–480;

IV: 135–136, 138– 139, 147, 152, 186, 189, 194, 233

epidemiology, II: 317–318;

III: 478–479

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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herbicide association in, I: 10, 678;

II: 5, 6, 20, 318–321;

III: 6, 7, 20, 24, 479–480;

IV: 185, 463–464

scientific literature update, II: 318–320;

III: 480;

IV: 465

Seveso, Italy, accident and, I: 366–367;

IV: 464

skin cancer and, I: 502

TCDD biomarker for, I: 4, 10, 28, 172–173, 262, 401, 672–674;

II: 3, 318

Vietnam veterans and, II: 317, 318, 321;

III: 479, 480;

IV: 233, 465–466

Vietnam veterans compensation for, I: 50, 51, 55, 56;

II: 24, 28–29, 30, 31

See also Skin sensitivity

Chlordane, I: 91

Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs), II: 63–64, 65

Chlorodibenzodioxins, I: 28 4-Chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA),

II: 113, 133, 188, 193, 195–196, 207;

III: 218, 225;

IV: 133, 197, 258, 259, 260, 262, 264, 265, 267, 276, 280, 286–287, 290, 291, 297, 299, 312, 334, 335, 338, 339, 344–345, 349, 350, 354, 355, 401

2-[4-Chloro-2-methylphenoxy]propanoic acid (MCPP), II: 133, 195–196

Chlorophenols, I: 9;

III: 150, 151, 154, 218, 222, 223, 422, 423, 429;

IV: 16

Chondrosarcomas of the skull. See Bone cancer

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). See Leukemia

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). See Leukemia

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), II: 129;

IV: 184, 470, 472, 474, 475

See also Respiratory disorders

Circulatory disorders

definition, II: 335, 337;

III: 514;

IV: 505

biologic plausibility, III: 518;

IV: 510

epidemiologic studies, I: 700–707;

II: 335–337;

III: 514–518;

IV: 506–509

epidemiology, III: 514

herbicide association in, I: 14, 708;

II: 7, 11, 21, 335–337;

III: 3, 8, 514–518

morbidity studies, II: 336

mortality studies, II: 335

research methodology, I: 699–700;

II: 335

scientific literature update, II: 336–337;

III: 515–518;

IV: 506–509

Vietnam veterans and, II: 336;

III: 514;

IV: 510

See also Angina;

Cardiovascular system disorders;

Depressive disorders;

Hypertension;

Myocardial infarction

Cleanup efforts. See Hazardous materials disposal and cleanup

Cleft lip/palate, I: 373–374, 375, 611, 612;

IV: 402, 433

See also Birth defects

Clinton, William J., III: 24

CLL. See Leukemia

CML See Cell-mediated immunity;

Leukemia

CNS. See Cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders;

Motor/coordination dysfunction

Coast Guard. See U.S. Coast Guard

Cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders

epidemiologic studies, II: 148, 307–308;

III: 468–469

herbicide association in, I: 657–658;

II: 7, 11, 20, 307–309;

III: 468–469;

IV: 441–443

herbicide environmental exposure studies, I: 651–653;

II: 148

herbicide occupational exposure studies, I: 649–651

scientific literature update, II: 307–308;

III: 469;

IV: 441–442

Vietnam veterans’ risk, I: 653–656;

II: 308

See also Encephalopathy;

Neurasthenia;

Neurobehavioral toxicity;

Neurological disorders;

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Cohort studies

agriculture/forestry workers, I: 318–323;

II: 118–122, 135–138;

III: 178–182, 224–226;

IV: 140–142, 197–206

definition, I: 229

herbicide environmental exposure, II: 141–147, 190, 218;

III: 197–201;

IV: 224–237

herbicide exposure assessment for, I: 254–256;

II: 105–107, 178, 179, 180

herbicide occupational exposure, II: 107–108, 114–122, 130–133, 182–183, 186, 190, 192, 193, 218, 222, 240;

III: 170–185, 196;

IV: 134–140, 182–206, 222–230

methodology, I: 229–232

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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Ranch Hand cohort, II: 109, 150–152, 154–156, 201;

IV: 13, 18, 150–156

Vietnamese civilians cohort, II: 108–109

Vietnam veterans, II: 149–160, 187, 218;

III: 206–217;

IV: 232–247

Colon cancer

agricultural workers and, I: 328–329

epidemiologic studies, III: 276–278;

IV: 250–252, 255–256, 262, 385

herbicide association in, I: 12–13, 576–577;

II: 7, 12;

III: 8, 21

See also Gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancers

Colorado, III: 47

Colorectal cancer, I: 446

Vietnam veterans’ risk, I: 447, 450, 451, 452;

IV: 256

See also Gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancers

Committee to Review the Health Effects in Vietnam Veterans of Exposure to Herbicides, II: 17, 18, 19, 22, 23, 264–266;

III: 17, 18, 19, 23, 412;

IV: 15

epidemiologic studies of Vietnam Veterans, recommendations, II: 24–25

Compensation, veterans, I: 227

congressional legislation, I: 47, 50–51;

II: 28–29;

III: 26–27

Department of Veterans Affairs, I: 55–56;

II: 24, 30–31;

III: 28

product liability litigation, I: 34–35

Confidence intervals, I: 244

Congress. See Congressional hearings;

Legislation;

U.S. Congress

Congressional hearings

Agent Orange and, II: 27–28;

III: 25

Connecticut, tumor registry, III: 235, 388

Con Thieu province, Vietnam, I: 96;

III: 139;

IV: 121

COPD. See Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Corticosterone, TCDD and, I: 168, 171–172

Cox Proportional Hazard, III: 499, 502

CRABP-II. See Cellular retinoic acid binding protein, type II

CSM. See Cerebrospinal Malformation (CSM) Study

Cytochrome P450. See P450

Cytogenetics

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma studies, III: 365–366

Czechoslovakia, I: 317, 649, 675, 688;

IV: 139

See also Prague, Czechoslovakia

D

2,4-D. See 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

Data sources

Agent Orange Registry, I: 20, 53, 56, 729;

II: 153

agricultural/forestry worker studies, I: 265–266, 318–341;

IV: 140–142

animal studies, I: 111–114, 228

biological stored samples as, I: 20–21, 729–730

Cancerlit, IV: 253

case reports, I: 235–236

Centers for Disease Control studies, I: 387–391;

II: 113, 155–156;

III: 207–209, 218, 240;

IV: 133, 156–157

chemical production workers, I: 303–318;

IV: 134–140

computerized data bases, I: 735–736;

II: 24–25, 31

Department of Veterans Affairs epidemiologic studies, I: 393–399;

II: 152, 153;

III: 209–212, 218, 240–243;

IV: 151, 157–158

epidemiologic controlled studies, I: 228–237;

II: 150–153

epidemiologic studies as, I: 737–738

herbicide environmental exposure studies, I: 267–269, 372–375, 383–384;

IV: 147–150

herbicide exposure reconstruction model, I: 725–726

herbicide non-military exposures, I: 4–5, 222–223, 241–242

herbicide/pesticide applicators, I: 266–267, 323–326;

IV: 142–143

HERBS tapes, I: 20, 62, 85, 96–98, 273–279, 287, 291, 602, 725;

III: 146, 148;

IV: 123, 125

International Register of Workers Exposed to Phenoxy Herbicides and Their

Contaminants, I: 313–314;

IV: 137

mandated efforts, I: 20–21

Medline, IV: 252

organization of, I: 737

paper/pulp mill workers, I: 341, 364;

IV: 114, 134

presentations/reports to committee, I: 739–756;

II: 343–348;

III: 533–536

randomized controlled trials, I: 227–228

reproductive outcomes, I: 593–595

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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research future recommendations, I: 287–289, 291, 722–725, 729–730;

IV: 13

review of, I: 244–245

self-reports, I: 270–271

state government, I: 60

state-sponsored Vietnam veteran studies, I: 400–405, 495–496;

III: 213–215, 243–244

TCDD production workers, I: 264–265;

IV: 134–140

Toxline, IV: 252

troop location, I: 273–279, 287;

IV: 121

Vietnam casualties, I: 82–83

Vietnam military herbicide use, I: 84–85

Vietnam veteran demographics, I: 79, 80–84

Vietnam veteran exposure assessment use,

I: 270–287

Vietnam veteran reproductive outcomes, I: 601

Vietnamese civilian health outcomes, I: 371–372

women veterans, I: 83–84;

II: 152–153

See also Death certificates;

Epidemiologic studies;

Military records;

Questionnaires

DBCP. See Dibromochloropropane

DDT, I: 87, 91;

IV: 141

Death certificates, I: 236–237;

II: 128, 136, 137–138, 151;

III: 470;

IV: 112

See also Data sources

Deaths

2,4-D lethality, III: 44–45;

IV: 35

Australian Vietnam veterans lung cancer deaths, III: 424

female reproductive system cancer deaths, by cancer site, III: 329

Finland male herbicide applicators respiratory cancer mortality, II: 271

Germany herbicide/chemical production workers cancer mortality, III: 423, 429

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma mortality, III: 429;

IV: 355

prostate cancer mortality, III: 426, 427;

IV: 326

respiratory cancer mortality, III: 421, 422, 423;

IV: 273

Seveso, Italy, male cancer mortality, II: 271, 275;

III: 422, 427;

IV: 282

TCDD lethality, III: 71–73

See also Child mortality studies;

Death certificates;

Mortality studies;

Perinatal death

Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC), II: 24–25

See also Department of Defense, U.S. (DoD)

Defoliants

Agent Orange as, I: 90;

IV: 38

military applications, I: 25, 26;

III: 135, 137;

IV: 117

Vietnam herbicide mission maps, I: 99–100

Vietnam tactical role of, I: 85

See also Herbicides

Dekonta Company, II: 329

Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), IV: 120

Demographic data, Vietnam veterans, I: 79, 80–84

DEN. See Diethylnitrosamine

Denmark, I: 317, 443, 444, 454, 463, 477, 480, 509, 510, 537, 553, 565, 567;

II: 131–134, 139–140, 183, 194–195, 207, 209–210, 212, 215, 232, 238;

III: 223, 224, 307, 313, 318, 325, 330–331;

IV: 199–200, 209, 252, 406, 408

Cancer Registry, III: 232

Central Population Register, II: 133, 139, 224;

III: 352

Danish National Institute for Social Research, II: 140

National Cancer Register, II: 133, 139, 215, 224;

III: 325, 352;

IV: 144

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), II: 45, 48, 50, 51, 54, 55, 56, 57–58, 60, 61, 64, 74, 75;

III: 34, 35, 39, 42, 43, 48, 49, 53, 54, 56, 57, 58–61, 65, 67, 69, 75, 77, 83, 90, 91, 98, 99, 103, 104, 109;

IV: 29, 33, 40, 47, 48, 49, 53, 60, 64, 67, 68, 69, 70, 73, 75, 77, 85, 458

Department of Agriculture, U.S. (USDA), I: 35, 39, 443;

II: 178, 219, 224, 229, 238–239, 248;

III: 230, 335, 352;

IV: 212, 213, 257, 259, 262, 264, 267, 301, 345, 350, 355, 364, 371, 376, 383

Agricultural Census, IV: 149

extension agents, IV: 144

Department of Air Force, U.S.

Vietnam herbicide use by military, response, II: 31–32;

III: 28–29

Department of Defense, U.S. (DoD), I: 17, 27, 29, 31, 78;

II: 24;

III: 138, 139, 140;

IV: 119, 121

Environmental Services Group, III: 148

herbicide spray mission records, I: 84–85

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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herbicide use precautions, I: 95;

IV: 121

military records, I: 78, 724–725

See also Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC)

Department of Veterans Affairs, U.S. (DVA), I: 2, 8, 17, 18, 20, 50–51, 284;

II: 2, 5, 8, 11, 13, 17, 18, 19, 26, 27, 89, 153, 176, 181, 187, 218, 249, 260, 278, 305, 312;

III: 1, 2, 3, 6, 11, 12, 17, 18, 20, 24, 25, 26, 125, 132, 266, 303, 304, 390, 407, 434, 468, 478, 519;

IV: 1, 2, 6, 15, 16, 18, 123, 133, 151, 158, 284, 463

Agent Orange controversy and, I: 33, 53–54;

II: 29–31;

III: 28–29

Agent Orange Coordinator, II: 31

Death Beneficiary Identification and Record Location System (BIRLS), II: 151, 152, 153;

III: 238, 241, 242;

IV: 151, 157

health care in, I: 54;

II: 28;

III: 27

military records, I: 78–79, 724–725;

II: 151, 152, 153

mortality studies, II: 101, 152–153, 156–157;

III: 146;

IV: 151, 157–158

outreach activities, I: 56;

II: 31;

III: 28

Patient Treatment File (PTF), III: 242

recommendations for, I: 724–725, 726–730;

II: 24–25

research efforts, I: 54–55;

II: 29–30;

III: 27–28

veterans’ advocacy groups and, I: 61

Vietnam veteran compensation and benefits,

II: 24, 30–31;

III: 28

Vietnam veteran epidemiologic studies, I: 50, 393–399, 445, 469–470, 493–495, 543–547, 562;

II: 101, 113, 156–157, 201–202;

III: 209–212, 218, 240–243

women veterans epidemiological studies, II: 152–153;

IV: 399

See also Agent Orange Registry (AOR);

Agent Orange Task Force;

Environmental Agents Service (EAS);

Environmental Epidemiology Service (EES)

Depressive disorders, I: 650, 651

See also Cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders;

Neurobehavioral toxicity

Dermal toxicity

TCDD and, II: 76;

III: 73–74;

IV: 76

Desiccant herbicides, I: 88–89;

III: 136

See also Herbicides

Detroit, Michigan, II: 241;

III: 229

Developmental disorders

2,4-D in, I: 180–181; II: 42; III: 46

2,4,5-Tin, I: 185; II: 42, 49–50

cacodylic acid in, I: 189;

II: 42

neurological, I: 660

picloram in, I: 192;

II: 42

TCDD in, I: 123–124, 149, 156–157, 159–160, 185;

II: 3, 41–42, 71, 72–73;

III: 92–105

See also Low birthweight

Diabetes mellitus, I: 683–685, 691, 692, 698;

II: 7;

IV: 481

biologic plausibility, III: 502–503;

IV: 488

diagnostic criteria, III: 493, 494

epidemiologic concerns, III: 494

epidemiologic studies, II: 330–331;

III: 494–502;

IV: 182, 232

epidemiology, II: 330;

III: 491–492, 493

herbicide environmental exposure and, III: 497;

IV: 484–485

herbicide exposure and, II: 332–333;

III: 2, 11–12, 125, 494–503;

IV: 152

herbicide occupational exposure and, III: 496;

IV: 483–484

pathogenetic diversity of, III: 494

peripheral neuropathy and, relationship, III: 471–472

prevalence, data by age/race/gender, III: 492

scientific literature update, II: 330–331;

III: 496, 497;

IV: 483

Type 2 (adult-onset), IV: 1, 8, 16–18, 21, 150–151, 182–183

Vietnam veterans and, II: 330;

III: 2, 11–12, 495, 497, 498, 500, 502;

IV: 154–156, 485–487

Diamond Shamrock Corporation, I: 34, 35

Diazinon, I: 91

Dibenzofurans, I: 126;

IV: 41, 64, 138

Dibromochloropropane (DBCP), II: 279

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D); II: 4, 18;

III: 5, 19, 135, 136, 137;

IV: 4–5, 110–111, 122, 133

acute toxicity, I: 179

Agent Orange and, I: 27

Agent White and, I: 90

altered sperm parameters, I: 632

animal studies, I: 174–181;

II: 46–49;

III: 34, 36–37, 38–39, 43–47, 396, 462, 475

carcinogenicity, I: 118–119, 176–178, 439;

II: 40, 48;

III: 47, 396

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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chemical properties, I: 114, 175;

II: 38;

III: 32

chemical structure, I: 111, 114

chronic exposure, I: 179–180

development of, I: 24, 26, 35

developmental toxicity, I: 124, 180–181;

II: 42;

III: 46

disease outcomes, III: 34, 38–39, 44–47

domestic use, I: 174–175, 177–178

formulations, I: 175

genotoxicity, I: 119, 178–179

half-life of, II: 4

immunotoxicity, I: 122, 181;

II: 41;

III: 46, 524

infertility and, II: 280–282

ingestion of, I: 653

kidney toxicity, I: 125;

II: 42

lethality, III: 44–45

liver toxicity, I: 125;

II: 42;

III: 524

mechanism of action, II: 47–48;

III: 44

mechanisms of toxicity, II: 48–49

metabolism, I: 115, 116

military field tests, I: 26

neurobehavioral disorders and, II: 305;

III: 475

neuropsychiatric outcomes and, I: 649, 650, 653

neurotoxicity, II: 48;

III: 45–46

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and, I: 256–257, 574

occupational exposure, I: 36, 37, 310–311, 321;

III: 218, 224, 225, 226;

IV: 117

peripheral neuropathy and, II: 312;

III: 473

pharmacokinetics, I: 175

porphyria cutanea tarda and, II: 322

reproductive toxicity, I: 124, 180–181, 597–598;

II: 41, 280–282;

III: 46, 460, 461–462

role of, I: 88

teratogenic potential, I: 30, 92

therapeutic application, I: 659

toxicokinetics, II: 46–47;

III: 32–33, 36–37, 43–44;

IV: 27–28

toxicologic properties, IV: 22–25, 27–31, 33–37

volume used in Operation Ranch Hand, data, III: 136,

IV: 117–119

See also Herbicides

2,4-Dichlorophenoxybutyric acid (2,4-DB) differences with 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D);

IV: 5

Diet

breast cancer and, I: 507

cancer risk and, I: 442

chloracne and, I: 174

gastrointestinal cancers and, I: 446

TCDD interactions, II: 64

Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) TCDD and, II: 67;

IV: 71

Digestive disorders. See Metabolic and digestive disorders

Dimethylarsenic radical

bladder hyperplasia and tumors associated with, IV: 31, 40

cacodylic acid and formation of, II: 4

Dinoxol, I: 91;

III: 137;

IV: 119

Dioxin. See Dioxin congeners;

Dioxin-responsive enhancers;

Dioxin toxic equivalent factors (Teq factors); 2,3,7,8-

Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

Dioxin congeners, II: 105–107;

III: 158–159

Dioxin Registry, I: 36–37

Dioxin-responsive enhancers, I: 135–136

Dioxin toxic equivalent factors (Teq factors),

II: 106, 107;

III: 99, 106, 107, 108, 158, 159;

IV: 139

Diquat, I: 91;

III: 137;

IV: 119

Diseases and disorders. See Health outcomes of herbicide exposure;

Military health care;

specific cancers;

specific cancer sites;

specific diseases and disorders

DMA. See Cacodylic acid;

Dimethylarsenic radical

DMDC. See Defense Manpower Data Center

DNA. See Deoxyribonucleic acid

DoD. See Department of Defense, U.S.

Domestic herbicide use

2,4-D, I: 174–175

2,4,5-T, I: 181–182

agricultural use, I: 24, 35, 39, 174–175, 181

pet cancers and, I: 119, 177–178

picloram, I: 189

TCDD contamination in, I: 91

See also Agricultural/forestry workers

Dopaminergic system, I: 163–164, 165

Dormagen, Germany, III: 154;

IV: 112

Dose-response relationship 2,4-D pharmacokinetics, I: 175

animal fetal mortality, I: 159

animal studies, I: 111–114, 118

evidentiary role of, I: 239–230, 252

research recommendations, I: 19, 727

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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TCDD-chloracne, I: 673;

II: 318

TCDD dermal application, I: 128–129

TCDD-exposed workers and, I: 445

TCDD-immune system processes, I: 696

TCDD immunotoxicity, I: 122

TCDD threshold, I: 137–138

TCDD tissue distribution, I: 130

Doubs, France, IV: 116

Dow Chemical Company, I: 34, 35, 307–312, 461–462, 529, 558, 598, 607, 620, 674;

II: 115–116, 130, 178, 191, 193, 207, 232, 238, 286;

III: 152–153, 172–174, 220–221, 270–271, 357–358, 387, 484, 511, 516;

IV: 136, 186–188

DVA. See Department of Veterans Affairs, U.S.

Dystonia, I: 658

See also Motor/coordination dysfunction

E

EAS. See Environmental Agents Service

East Germany. See German Democratic Republic

EES. See Environmental Epidemiology Service

EGF. See Epidermal growth factor

EGFR. See Epidermal growth factor receptor

Electrical transformers, I: 364–365, 444, 626, 675

Electrophoretic mobility shift gene (EMSA)

TCDD and, II: 66

Emphysema, I: 708, 713

See also Respiratory disorders

EMSA. See Electrophoretic mobility shift gene

Encephalopathy, I: 649

See also Cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders

Endocrine system, I: 150–151;

IV: 156

TCDD toxicity, III: 83–84;

IV: 77, 331

Endometrial cancer, IV: 320–324, 385

England. See United Kingdom

Environmental Agents Service (EAS), II: 31;

III: 28

See also Department of Veterans Affairs (DVA)

Environmental Epidemiology Service (EES), II: 29

See also Department of Veterans Affairs (DVA)

Environmental herbicide exposure

accidental exposures, I: 364–365, 368–370;

II: 141–143, 144, 148;

IV: 114–116

acute and subacute transient peripheral neuropathy and, II: 312–313

agricultural areas exposure, I: 372–375

Alsea, Oregon, I: 39, 42–43, 372–373, 598;

II: 149

assessment strategies, I: 262–263, 267–270;

III: 144–145, 156–157

basal/squamous cell skin cancer and, III: 323

birth defects and, I: 608–609;

II: 140, 287–288 ;

III: 437

birthweight, low, and, III: 459

bladder cancer and, I: 516–517;

III: 349, 350–351

bone cancer and, III: 303, 305

brain tumors and, I: 523;

III: 358, 361

breast cancer and, III: 328

breast cancer estimated risk, II: 218

cancer risk factor, I: 442

cancer studies, I: 442, 444, 454–455, 469;

II: 147–148, 179–180, 184

chloracne and, I: 676–677

circulatory disorders and, I: 701–702

diabetes and, III: 497

epidemiologic studies, I: 3, 301, 365–384, 469;

II: 3, 6–7, 140–149;

III: 197–205, 218, 232–236, 271–272, 275, 277, 279–281, 283, 285, 287–288, 290, 291, 297–298, 301, 303, 305, 309, 316, 323, 328, 333, 336, 338, 342, 344, 345, 349, 350–351, 353, 354, 358, 361, 365, 369, 373, 375, 380, 382, 388–389, 392, 437, 454, 455, 456, 459, 467, 497, 520;

IV: 147– 150, 224–231, 254

evidentiary role of research on, I: 4–5, 222–223, 241–242

female reproductive system cancers and, I: 511;

III: 333

gastrointestinal tract tumors and, II: 179– 180;

III: 271–272, 275, 277, 279–281;

IV: 254

hepatobiliary cancers and, I: 454–455;

II: 184, 185, 186;

III: 283, 285, 287–288;

IV; 269

Hodgkin’s disease and, II: 236;

III: 373, 375;

IV; 366

immune modulation and, I: 693–694

infant death and, III: 456

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
×

leukemia and, I: 568–570;

III: 388–389, 392;

IV: 379

lipid/lipoprotein disorders and, III: 520;

IV: 493

lung cancer and, III: 297–298, 301;

IV: 282–283

melanoma and, III: 316;

IV: 302–303

motor/coordination dysfunction and, I: 658–659

multiple myeloma and, I: 562;

II: 243;

III: 380, 382

nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer, II: 189;

III: 290, 291;

IV: 274–275

neonatal death and, I: 621;

III: 455

neural tube defects, II: 297;

III: 437;

IV: 18

neurobehavioral disorders association studies, II: 306;

III: 467

neuropsychiatric outcomes and, I: 651–653;

II: 148

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and, I: 540–541;

II: 234;

III: 365, 369;

IV: 17

ovarian cancer and, III: 333;

IV: 321–322

peripheral nervous system disorders and, I: 663–665

porphyria cutanea tarda and, I: 680–681

preterm birth and, III: 459

prostate cancer and, II: 221, 222;

III: 336, 338, 342;

IV: 329

renal cancers and, III: 353, 354;

IV: 347

respiratory cancers and, I: 469;

II: 190, 193, 200–201

soft-tissue sarcomas and, I: 491–492;

II: 207–208;

III: 319;

IV: 116

spontaneous abortion and, I: 598–599

stillbirth and, I: 620;

III: 454

testicular cancer and, III: 344, 345

uterine cancer and, III: 333

Vietnam exposure studies, III: 156–157

Washington residents, II: 149

See also Herbicide exposure assessment;

Herbicides;

Seveso, Italy;

Times Beach,

Missouri

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), I: 39, 59–60, 93

Alsea, Oregon, I: 42–43

directives, IV: 117

Science Advisory Board (SAB), II: 32;

III: 29

TCDD cancer potency estimate, I: 138

Times Beach, Missouri, I: 41;

III: 234;

IV: 148

Vietnam military use of herbicides,

response, II: 32;

III: 29–30, 136

Enzyme induction

liver, I: 155–156

lung, I: 170

porphyria, I: 153–154

TCDD and, II: 3, 66–67

EPA. See Environmental Protection Agency

Epidemiologic studies

acute and subacute transient peripheral neuropathy, II: 312–314

aging effects control, II: 261–262;

III: 409

agricultural/forestry workers, I: 318–323, 326–341;

II: 118–120, 135–137, 183, 197–198, 232–234, 238–239, 241–243;

III: 178–195, 224–232, 335, 364–365, 379–380, 387–388;

IV: 134, 140, 144–145, 197–206

Air Force personnel involved in herbicide spraying, II: 31–32;

III: 28–29;

IV: 232–235

altered sperm parameters, I: 632;

III: 445–449, 450

amyloidosis, IV: 512

autoimmunity, I: 697–698;

II: 7;

III: 488–491

basal/squamous cell skin cancer, III: 317–322, 323

birth defects, I: 607–618;

II: 7, 140, 286–296;

III: 436, 437–438, 443;

IV: 400–405

bladder cancer, I: 515–517;

II: 7, 225–227;

III: 7, 10, 347–351;

IV: 340–342

bone cancer, I: 472–473;

II: 6, 204–205;

III: 7, 10, 303–305;

IV: 288–289

brain tumors, I: 523;

II: 7, 136, 229–230;

III: 8, 12, 356–361;

IV: 351–352

breast cancer, II: 6, 176, 213–217, 218;

III: 7, 10, 324–328;

IV: 315–316

cancer, I: 45, 59, 317, 320–323, 367, 383–384, 391–393, 401, 402–403, 435–445, 574;

II: 133–138, 147–148, 175, 176;

III: 265–266

cancer latency issues, II: 260–276;

III: 407–431

case-control studies, I: 326–341;

II: 94–95, 118–127, 138–140, 144–146, 148–149, 155, 157, 159–160, 183–184, 186–187, 188, 190, 193, 200, 222–223, 240–241;

III: 173, 175, 185–195, 201–204, 208–217, 228–232;

IV: 143–146, 207–220, 227–231, 236–245, 247

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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cervical cancer, III: 332

chemical industry production workers, I: 303–318;

II: 114–118, 128–135, 191, 193–197, 206–207, 232, 237–238;

III: 170–178, 218, 219–224, 363–364, 378–379, 386–387;

IV: 134–140, 182–197

childhood cancer, I: 628–630;

II: 7, 299–300

chloracne, I: 674–678;

II: 5, 6, 318–320;

III: 6, 7, 479–480

chronic persistent peripheral neuropathy, II: 310–311

circulatory disorders, I: 700–707;

II: 7, 335–337;

III: 8, 514–518;

IV: 510

cleft lip/palate, I: 373–374, 375

cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders, II: 7, 307–308;

III: 468–469

cohort studies, I: 229–232;

II: 105–109, 135–138, 141–147, 154–160, 178, 179, 180, 182–183, 186, 187, 190, 192–193, 204, 218, 222, 240;

III: 170–185, 196, 197–200, 206–208, 217;

IV: 140–143, 182–206, 222–230, 232–247

colon cancer, I: 12, 328–329, 576–577;

II: 7;

III: 8, 276–278

congressionally mandated, I: 50;

II: 5

controlled observational, I: 228

cost of, I: 727

cross-sectional studies, IV: 187, 188, 196, 197, 199, 204, 226, 228, 229, 238, 242

cytogenetic studies, III: 365–366

developmental studies: 196, 227, 229, 231, 242

diabetes mellitus, I: 684–685;

II: 7, 330–331;

III: 494–502;

IV: 482, 488–492

ecological design studies, IV: 231

evaluation of, I: 300–301, 591–592, 737–738;

II: 5, 93–94;

III: 129–130

evidentiary role of, I: 224–225, 228–237, 300, 305;

II: 175, 176;

III: 265, 266;

IV: 104–105

female reproductive system/breast cancers, I: 508–511;

II: 6, 211–213;

III: 7, 10, 330–334

gastrointestinal tract cancers, I: 446–447;

II: 7, 177–181;

III: 8, 12, 268–281

gastrointestinal ulcers, I: 691;

II: 334;

III: 510–513;

IV: 505

hepatic enzyme disorders, I: 686–688

hepatobiliary cancers, I: 453–455;

II: 6, 176, 181–187;

III: 7, 10, 282–288

herbicide environmental exposures, I: 365–384;

II: 140–149, 189, 190, 193, 200– 201, 207–208, 218, 221, 222, 234, 236, 241, 243, 287–288, 297, 306, 312–313;

III: 197–205, 218, 232–236, 275, 277, 279–281, 283, 285, 287–288, 290, 291, 297–298, 301, 303, 305, 309, 316, 323, 328, 333, 336, 338, 342, 344, 345, 349, 350–351, 353, 354, 358, 361, 365, 369, 373, 375, 380, 382, 388–389, 392, 437, 454, 455, 456, 459, 467, 497, 520;

IV: 147–149, 224–231, 255, 269, 274–275, 278, 282–283, 289, 293, 294, 302–303, 315–316, 321–322, 329, 336, 341, 347, 351–352, 357, 366, 372–373, 379

herbicide exposure assessment for, I: 251–259;

II: 99–109;

III: 142–146

herbicide exposure indices development, II: 107–109

herbicide exposure levels, II: 175

herbicide exposure reconstruction model and, I: 725, 726–728

herbicide occupational exposure studies, II: 107–108, 112, 113–140, 188–189, 190, 191–199, 206–207, 214–216, 218, 219–220, 222, 232–234, 235–236, 237–243, 286–287, 297, 306, 312;

III: 170–196, 218, 219–232, 274–280, 282–283, 284, 287, 290, 291, 293–294, 296–297, 300–301, 303, 305, 308–309, 312, 316, 317, 321, 323, 324–326, 328, 332–333, 335–336, 337, 338, 341, 344, 345, 348, 350, 353, 354, 360, 363–365, 367–369, 372–373, 374–375, 378–380, 381–382, 386–388, 391–392, 437, 450, 454, 455, 456, 459, 467, 483–485, 489, 491, 496, 510–512, 515–516, 520;

IV: 134–143, 182–223, 251–254, 268–269, 274, 277–278, 282, 288–289, 292–293, 302, 321, 327–329, 336, 340–341, 346, 351, 356, 365–366, 372, 379

herbicide/pesticide applicators, I: 323–326;

II: 31–32, 120–122, 137–138, 198–200;

III: 182–185, 226–228;

IV: 202–206

Hodgkin’s disease, I: 9, 329, 331, 335–336, 341, 384, 391, 393, 549–556, 574;

II: 5, 6, 138, 235–236;

III: 6, 7, 372–376

immune modulation, I: 693–696

immune system disorders, II: 7, 327–329;

III: 488–491;

IV: 480–481

infant death, III: 456

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
×

infertility, I: 632–633;

II: 7, 280–282;

III: 445–449, 450

kidney cancer, I: 515;

II: 7, 139–140, 224–225;

III: 352–355

laryngeal cancer, II: 202–203;

III: 293–295

latency (cancer) issues, II: 260–276;

III: 407–431

leukemia, I: 13, 332–333, 334–335, 564–571, 577–578;

II: 7, 136, 245–247;

III: 7, 10, 385–390, 391–392;

IV: 379–380

limitations, I: 4, 223

lipid abnormalities, I: 688–690;

II: 7, 333–334;

III: 504–506, 520–521;

IV: 493, 495

liver cancer, I: 13, 329, 391, 393

liver toxicity, II: 332–333;

III: 510–513;

IV: 499

low birthweight, I: 626–627;

II: 7;

III: 456–457, 459

lung cancer, III: 296–298, 300–301;

IV: 282–283

melanoma, III: 313–317

meta-analysis, I: 225, 237–238, 242–243, 244

metabolic and digestive disorders, II: 7, 330–337

motor/coordination dysfunction, I: 658–661;

II: 7, 309–310;

III: 469–470

multiple myeloma, I: 11–12, 331, 334, 335, 336, 341, 557–563, 576;

II: 6, 138–139, 176, 237–244;

III: 7, 8, 9, 377–383

nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer, I: 459;

II: 6, 176, 187–189;

III: 7, 10, 290–291

neonatal death, III: 455

neural tube defects numbers, II: 297

neurobehavioral disorders, II: 305–308, 309–311, 312–314;

III: 457

neurological disorders, I: 365–366, 642–648;

II: 141

neuropsychiatric disorders, I: 649–657;

II: 7, 148;

III: 468–469

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, I: 9, 328, 329, 330, 331, 333–334, 335–338, 383, 384, 391–393, 401, 528–548, 573–574;

II: 5, 6, 134–135, 136, 138, 139, 231–234;

III: 6, 7, 362–371, 428–430;

IV: 356–358

NRC Commission on Life Sciences, I: 63

ovarian cancer, III: 333

pancreatic cancer, III: 280–281

paper/pulp workers, II: 126–127, 200, 243;

III: 196, 232;

IV: 134, 252

perinatal death, I: 620–624;

II: 7, 285–286;

III: 451–453, 454, 455, 456

peripheral nervous system disorders, I: 662–666;

II: 6, 7, 310–311, 312–314;

III: 7, 8, 470–471, 473

porphyria cutanea tarda, I: 680–682;

II: 5, 6, 129, 321–323;

III: 7, 8, 481–482

proportionate mortality studies, I: 232–233

prostate cancer, I: 11, 518–519, 575–576;

II: 6, 176, 219–223;

III: 7, 8, 9, 335–342, 426–428;

IV: 327–329

Ranch Hand cohort, II: 31, 32, 109, 150–152, 154–156, 201, 209, 280, 283–284, 286, 293–295, 321–322, 330, 332, 336;

III: 28–29, 218, 206–207, 237–240, 309–310, 313–314, 318, 321, 322, 339, 340, 385, 436, 438, 439, 446–447, 449, 452–453, 457–458, 481, 486, 495, 498, 502;

IV: 13, 232–235

rare diseases in, I: 231, 499

recommendations, I: 15–20, 721–725, 731;

II: 24–25;

III: 23

rectal cancer, III: 278–279

reproductive outcomes, I: 41–42, 311–312, 321, 364–365, 368, 370, 371–375, 387–388, 389–390, 591–592;

II: 280–282, 283–284, 285, 286–296;

III: 436, 437–438, 443, 445–449, 450, 451–453, 454, 455, 456–457, 459;

IV: 401–402, 406–407, 410–411

resolution in, I: 242–243;

IV: 513

respiratory cancers, I: 10–11, 364, 461–472, 575;

II: 6, 176, 189–203;

III: 7, 8, 9, 418, 420–426;

IV: 273, 278, 282, 284

respiratory disease, I: 709–713;

II: 7, 324–326;

III: 483–486;

IV: 475

Seveso, Italy, population studies, I: 44–45, 365–368, 444, 454–455, 469, 491–492, 503, 511, 517, 523, 540, 568–570, 571, 598–599;

II: 141–143, 148, 200–201, 206, 207–208, 209, 210, 211–212, 213, 216, 221, 225, 226–227, 228, 230, 234, 236, 243, 245, 246, 287, 299–300, 312–313;

III: 197–200, 218, 232–233, 283, 285, 290, 296, 297–298, 299, 303, 307, 309, 314, 318, 324–326, 327, 330, 331, 332, 336, 338, 344, 348, 349, 352, 353, 356, 358, 363, 365, 372, 373, 380, 385, 386, 388–389, 390, 408, 414, 420, 422, 427, 436, 449, 495, 505;

IV: 114–115, 464, 468, 472–475, 484, 487, 491, 501, 507, 509

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
×

skin cancer, I: 502–503;

II: 7, 209–211;

III: 8, 10, 312–313;

IV: 302–303

soft-tissue sarcoma, I: 8, 311, 326–328, 329–330, 335–336, 337, 339–340, 384, 391, 393, 395–396, 401, 403, 476, 477–500, 572–573, 574;

II: 5, 6, 132, 134–135, 205–208;

III: 6, 7, 306–311;

IV: 116, 292–296

sperm abnormal parameters, II: 7;

III: 445–449, 450

spina bifida, II: 6;

III: 7, 8, 9–10, 437–438;

IV: 404–405

spontaneous abortion, I: 42, 336–337, 372–373, 405–406, 596–605;

II: 7, 283–284;

IV: 410–411

state-sponsored, I: 399–405, 495–496, 546;

II: 153, 158–159, 161, 202, 292;

III: 213–215, 243–244

stillbirth, III: 454

stomach cancer, III: 274–275;

IV: 251–255

strength of evidence in assessment of, I: 238–241

TCDD biomarkers, I: 259–262;

II: 101–105, 318

testicular cancer, I: 405, 519;

II: 7, 153, 227–228;

III: 7, 10, 343–346;

IV: 336

Times Beach, Missouri, I: 368–370;

II: 144;

III: 200–201, 218, 234, 283;

IV: 115–116, 133, 148

usefulness of, IV: 103–108

uterine cancer, III: 333;

IV: 321–324

Vietnam environmental herbicide exposure, II: 144–145;

III: 201–202, 218, 234, 283

Vietnam veterans in, I: 50, 57–59, 62–63, 384–418;

II: 149–161, 189, 190, 201–202, 204, 205, 208, 209, 212, 213, 216, 217, 218, 221, 223, 224, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 234, 235, 236, 244, 245, 246, 278, 283, 285, 286, 288–296, 299, 300–301, 305, 306, 308, 309, 310, 311, 313, 314, 317, 318, 321–322, 323, 330, 332, 333, 336;

III: 206–217, 236–245, 275, 277–278, 279, 281, 283, 285–286, 288, 290, 291, 294–295, 298, 301, 303, 305, 309–310, 312, 316, 317, 323, 326, 328, 333, 336, 338, 339, 340, 342, 343–344, 345–346, 349, 351, 353, 355, 358– 359, 361, 363, 365, 370–371, 372, 373, 376, 380, 382, 385, 386, 389, 392, 435, 436, 437–438, 445, 446, 450, 454, 456, 457, 459, 467, 468, 469, 470, 473, 475, 479, 480, 481, 482, 485–486, 489, 491, 495, 497, 498, 500, 502, 505–506, 512–513, 516–518, 523;

IV: 150–160, 232– 247, 255, 269, 275, 278, 282–283, 289, 294–295, 303–304, 309–310, 316, 322–323, 329, 336–337, 342, 347, 352, 357–358, 366–367, 373, 380

Vietnamese in, I: 370–372, 599–601;

II: 108–109, 144–145, 148, 287–288;

III: 217, 245, 283;

IV: 116–117, 227–228

See also Epidemiology;

Exposure assessment

Epidemiology

acute lymphocytic leukemia, III: 383

acute myeloid leukemia, III: 383–384

birth defects, I: 606;

II: 286;

III: 435–436

bladder cancer, II: 223;

III: 347

bone cancer, I: 472–473;

II: 204;

III: 302

brain tumors, I: 522–523;

II: 228–229;

III: 356

breast cancer, I: 505, 506–507;

II: 213–214;

III: 322, 324

cancer, I: 433, 435–438, 442, 525;

II: 175;

III: 265–266

children, cancer in, II: 298

chloracne, II: 317–318;

III: 478–479

chronic lymphocytic leukemia, III: 384–385

chronic myeloid leukemia, III: 385

circulatory disorders, III: 514

diabetes mellitus, II: 330;

III: 491–492, 493

female reproductive system cancers, I: 505, 506–508;

II: 211;

III: 329–330

gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancers, I: 445–447;

II: 177;

III: 267–268

gastrointestinal ulcers, II: 334;

III: 508–509

hepatobiliary cancers, I: 452–455;

II: 181–182;

III: 282

Hodgkin’s disease, I: 526, 527–528;

II: 231;

III: 371–372

immune system disorders, II: 326–327;

III: 487–488

infertility, II: 279;

III: 444–445

kidney cancer, I: 513, 514;

II: 223;

III: 351–352

laryngeal cancer, III: 292

leukemia, I: 564;

II: 245;

III: 383–385

lipid abnormalities, II: 333;

III: 503–504

liver disorders, II: 331–332;

III: 509–510

low birthweight, I: 625–626;

III: 454, 455, 456

lung cancer, III: 295–296

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
×

malignant lymphomas, II: 231;

IV: 137

multiple myeloma, I: 526, 528;

II: 236–237;

III: 377

nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer, I: 458–459;

II: 187–188;

III: 288–289

neurobehavioral toxicity, II: 304–305, 307;

III: 466

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, I: 526, 527;

II: 231;

III: 362

porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT), II: 321;

III: 480–481;

IV: 10

prostate cancer, I: 513, 514–515;

II: 217, 219;

III: 334

respiratory cancers, I: 460–461;

II: 189–191

respiratory disorders, III: 482–483

skin cancer, I: 501–502;

II: 209;

III: 312, 313

soft-tissue sarcoma, I: 475;

II: 205;

III: 304, 306;

IV: 116

spontaneous abortion, II: 282–283

stillbirth/neonatal deaths/infant death, III: 451

testicular cancer, I: 515;

II: 223–224;

III: 343

See also Epidemiologic studies

Epidermal growth factor (EOF), I: 145, 154;

II: 59, 73–74;

III: 77, 97;

IV: 51, 64, 66

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), II: 67;

III: 78, 80, 97;

IV: 64, 67, 70

Epigenetic events. See Apoptosis;

Cell proliferation;

Enzyme induction;

Intracellular communication

Epstein-Barr virus, I: 528;

II: 188

Erbon, I: 309;

II: 128;

III: 219;

IV: 134

EROD. See Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase

Erythrocyte sedimentation, I: 696

Estrogen

hepatic binding, I: 154

receptor mediated responses, I: 145

receptor signaling, III: 65–67

transduction pathway, TCDD interaction, II: 4

Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), I: 153, 155;

II: 52, 59, 60, 62, 63, 64, 65, 67, 69, 74;

III: 40, 42, 51, 52, 53, 68, 69, 71, 72, 74, 75, 77, 91, 96;

IV: 386

Europe, III: 108, 308, 471

European registry, II: 197

Evidence of herbicide association. See Herbicide association, insufficient evidence for determining;

Herbicide association, limited/suggestive evidence;

Herbicide association, limited/suggestive negative evidence;

Herbicide association, sufficient evidence

Executive Order 11850, II: 27;

III: 25

Experimental studies, evaluation of, II: 92–93

Exposure assessment. See Herbicide exposure assessment;

Herbicide exposure reconstruction model

Exposure reconstruction model. See Herbicide exposure reconstruction model

F

Farmers. See Agricultural/forestry workers

Fecundity Ratio (FR), IV: 406

Federal government in herbicide management/research, I: 45–60;

II: 27–32;

III: 25–30;

IV: 13

Federal Register, II: 30;

III: 28

Federation of American Scientists, I: 29

Finland, I: 324, 364, 383–384, 443, 444, 467, 492, 541, 561;

II: 134, 137, 140, 179, 183, 188–189, 198, 207, 220, 222, 226, 229–230, 233, 235, 243, 246, 269, 271;

III: 226, 232, 234, 348, 372, 422, 472;

IV: 142, 146, 149, 344, 353, 359, 361, 362, 368–369, 374–375, 381, 415

Finnish Cancer Registry, II: 137

Finnish Register of Congenital Malformations, II: 140

Social Insurance Institution, II: 137

Florida, I: 324, 467;

II: 199;

III: 226;

IV: 142, 258, 260, 263, 266, 286, 297, 327–328, 330, 333–334, 336, 338, 344, 349, 354

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), II: 279, 280, 282;

III: 41, 68, 72–73, 444, 445;

IV: 399–400, 405, 408

Food crops, I: 89

Agent Orange in destruction of, I: 62, 90

as military target, I: 27, 31, 87, 97, 98–100, 106

Ford, Gerald, II: 27;

III: 25

Foreign veterans, II: 113, 160, 202, 293;

III: 9, 216–217, 218, 244–245, 273, 285–286, 290, 294, 295, 298, 299, 303, 310, 311, 314, 315, 327, 329, 339, 340, 343, 346, 349, 353, 355, 359, 365, 380, 389, 413, 423, 424, 469, 485, 486, 489, 500, 506, 512–513, 517

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
×

Forestry workers. See Agricultural/forestry workers

Forests

2,4,5-T spraying, I: 42–43

defoliant early field tests in, I: 26

Vietnam forests, I: 31–32, 62, 90, 104;

III: 137

See also Agricultural/forestry workers;

Lumber industry;

Mangrove forests

Forest Service, U.S., I: 42;

IV: 410

Fort Detrick, Maryland, I: 25

Free radicals, II: 4

TCDD and, II: 60

Frierfjord, Norway, III: 236;

IV: 149

FSH. See Follicle-stimulating hormone

Fungicides, I: 91

G

Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), II: 331–332;

III: 509, 510;

IV: 499, 503

Gamma rays respiratory cancer and latency, II: 268;

III: 418

Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, III: 508–514;

IV: 498–505

cacodylic acid in, I: 188

TCDD in, I: 169–170;

IV: 19, 135, 156

See also Gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancers;

Ulcers, gastrointestinal

Gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancers biologic plausibility, I: 451;

III: 281–282;

IV: 256

epidemiologic studies, III: 268–273, 274–281;

IV: 251–255

epidemiology, I: 445–447;

II: 177;

III: 267–268

herbicide association in, I: 12, 447–451, 576–577;

II: 7, 12, 21, 177–180, 250;

III: 8, 12, 21, 268–282

herbicide environmental exposure and, II: 179–180;

III: 271–272, 275, 277–278, 279, 280–281;

IV: 254

herbicide occupational exposure and, II: 178–179;

III: 268–271, 274–275, 276–277, 278–279, 280;

IV: 251

incidence, data by type/gender/race/selected

age group, III: 267;

IV: 250

pancreatic cancer, epidemiologic studies,

III: 280–281;

IV: 250–254, 256, 385–386

rectal cancer, epidemiologic studies, III: 278–279;

IV: 250–251, 255–256, 262n, 264n, 385

scientific literature update, II: 178–180;

III: 268–273;

IV 251–255

Vietnam veterans and, I: 446, 452;

II: 177, 180, 181;

III: 272–273, 275, 277–278, 279, 281;

IV: 255

See also Colon cancer;

Colorectal cancer;

Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders

GBDS. See General Birth Defects Study

Gender

acute lymphocytic leukemia incidence, data by gender, III: 384

acute myeloid leukemia incidence, data by gender, III: 384

bladder cancer incidence, data by gender,

III: 347;

IV: 339

bone cancer incidence, data by gender, III: 302;

IV: 387

brain cancer incidence, data by gender, III: 356

cancer studies and, II: 180, 181, 183, 190, 191, 204–205, 234, 242, 243, 246;

IV: 199, 249

chronic lymphocytic leukemia incidence,

data by gender, III: 384

chronic myeloid leukemia incidence, data by gender, III: 384

diabetes prevalence, data by gender, III: 492

gastrointestinal tract cancer incidence, data by type and gender, III: 267;

IV: 145–146

Hodgkin’s disease incidence, data by gender, III: 372;

IV: 356

laryngeal cancer incidence, data by gender, III: 292;

IV: 277

leukemia incidence, data by type and gender, III: 384;

IV: 378

liver/intrahepatic bile duct cancers incidence, data by gender, III: 282;

IV: 267

lung cancer incidence, data by gender, III: 296;

IV: 281

melanoma incidence, data by gender, III: 313;

IV: 300

multiple myeloma incidence, data by gender, III: 377

nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer incidence, data by gender, III: 289;

IV: 273

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
×

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma incidence, data by gender, III: 362;

IV: 356

renal cancers incidence, data by gender, III: 352

Seveso, Italy, in, IV: 148

soft-tissue sarcoma incidence, data by gender, III: 306;

IV: 292

See also Demographic data, Vietnam veterans;

Men;

Women veterans

General Accounting Office, I: 52–53, 96;

III: 139, 140;

IV: 121

General Birth Defects Study (GBDS), I: 610, 626;

II: 289, 290;

III: 438, 439

See also Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

General Services Administration, I: 77

Genetic alteration

2,4-D in, I: 119, 178–179 2,4,5-T in, I: 119, 184

cacodylic acid in, I: 119, 187–188

cancer mechanism, I: 433–434

picloram in, I: 191

reproductive outcomes, male-mediated, I: 593–594

TCDD in, I: 118, 142, 143–144, 439

Genetic factors Ah receptor-mediated events and, I: 134

cancer risk and, I: 10;

IV: 249, 273, 300, 364, 386

porphyria cutanea tarda and, I: 10, 679

Genetics. See Cytogenetics;

Genetic alteration;

Genetic factors

Geneva Protocol, I: 45;

II: 27;

III: 25

Genitourinary cancers, II: 223–224

See also Bladder cancer;

Kidney cancer;

Prostate cancer;

Testicular cancer

Georgia. See Atlanta, Georgia

German Democratic Republic, III: 226

Germany, I: 312–313, 326, 443, 477, 508–509, 530, 565, 675–676;

II: 105, 108, 130–131, 149, 308, 319–320, 322, 323, 328, 331, 333;

III: 221, 222, 223, 224, 232, 234, 235, 240, 269, 284, 308, 326, 332, 337, 357, 364, 365, 379, 386, 422, 423, 429, 470, 481, 483, 490, 506, 510–511, 515;

IV: 137, 149, 156, 191, 195, 208, 420

German Cancer Research Center, III: 495, 506

herbicide exposure assessment, III: 153–154, 158, 159–160;

IV: 124, 257, 260, 263, 265, 271, 280, 285, 297, 301, 319, 333, 349, 353, 359, 368, 374, 381

See also Aktiengesellschaft, Germany;

Dormagen, Germany;

Hamburg,

Germany;

Ludwigshafen, Germany;

Uerdingen, Germany

GGT. See Gamma-glutamyltransferase

GI. See Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders;

Gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancers

Givaudan Company, I: 43

Glucocorticoid receptor, I: 154

Great Britain. See United Kingdom

Ground/perimeter spraying, I: 20, 24, 74, 85, 90, 91, 94–96, 100, 272, 286, 287, 288–289;

III: 138–140

See also Herbicide application methods;

Herbicides

Growth factors epidermal, I: 145, 154;

II: 59

TCDD induction of, I: 136–137;

II: 4, 59;

III: 62–63;

IV: 66

transforming, I: 145;

II: 59

tumor necrosis, II: 59

Guillain-Barre syndrome, II: 10, 312

H

Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, I: 125, 126, 151;

IV: 41, 58, 68, 77

hepatic enzyme induction and, I: 155

Hamburg, Germany, II: 195, 214–215, 329;

III: 153, 223, 324–325, 515;

IV: 191

Hamburg Boehringer Company, IV: 138

Hancock County, Ohio, III: 229;

IV: 213

Hanoi, Vietnam, II: 148

Hawaii, I: 60, 400, 603;

II: 292;

III: 243

Hazardous materials disposal and cleanup Agent Orange surplus disposal, I: 93–94

Nitro, West Virginia, accident efforts, I: 38;

IV: 136

Seveso, Italy, I: 43–44, 367–368

See also Incineration, of Agent Orange

HBV. See Hepatitis B virus

HC. See Hydrocortisone

HD. See Hodgkin’s disease

HDLP. See High-density lipoprotein (HDLP) receptors

Headaches, I: 650, 660

Health and Human Services, U.S., Department of, I: 57–59

Health care. See Military health care

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
×

Health outcomes of herbicide exposure

2,4-D outcomes, II: 48–49;

III: 34, 38–39, 44–47

2,4,5-T outcomes, II: 49;

III: 48;

IV: 185

cacodylic acid outcomes, II: 50–51;

III: 34, 50

categories of evidence for assessing, I: 227–237

categories of herbicide association in, I: 5–8, 221, 223–225, 246–247;

II: 4–14, 19–22, 97;

III: 6–15, 19–22, 132, 390, 392–394;

IV: 6–12

disease outcomes of, II: 37;

III: 33–35, 38–43, 44–47, 48, 50, 71–105;

IV: 22, 27, 110

early herbicide research, I: 29–32, 35–36;

II: 19–23;

III: 19–23

early TCDD research, I: 28–29

evaluating exposure reconstruction model and, I: 289–290;

IV: 85

evidence insufficient for determining herbicide association in, I: 13–14, 19, 247, 457, 460, 473–474, 512, 521, 571, 577–578, 605, 618, 624, 627, 630, 634, 657, 666, 691, 699, 708, 713, 727;

II: 6–7, 11–12, 20–21, 22, 97, 181–187, 249–250, 282, 284, 285–286, 298, 300, 325, 329, 334–335, 337;

III: 7–8, 10–12, 21, 132, 133, 292, 304, 316, 322, 327, 332, 334, 346, 349, 351, 355, 390, 393, 444, 449, 453, 458, 459, 473–474, 486, 491, 503, 507, 513, 518, 522;

IV: 11

evidence limited/suggestive of herbicide association in, I: 10–12, 19, 247, 472, 519–521, 563, 574–576, 727;

II: 6, 8–10, 20, 22, 97, 247–249, 298, 300, 323;

III: 7, 8–10, 20–21, 133, 295, 299, 340, 342, 383, 393, 444, 458, 474, 482, 519;

IV: 6, 7–11, 384

evidence of no association of herbicides in, I: 12–13, 224, 247, 447–451, 503, 521, 525, 576–577;

II: 7, 12–13, 21–22, 97, 177–181, 250–251;

III: 8, 12, 21–22, 133, 359, 393–394, 522;

IV: 7, 11, 384–385

evidence sufficient for herbicide association in, I: 8–10, 246–247, 500, 548, 556–557, 572–574, 678, 682;

II: 5, 6, 8, 19, 20, 21, 97, 247, 320;

III: 6, 7, 8, 20, 132–133, 311, 366, 373, 374, 390, 392, 480, 519;

IV: 8, 384

research priorities, I: 19, 726–727

research update, II: 37

statistical association of herbicide exposure, II: 88, 90–91;

III: 1–2, 6, 124, 126–127;

IV: 6–12

TCDD outcomes, III: 34–35, 71–105;

IV: 20

toxicity potential health risks, estimation of, III: 105–108;

IV: 20

Vietnam veterans’ increased risk of disease, II: 14, 22–23, 88, 91, 218, 223, 251, 276, 283, 298, 300–301, 321, 323;

III: 12–13, 14–15, 22–23, 124, 127–128, 329, 334, 343, 397, 430–431, 444, 462, 475–476, 491, 503, 507–508, 525;

IV: 12, 403, 407, 411, 413, 417–418, 421–422, 424, 426, 431, 435, 459, 468, 475

See also Epidemiologic studies;

specific cancers;

specific cancer sites;

specific diseases and disorders

Healthy worker effect, I: 230

Hearing loss, I: 659–660

Heat shock protein (HSP90), IV: 30

Helicobacter pylori, II: 334;

III: 268, 362, 509;

IV: 145

Helicopters

herbicide delivery use, I: 26, 86, 87, 93, 94;

III: 135, 137, 138;

IV: 117

Hematopoietic cancers, IV: 198

Hepatic phosphoenol pyruvate carboxy kinase (PEPCK), II: 63, 75–76, 77;

III: 71, 72, 82

Hepatitis B infection, I: 453

Hepatitis B virus (HBV), II: 182, 183

Hepatitis C infection, I: 453

Hepatitis C virus, II: 182

Hepatobiliary cancers

biologic plausibility, III: 286, 288

epidemiologic studies, III: 282–288;

IV: 268–269

epidemiology, I: 452–455;

II: 181–182;

III: 282

herbicide association and, I: 13, 577;

II: 2, 6, 11, 12, 20, 89, 182–187, 249–250;

III: 7, 10, 282–288

herbicide environmental exposure and, II: 184;

III: 283, 285, 287–288;

IV: 269

herbicide occupational exposure and, II: 182–184;

III: 282–283, 284, 287;

IV: 268–269

incidence, data by gender/race, for selected age groups, III: 282;

IV: 267

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
×

risk estimates, II: 186–187

scientific literature update, III: 284–286;

IV: 268

TCDD and, IV: 77

Vietnam veterans and, II: 181, 185, 187;

III: 283, 285–286, 288;

IV: 269

See also Liver cancer

Hepatocellular carcinoma, II: 148;

IV: 149

Hepatotoxicity

TCDD and, II: 3, 73–75;

III: 76–79;

IV: 23, 71, 77

Herbicide application methods

military early research, I: 25–26

Operation Ranch Hand use, I: 85–87;

III: 135, 136, 137, 138, 139

Vietnam use, I: 1, 3, 24, 27, 74, 85–87, 94–96;

III: 135–142

See also Aerial spraying;

Ground/perimeter spraying;

Herbicides;

Professional herbicide/pesticide applicators

Herbicide association, insufficient evidence for determining

altered sperm parameters and, I: 14, 634;

II: 7, 20;

III: 449, 458;

IV: 7

amyloidosis, IV: 7

basal/squamous cell skin cancer and, III: 322, 393;

IV: 311

basis for finding of, I: 13, 247, 577;

II: 6–7, 11–12, 20–21, 22, 97, 249–250;

III: 7–8, 10–12, 21, 133, 393

birth defects and, I: 14, 605;

II: 7, 20, 298, 300;

III: 444, 458;

IV: 7

bladder cancer and, III: 7, 10, 132, 349, 351, 393;

IV: 7, 19

bone cancer and, I: 13, 473–474, 577;

II: 6, 20, 205;

III: 7, 10, 304, 393;

IV: 7

breast cancer and, II: 217;

III: 7, 10, 327, 393;

IV: 7

chronic persistent peripheral neuropathy, II: 311, 314;

IV: 7

circulatory disorders and, I: 14, 708;

II: 7, 21, 337;

III: 518, 522;

IV: 7

cognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders and, I: 14, 657–658;

II: 7, 20, 308–309, 314;

III: 473–474;

IV: 441

diabetes mellitus and, I: 14, 691;

II: 7, 21, 335;

III: 503, 522

female reproductive system/breast cancers and, I: 13, 14, 512, 577;

II: 6, 20, 213;

III: 7, 10, 332, 334, 393;

IV: 7

gastrointestinal tract ulcers and, I: 14, 691;

II: 335;

III: 513, 522

genitourinary tract cancers and, I: 13, 521, 577

hepatic enzyme abnormalities and, I: 14, 691

hepatobiliary cancers and, I: 13, 577;

II: 6, 20, 187;

III: 7, 10, 286, 393;

IV: 7

immune system disorders and, I: 14, 699;

II: 7, 21, 329;

III: 491, 522;

IV: 7

infertility and, I: 14, 634;

II: 7, 282, 300;

III: 449, 458;

IV: 7

leukemia and, I: 13, 571, 577–578;

II: 7, 20, 247;

III: 7, 10, 390, 393;

IV: 7, 198

lipid abnormalities and, I: 14, 691;

II: 7, 21, 335;

III: 507, 522

liver cancer and, I: 13, 457, 577

liver toxicity and, II: 335;

III: 513, 522

low birthweight and, I: 14, 627;

II: 7, 20;

III: 458;

IV: 7

melanoma and, III: 316

metabolic and digestive disorders and, II: 334–335;

IV: 7

motor/coordination dysfunction and, I: 14, 661;

II: 7, 21, 310, 314;

III: 474;

IV: 7

nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer and, I: 13, 460, 577;

II: 6, 20, 189;

III: 7, 10, 292, 393;

IV: 7

neonatal/infant deaths and stillbirths, IV: 7

neurobehavioral disorders, II: 314;

III: 473–474

neuropsychiatric outcomes and, I: 14, 657, 666;

II: 7, 20, 308–309, 314;

III: 473–474;

IV: 7

perinatal death and, I: 14, 624;

II: 7, 20, 285–286, 300;

III: 453, 458

peripheral nervous system disorders and, I: 14, 666;

II: 21;

III: 474

renal cancer and, I: 13, 521, 577;

II: 7, 20, 225;

III: 7, 10, 355, 393;

IV: 7

research recommendations, I: 19, 727

respiratory disorders and, I: 14, 713;

II: 7, 21, 325;

III: 486, 522;

IV: 7

skin cancers, II: 210–211;

III: 8, 10, 21, 393;

IV: 7, 19

spontaneous abortions and, I: 14, 605;

II: 7, 20, 284, 300;

IV: 7

testicular cancer and, I: 13, 521, 577;

II: 7, 20, 228;

III: 7, 10, 346, 393;

IV: 7

Vietnam veterans’ children, cancer in, I: 14, 630;

II: 7, 20, 300;

IV: 7

Herbicide association, limited/suggestive evidence

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
×

acute and subacute transient peripheral neuropathy, II: 314;

III: 7, 8, 21, 474;

IV: 6, 18–19

acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), IV: 7

basis for finding of, I: 10–12, 247, 574–575;

II: 6, 8–10, 20, 22, 97, 247–249;

III: 7, 8–10, 20–21, 133, 393

birth defects, IV: 6, 18–19

cancer, I: 10–12, 519–521, 574–576;

II: 247–249;

III: 393

diabetes, Type 2, IV: 6

laryngeal cancer, III: 295, 393

lung cancer, III: 299, 393

multiple myeloma, I: 10, 11–12, 563, 574, 576;

II: 6, 20, 244;

III: 7, 8, 9, 20, 383, 393;

IV: 6, 18–19

neurobehavioral disorders, II: 314

peripheral neuropathy, II: 6

porphyria cutanea tarda, II: 6, 323;

III: 7, 8, 20, 482, 519;

IV: 6, 18–19

prostate cancer, I: 11, 519–521, 575–576;

II: 6, 20, 223;

III: 7, 8, 9, 20, 340, 342, 393;

IV: 6, 10, 18–19

research recommendations, I: 19, 727

respiratory cancers, I: 10–11, 472, 574, 575;

II: 6, 20, 203;

III: 7, 8, 9, 20;

IV: 6, 18–19

spina bifida, II: 6, 298, 300;

III: 7, 8, 9–10, 21, 444, 458;

IV: 7, 18–19

Herbicide association, limited/suggestive negative evidence

basis for finding of, I: 12–13, 224, 247, 576–577;

II: 7, 12–13, 21, 97, 250;

III: 8, 12, 21–22, 133, 393–394, 522;

IV: 7, 19–20

brain tumors, I: 12, 525, 576;

II: 7, 21, 230;

III: 8, 12, 21, 359, 394;

IV: 7

gastrointestinal tract cancers, I: 12–13, 447–451, 576–577;

II: 7, 21, 177–181;

III: 8, 12, 21, 268, 273, 282, 394;

IV: 7, 19

skin cancer, I: 12, 503, 576;

III: 21

urinary bladder cancer, I: 12, 521, 576;

II: 7, 21, 227;

III: 21

Herbicide association, sufficient evidence

basis for finding of, I: 8–10, 246–247, 572;

II: 5, 6, 8, 19, 20, 21, 97, 247;

III: 6, 7, 8, 20, 132–133, 390, 392;

IV: 6, 17–18

cancer and, I: 8–10, 572–574;

II: 247;

III: 390, 392;

IV: 6, 17–18

chloracne and, I: 10, 678;

II: 5, 6, 20, 320;

III: 6, 7, 20, 480, 519;

IV: 6, 17–18

Hodgkin’s disease and, I: 8, 9–10, 556–557, 573–574;

II: 5, 6, 20, 236;

III: 6, 7, 20, 373, 374, 390;

IV: 6, 17–18

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and, I: 8–9, 10, 548, 573–574;

II: 5, 6, 20, 234;

III: 6, 7, 20, 366, 390;

IV: 6, 17–18

porphyria cutanea tarda and, I: 10, 682;

II: 5, 6, 20;

III: 20;

IV: 6, 17–18

soft-tissue sarcoma and, I: 8, 9–10, 500;

II: 5, 6, 20, 208;

III: 6, 7, 20, 311, 390;

IV: 6, 17–18

Herbicide exposure assessment

agricultural/forestry workers studies, III: 154–155;

IV: 111–113

biomarkers for, I: 17, 259–262, 280–284;

II: 101–104;

IV: 111

cancer studies use, I: 436–439

case-control studies use, I: 256–257;

IV: 124

Centers for Disease Control Agent Orange Study, I: 58;

II: 102;

IV: 124–125

Centers for Disease Control exposure opportunity index, I: 274–276, 611–612;

III: 147–148;

IV: 124–125

Centers for Disease Control validation study, I: 59, 260–261, 281–284, 387;

II: 103, 104;

IV: 125–126

Centers for Disease Control Vietnam Experience Study, II: 101;

III: 240;

IV: 123

cohort studies use, I: 254–256;

II: 107–109

cumulative exposure, III: 144

current estimates, I: 284–287

data sources (existing) limitations, I: 14–15, 290–291

definition of, methodological issues, II: 4–5;

III: 5–6;

IV: 16, 20

Department of Veterans Affairs mortality studies, II: 101;

IV: 151, 157–58;

IV: 123

difficulties in, I: 14–15, 222, 247–248, 284, 286–287

dioxin congeners, recent literature, II: 106–107;

III: 158–159

environmental studies use, I: 262–263, 267–270;

III: 156–157;

IV: 111, 114–116

epidemiologic studies evaluation and, II: 99–101;

III: 142–146

evidentiary role of, I: 4, 15, 250–253

exposure-dose relationship, I: 252–253

ground spraying, I: 288–289;

III: 138–140

historic exposure reconstruction, I: 17–18, 19–20, 254, 255–256, 725–726, 728;

III: 143

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
×

indices development, II: 107–109;

III: 161–162

individual differences, I: 261, 286

job exposure matrix, I: 259–262

literature update, II: 104–109;

III: 157–162

methodological issues, II: 4–5;

III: 5–6

misclassification bias in, I: 17, 257–259, 724

non-military settings and, I: 4–5, 15, 222–223, 241–242

occupational studies use, I: 262–267, 269–270;

II: 107–108;

III: 150–156

paper/pulp mill workers, I: 266–267;

III: 155–156;

IV: 114, 134

process perspective, I: 252–253

Ranch Hand study use, I: 386;

II: 109;

III: 145–147

research recommendations, I: 16–18, 287–290, 291, 721–722, 724–725

risk assessment use, I: 14–15, 247–248, 250, 578;

III: 14–15

sawmill workers, III;10, 156, 227–228, 338, 439–440, 447–448, 449, 452, 453, 457;

IV: 114

self-reports, I: 270–271;

IV: 113

serum TCDD in, I: 19, 20–21, 261, 282–285, 289, 290, 725, 742–743;

III: 159–161;

IV: 135, 400

Seveso, Italy, accident, I: 267–268, 285, 598–599;

III: 156;

IV: 400

state-sponsored studies, I: 400, 401–402, 403–404

Stellmans’ study, I: 278–279, 284

strategies for, I: 253–254;

III: 144–145

TCDD exposure levels for epidemiological studies, II: 105–106;

III: 159–161

TCDD half-life investigation, II: 104–105;

III: 157–158;

IV: 112, 115–116, 125–126

Times Beach, Missouri, case, I: 268, 368–369

Vietnam military records in, I: 271–280;

IV: 125

Vietnam service as element of, I: 271, 284–287;

II: 101–104;

III: 146–150

Vietnam spray data, I: 273–279

Vietnam troop movement data in, I: 95–96, 273–279, 287

Vietnamese population, I: 108–109, 269, 731;

III: 156–157;

IV: 148–149

workshop on, I: 746–747

See also Environmental herbicide exposure;

Herbicide exposure reconstruction model;

Herbicides;

Occupational herbicide exposure

Herbicide exposure reconstruction model

data sources, I: 725–726

epidemiologic research and, I: 726–728

evaluation of, I: 18, 289–290, 726;

II: 25

recommendations, I: 15–16, 17–20, 287–290, 291, 721–722, 725–728;

II: 25

Request for Proposals (RFP), II: 25–26;

IV: 5

See also Herbicide exposure assessment;

Herbicides

Herbicide/pesticide applicators. See Professional herbicide/pesticide applicators

Herbicides

action of, I: 88

acute and subacute transient peripheral neuropathy and, II: 2, 312–313;

III: 7, 8, 473;

IV: 441, 457

agricultural role of, I: 24, 35, 39, 174–175, 181

Air Force research activities, II: 31–32;

III: 28–29

basal/squamous cell skin cancer association, III: 317–322, 323;

IV: 311

biologic plausibility, II: 88, 92, 176, 217, 282, 298, 300;

III: 2, 23, 124, 128, 281–282, 286, 288, 292, 295, 302, 304, 311, 317, 322, 327, 329, 334, 343, 347, 351, 356, 362, 366, 377, 383, 390, 444, 451, 453, 458, 460–462, 467, 480, 482, 486, 491, 502–503, 507, 513–514, 518, 522–525;

IV: 22, 26, 29, 48, 85, 86, 249, 256, 270, 275, 279, 284, 290, 296, 306, 311, 318, 322, 323, 331, 332, 337, 342, 343, 348, 352, 358, 359, 367, 374, 380–381, 385

birth defects association, II: 286–298;

III: 436–444;

IV: 403

bladder cancer association, II: 225–227;

III: 7, 10, 132, 347–351;

IV: 342

bone cancer association, II: 204–205;

III: 7, 10, 303–305;

IV: 289

brain tumors association, II: 229–230;

III: 8, 12, 356–362;

IV: 352

breast cancer association, II: 213–217;

III: 7, 10, 324–329;

IV: 318

cancer latency issues, II: 2, 13–14, 175, 260–276;

III: 3, 12–14, 407–431;

IV: 289

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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cancer risk and development, II: 13–14, 175;

III: 12–14, 265–266

carcinogenicity, I: 118–119;

II: 175;

III: 265–266;

IV: 256, 270, 275, 279, 284, 290, 296, 305, 311, 318, 323, 332, 337, 342, 348, 352, 358, 367, 374, 380, 387

cervical cancer association, III: 332;

IV: 323

chemistry of, II: 38

childhood cancer association, II: 299–300;

IV: 424–425

chloracne association, II: 318–320;

III: 6, 7, 479–480;

IV: 466

chronic persistent peripheral neuropathy and, II: 310–311

circulatory disorders association, II: 335–337;

III: 3, 514–518;

IV: 510

cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders and, II: 307–309;

III: 468–469;

IV: 443

congressional hearings, II: 27–28;

III: 25

congressional legislation on, II: 28–29;

III: 26–27

Department of Veterans Affairs activities,

II: 29–31;

III: 27–28;

IV: 151, 157–158

developmental toxicity, I: 124;

IV: 403, 413, 416, 431, 434

diabetes mellitus association, II: 330–331, 334–335;

III: 2, 11–12, 125, 494–503

disease outcomes of exposure, III: 6–15, 33–35, 38–43, 44–47, 48, 50, 71–105

early concerns about, I: 29–32, 35–36, 17–19;

II: 26;

III: 25

environmental exposure studies, I: 140–149, 184, 186, 189, 190, 193, 200–201, 221, 222, 234, 236, 241, 243, 287–288, 306, 312–313;

II: 271–272, 275, 277, 279–281 ;

III: 197–205, 218, 232–236, 283, 285, 287–288, 290, 291, 297–298, 301, 303, 305, 309, 316, 323, 328, 333, 336, 338, 342, 344, 345, 349, 350–351, 353, 354, 358, 361, 365, 369, 373, 375, 380, 382, 388–389, 392, 437, 454, 455, 456, 459, 467, 497, 520;

IV: 249, 254–255, 258, 261, 263, 266, 269, 271, 274, 276, 278, 280, 282, 286, 289, 291, 293, 297, 302, 305–306, 309, 312, 314–316, 319, 321, 323, 325–326, 328–329, 334, 336, 338, 341, 344, 347, 349, 351, 354, 356–357, 361, 366, 369, 372, 375, 379, 382–383

Environmental Protection Agency research activities, II: 32;

III: 29–30

evidence insufficient for determining association in health outcomes, I: 13–14, 19, 247, 457, 460, 473–474, 512, 521, 571, 577–578, 605, 618, 624, 627, 630, 634, 657, 666, 691, 699, 708, 713, 727;

II: 7, 11–12, 20–21, 22, 97, 181–187, 189, 205, 210–211, 213, 217, 225, 228, 247, 282, 284, 285–286, 298, 300, 308–309, 310, 311, 314, 325, 329, 334–335, 337;

III: 7–8, 10–12, 21, 132, 133, 286, 292, 304, 316, 322, 327, 332, 334, 346, 349, 351, 355, 390, 393, 444, 449, 453, 458, 473–474, 486, 491, 503, 507, 513, 518, 522;

IV: 268, 270, 274, 275, 279, 288, 289, 302, 305, 308, 311, 314, 318, 321, 323, 329, 336, 337, 342, 348, 374, 380, 384, 400, 403, 406, 407, 410–414, 416, 418, 424, 425, 426, 430–432, 441–443, 448, 454–457, 475, 480, 495, 500, 505, 506, 510, 512, 514

evidence limited/suggestive of association in health outcomes, I: 10–12, 19, 247, 472, 519–521, 563, 574–576, 727;

II: 6, 8–10, 20, 22, 97, 203, 223, 244, 298, 300, 314, 323;

III: 7, 8–10, 20–21, 133, 295, 299, 340, 342, 383, 393, 444, 458, 474, 482, 519;

IV: 7

evidence of no association in health outcomes, I: 12–13, 224, 247, 447–451, 503, 521, 525, 576–577;

II: 7, 12–13, 21, 22, 97, 181, 227, 230;

III: 8, 12, 21–22, 133, 268, 273, 282, 359, 393–394, 522;

IV: 251, 256, 340, 351, 352, 385, 514

evidence sufficient of association in health outcomes, I: 8–10, 246–247, 500, 548, 556–557, 572–574, 678, 682;

II: 5, 6, 8, 19, 20, 21, 97, 208, 234, 236, 320;

III: 6, 7, 8, 20, 132–133, 311, 366, 373, 374, 390, 392, 480, 519;

IV: 6

exposure assessment issues, II: 4–5, 99–109;

III: 5–6, 135–162

federal government response to concerns over military use of in Vietnam, II: 27–32;

III: 25–30

female reproductive cancers association, II: 211–213;

III: 7, 10, 330–334

gastrointestinal tract cancers association, II: 177–181;

III: 8, 12, 268–282;

IV: 256

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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gastrointestinal ulcers association, II: 334–335;

III: 510–514

hepatobiliary cancer and, II: 2, 176, 181–187;

III: 7, 10, 282–288;

IV: 270

Hodgkin’s disease association, II: 235–236;

III: 6, 7, 372–376;

IV: 367

immune system disorders and, II: 327–329;

III: 3, 488–491;

IV: 480

immunotoxicity, I: 122–123

infertility association, II: 280–282;

III: 445–451;

IV: 407

International Agency for Research on Cancer research activities, III: 30;

IV: 17, 133, 137–139, 252

laryngeal cancer and, II: 202–203;

III: 292–295;

IV: 279

latency and cancer risk, II: 13–14, 175, 260–276;

III: 3, 12–14, 265, 407–431

leukemia association, II: 245–246;

III: 7, 10, 385–390, 391–392;

IV: 380

lipid abnormalities association, II: 333–335;

III: 504–508, 520–521;

IV: 495

liver toxicity association, II: 332–333, 334–335;

III: 510–514;

IV: 505

low birthweight and, III: 456–458, 459;

IV: 416

lung cancer and, III: 296–302, 421, 422, 423, 424;

IV: 284

mechanism of action, II: 36;

III: 33, 38, 44, 47–48, 49–50, 53–71

mechanisms of toxicity, II: 37

melanoma association, III: 313–317;

IV: 306

metabolic and digestive disorders association, II: 330–335;

III: 3

military research and development, I: 25–26

military (U.S.) use ban, I: 32, 45

motor/coordination dysfunction and, II: 309–310;

III: 469–470

multiple myeloma assocation, II: 237–244;

III: 7, 8, 9, 377–383;

IV: 512

nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer and, II: 2, 176, 187–189;

III: 7, 10, 290–292;

IV: 275

neural tube defects associated with herbicides, numbers, II: 297

neurobehavioral disorders and, II: 305, 306, 314;

III: 3, 467, 468, 473–476;

IV: 457

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma association, II: 231–234;

III: 6, 7, 362–371, 428–430;

IV: 358

occupational exposure settings, I: 36–38;

III: 150–156

occupational exposure studies, II: 113–140, 182–184, 186, 188–189, 190, 191–200, 214–216, 219–220, 222, 232–234, 235–236, 237–243, 286–287, 306, 312;

III: 170–196, 218, 219–232, 268–271, 274–281, 282–283, 284, 287, 290, 291, 293–294, 296–297, 300–301, 303, 305, 308–309, 312, 316, 317, 321, 323, 324–326, 328, 332–333, 335–336, 337, 338, 341, 344, 345, 348, 350, 353, 354, 357–358, 360, 363–365, 367–369, 372–373, 374–375, 378–380, 381–382, 386–388, 391–392, 437, 450, 454, 455, 456, 459, 467, 483–485, 489, 491, 496, 510–512, 515–516, 520;

IV: 114, 249, 251, 253, 255–257, 259, 262, 265, 268, 270–271, 273–274, 276–282, 285, 288–290, 292, 296, 300–303, 305–307, 309, 312, 315, 317–318, 321, 324–325, 327–329, 331–333, 336, 338, 340–342, 346–348, 351, 353, 356, 358–361, 364–365, 368–369, 371–374, 377, 379, 381, 383

Operation Ranch Hand volume use, data by herbicide type, III: 136

ovarian cancer association, III: 333

perinatal death association, II: 285–286;

III: 451–454, 455, 456;

IV: 413

porphyria cutanea tarda association, II: 321–323;

III: 7, 8, 481–482;

IV: 468

preterm birth and, III: 456–458, 459

prostate cancer association, II: 2, 176, 217–223, 273–275;

III: 7, 8, 9, 335–343, 426–428;

IV, 10

renal cancer association, II: 224–225;

III: 7, 10, 352–356;

IV: 348

reproductive toxicity, I: 124;

II: 278–301;

III: 434–435

research recommendations, II: 23–24;

III: 23;

IV: 13

respiratory cancers and, II: 189–203, 268–273;

III: 7, 8, 9, 418, 420–426

respiratory disorders association, II: 335–337;

III: 3, 483–486

skin cancers association, II: 209–211;

III: 8, 10, 312;

IV: 305

soft-tissue sarcomas association, II: 205–208;

III: 6, 7, 306–311;

IV: 384

spontaneous abortions association, II: 283–284;

IV: 411

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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statistical association with diseases, II: 88, 90–91;

III: 1–2, 6, 124, 126–127

TCDD contamination of, I: 2, 3, 27, 91–92, 114, 126–127;

II: 2, 3, 26;

III: 3, 4, 5, 140–142

testicular cancer association, II: 227–228;

III: 7, 10, 343–347;

IV: 337

time-related factors and cancer risk, II: 263–264, 270, 271, 273, 274;

III: 411–412, 421, 422, 423, 424, 426, 427, 429

toxicity profiles update, II: 45–77;

III: 43–108

toxicokinetics, II: 35, 36, 38–39;

III: 32–33, 36–37, 43–44, 47, 48, 50–53

toxicology, III: 3–5, 32–110

types of, I: 88

uterine cancer association, III: 333

Vietnam use by U.S. military, I: 1, 3, 24, 27, 74, 84–96, 98–107, 286;

II: 1, 2, 26–27;

III: 135–142

Vietnam veterans’ cancer risk and latency, II: 276;

III: 12–13, 430–431

Vietnam veterans’ disease increased risk, II: 14, 22–23, 88, 91, 298, 300–301, 321, 323;

III: 12–13, 14–15, 22–23, 124, 127–128, 329, 334, 343, 430–431, 444, 462, 475–476, 491, 503, 507–508, 525;

IV: 2, 9, 12, 20, 103, 105–106, 124

Vietnam veterans’ exposure concerns, II: 26–32

Vietnam veterans’ exposure studies, II: 149–161, 185, 187, 189, 190, 201–202, 204, 205, 208, 209, 211, 212, 213, 216–217, 218, 221, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 234, 235, 236, 244, 245, 246, 278, 280, 283, 285, 286, 288–296, 306, 308, 309, 310, 311, 313, 314, 318–320, 321–323, 324–326, 327–329, 330–337;

III: 206–217, 236–245, 272–273, 275, 277–278, 279, 281, 282–283, 287–288, 290, 291, 294–295, 298, 301, 303, 305, 309–310, 312, 316, 317, 323, 326, 328, 333, 336, 338, 339, 340, 342, 343–344, 345–346, 349, 351, 353, 355, 358–359, 361, 363, 365, 370–371, 372, 373, 376, 380, 382, 385, 386, 389, 392, 435, 436, 437–438, 445, 446, 450, 454, 455, 456, 457, 459, 467, 468, 469, 470, 473, 475, 479, 480, 481, 482, 485–486, 489, 491, 495, 497, 498, 500, 502, 505–506, 512–513, 516–518, 521;

IV: 249–250, 255–256, 259, 262, 264, 266–267, 269–270, 272, 275–276, 278–281, 283–284, 287, 289–292, 294, 296, 298–299, 301, 303–311, 313–314, 316–320, 322–327, 329–332, 334–336, 338–340, 342–343, 345, 347–348, 350, 352–353, 355–359, 362–364, 366–367, 370–371, 373–374, 376–378, 380–381, 383, 387–388

See also Aerial spraying;

Agent Orange;

Agricultural herbicides;

Chemicals and chemical industry;

Defoliants;

Desiccant herbicides;

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid;

Domestic herbicide use;

Environmental herbicide exposure;

Ground/perimeter spraying;

Herbicide application methods;

Herbicide exposure assessment;

Herbicide exposure reconstruction model;

Occupational herbicide exposure;

Phenoxy herbicides;

Professional herbicide/pesticide applicators;

Selective herbicides;

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCCD);

2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T)

HERBS tapes, I: 20, 97–98, 602, 725;

II: 108–109;

IV: 123, 125

contents, I: 96–97, 273

deficiencies, I: 97, 104–105

exposure assessment use, I: 273–279, 287, 291;

III: 146, 148

source of, I: 62, 85, 96

Hercules, Inc., I: 35

2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-Hexachlorobiphenyl (HxCB), II: 64, 65

1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (HxCDD), II: 64, 65, 67

Hexachlorophene, I: 40;

II: 128;

III: 218, 219, 234;

IV: 133–135, 138, 148

HI. See Humoral immunity (HI)

High-density lipoprotein (HDLP) receptors, II: 333, 334;

III: 501, 503, 520–521

Highway workers, I: 326

Historic exposure reconstruction, I: 17–18, 19–20, 254, 255–256, 725–726, 728;

III: 143;

IV: 126–127

HIV-I. See AIDS/HIV

Ho CM Minh City, Vietnam, II: 108;

IV: 228

Hodgkin’s disease (HD)

agricultural/forestry workers and, I: 328, 329, 331, 335–336, 341, 550–553;

II: 138

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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biologic plausibility, I: 557;

III: 377;

IV: 367

chemical industry workers and, I: 549–550

epidemiologic studies, II: 138, 235–236;

III: 372–376;

IV: 199, 211, 212

epidemiology, I: 526, 527–528;

II: 231;

III: 371–372

herbicide association in, I: 8, 9–10, 556–557, 574;

II: 5, 6, 20, 138, 235–236, 247;

III: 6, 7, 20, 24, 372–376;

IV: 17

herbicide environmental exposure studies, I: 384;

II: 236;

III: 373, 375;

IV: 366

herbicide occupational exposure studies, II: 235–236;

III: 372–373, 374–375;

IV: 365

histopathology, I: 526–527

incidence, data by race/gender, for selected age groups, III: 372;

IV: 365

research recommendations, I: 19, 727

scientific literature update, II: 235–236;

III: 372–373;

IV: 365

Vietnam veterans and, I: 258, 526, 554–556;

II: 231, 236;

III: 372, 373, 376;

IV: 366

Vietnam veterans’ compensation, II: 24, 30, 31

See also Malignant lymphomas

Hoffman-Taff, I: 40

Hormonal system

estrogen-mediated responses, I: 145, 154

TCDD carcinogenesis and, I: 116, 145

TCDD in, I: 156–159;

IV: 71

TCDD-induced wasting syndrome and, I: 165

Hormones. See Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH);

Hormonal system;

Luteinizing hormone (LH);

Testosterone

Hourglass spray system, I: 25

House Committee on Veterans Affairs, II: 27;

III: 25

H.R. 1565, II: 28

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-I). See AIDS/HIV

Humoral immunity (HI)

TCDD and, II: 69–70

HxCB. See 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-Hexachlorobiphenyl

HxCDD. See 1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin

Hydatidiform mole, I: 30, 600–601

See also Reproductive disorders

Hydrocephalus, I: 609, 611

See also Reproductive disorders

Hydrocortisone (HC), II: 73

Hypercholesterolemia, I: 690

See also Lipid abnormalities

Hyperlipidemia, I: 152–153, 688, 692

See also Lipid abnormalities

Hypertension, I: 705, 706, 707, 708;

IV: 135

See also Circulatory disorders

Hyperthyroidism

TCDD-induced, I: 168

See also Metabolic and digestive disorders

Hypoglycemia

TCDD-induced, I: 166–168

See also Metabolic and digestive disorders

Hypospadias, I: 609, 611

See also Reproductive disorders

I

IARC. See International Agency for Research on Cancer

ICD. See International Classification of Diseases

Iceland, III: 228, 319, 338, 339, 344, 353;

IV: 142, 312, 333, 338

Association of Vegetable Farmers, III: 228

Cancer Registry, III: 228, 338

Committee on Toxic Substances, III: 228

Farmers’ Association of Iceland, III: 228

Horticultural College, III: 228

Horticulturist’s Association, III: 228

Market Gardeners Association Pension Fund, III: 228

National Registry, III: 228

Register of Deaths, III: 228

I Corps, I: 52, 96, 98, 394, 493–494, 542, 543, 546;

II: 201;

III: 139, 140, 241

mortality study, I: 233;

IV: 121

II Corps, I: 542

III Corps, I: 59, 104, 276, 281–282, 542, 543;

II: 228;

III: 148, 344;

IV: 125–126

IL. See Interleukin-1;

Interleukin-4

ILO. See International Labor Organization

Immune system disorders

2,4-D toxicity, I: 181;

II: 41;

III: 46, 524;

IV: 197

cell-mediated immunity, II: 69–70

cellular immunity, I: 147

endocrine system and, I: 150–151

epidemiologic studies, II: 327–329;

III: 488–491;

IV: 79, 195

epidemiology, II: 326–327;

III: 487

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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herbicide toxicity, I: 122–123;

II: 7, 11, 21, 327–329;

III: 3, 488–491

humoral immunity, I: 147–148;

II: 69–70

immune modulation in, I: 692–696, 698–699

macrophage function, I: 148

picloram toxicity, I: 192;

II: 41;

IV: 5

research methodology, I: 692

scientific literature update, II: 328–329;

III: 489–491

suppression in, I: 693;

II: 326, 329

TCDD toxicity, I: 119–122, 146–151, 338;

II: 3, 40–41, 68–71, 328–329;

III: 85–92, 488, 489, 490, 491;

IV: 31–32

See also Allergies;

Autoimmune disease;

Autoimmunity;

Systemic autoimmune disease;

Systemic lupus erythematosus;

Viral infection

Immunoglobulin antibodies, I: 693, 696, 697

2,4-D and, IV: 31

Immunotoxicity

TDCC and, IV: 26, 77–81

Incineration, of Agent Orange, I: 93–94;

IV: 116

Indiana, III: 47

Industrial accidents, I: 316–317;

III: 224, 232–233

BASF, I: 312–313, 444, 530, 550, 558;

III: 153, 221;

IV: 188–189

Nitro, West Virginia, I: 38–39, 305–307, 597, 607, 686, 700;

III: 152–153, 220;

IV: 136

Industrie Chimiche Meda Societa Anonima, I: 43

Infant deaths. See Perinatal death

Infertility, I: 631–634;

II: 7, 11

biologic plausibility, II: 282;

III: 451

epidemiological studies, II: 280;

III: 445–449, 450

epidemiology, II: 279;

III: 444–445

herbicide association in, II: 278, 280–282;

III: 445–451;

IV: 405–409

new studies summary, II: 280–281;

III: 446–449, 450

Vietnam veterans and, III: 445, 446, 450

See also Reproductive disorders

Influenza, I: 713

See also Respiratory disorders

Insecticides, I: 87–88, 91

Institute of Medicine (IOM), I: 2, 20, 57, 62–64, 742, 743–744;

II: 1, 2, 17, 24, 25, 27;

III: 1, 2, 5–6, 17, 23, 24, 25, 125, 150;

IV: 1, 15, 126

Interagency Working Group on the Long-Term Health Effects of Phenoxyherbicides and Contaminants, I: 46

Interleukin-1, I: 148;

II: 59

Interleukin-4, II: 70–71

Internal Revenue Service (IRS), II: 152, 153

Social Security database, II: 151;

III: 238;

IV: 151

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), I: 8, 12–13, 246, 264–265, 270, 313–314, 478, 479, 499, 565, 573, 577, 731;

II: 101, 107, 131–135, 178–179, 196, 206, 212, 215, 220, 226, 232, 269;

III: 20, 151, 175–177, 218, 222–223, 268, 269, 284, 290, 293, 296, 303, 306, 307, 308, 310, 311, 314, 319, 325, 326, 331, 337, 344, 348, 353, 357, 364, 378, 379, 386, 422–423, 424, 425, 429, 484, 511, 516;

IV: 17

herbicide exposure assessment in occupational studies, III: 151–152, 154;

IV: 111, 137–139;

IV: 189–194, 252, 257, 259–260, 262–263, 265, 271, 276, 280, 290, 293, 296–297, 300, 306, 312, 318–319, 324–325, 333, 338, 341, 343, 348–349, 353, 359–360, 368, 374–375, 381

Vietnam military use of herbicides, response, III: 30

International Classification of Diseases (ICD), II: 325;

III: 265;

IV: 248, 249

ICD.9 cancer codes, SEER program site groupings for, III: 537–539;

IV: 524–526

International Labor Organization (ILO), II: 324

International Register of Workers Exposed to Phenoxy Herbicides and Their Contaminants, I: 313–314;

II: 131–135, 220, 232, 235, 238, 245;

III: 175–177, 218, 222–223

International Society of Exposure Analysis, II: 25

Intracellular communication

TCDD and, II: 3, 67–68

Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), I: 625, 626;

III: 455, 457;

IV: 413–414

See also Reproductive disorders

IOM. See Institute of Medicine

Iowa, I; 11, 37, 60, 318–319, 332, 333, 334–335, 374, 400, 447, 495, 534, 550, 560, 567, 603, 660, 677;

II: 8, 138–139, 219, 239, 248, 292;

III: 224, 229, 234, 243,

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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335;

IV: 140, 142, 143, 144, 149, 158, 210, 258, 261, 266, 290, 300, 334, 344, 349, 354, 361, 369, 375, 382

Iowa Health Registry, II: 138–139

See also Agricultural health Study

Ireland, Republic of, II: 136, 230, 233, 242, 246;

III: 224–225, 363;

IV: 198

Agricultural Institute, II: 136

Central Statistics Office of Ireland, II: 136

IRS. See Internal Revenue Service

Irvine, California, III: 533

Italy, I: 320–321, 338–340, 340–341, 384, 486–487, 492, 523, 537, 552, 553, 561, 566, 632;

II: 183, 229;

III: 9, 224, 230, 232, 234, 235, 271, 284–285, 294, 297, 299, 337, 358, 364, 373, 379–380, 387, 388, 516;

IV: 133, 140, 144, 147–148, 149, 208, 212, 214, 230, 278, 282, 315, 325, 336, 341, 347, 351, 354, 357, 360, 368, 372, 375, 379 381, 425, 430, 445, 464, 472, 501, 507

Forli Province, III: 230

National Statistics Institute, II: 141

Novara Province, III: 225;

IV: 197

Piedmont area, III: 224, 232

See also Lombardy, Italy;

Milan, Italy;

Seveso, Italy

IUGR. See Intrauterine growth retardation

IV Corps, I: 81, 98, 542

J

Japan, II: 237;

IV: 414

Job exposure matrix, I: 256

Johnston Island, I: 93

K

Kansas, I: 9, 37, 335–336, 487, 490, 550;

II: 231;

III: 363;

IV: 215, 260, 297, 361, 369, 446

Kaposi’s sarcoma, I: 338, 487, 695;

IV: 144, 214

See also Soft-tissue sarcoma

Khe Sanh-Thonh Son Lam area, I: 96;

III: 140;

IV: 121

Kidney cancer

biologic plausibility, III: 356;

IV: 348

children and, I: 628;

IV: 417, 420, 428

epidemiologic studies, I: 515;

II: 224–225;

III: 352–355;

IV: 346–348

epidemiology, I: 513, 514;

II: 223;

III: 351–352;

IV: 345–346

herbicide association in, I: 13, 521, 577;

II: 7, 11, 20, 139–140, 224–225, 249–250;

III: 7, 10, 352–356;

IV: 342, 346–348, 385

herbicide environmental exposure and, III: 353, 354;

IV: 347

herbicide occupational exposure and, III: 353, 354;

IV: 346

histopathology, I: 513

incidence, data by race/gender, for selected age groups, III: 352;

IV: 345–346

risk factors, I: 514;

IV: 342, 345

scientific literature update, II: 224–225;

III: 353, 355;

IV: 346–347

Vietnam veterans’ risk, I: 522;

II: 223, 224, 225;

III: 353, 355;

IV: 348

See also Genitourinary cancers;

Wilm’s tumor

Kidneys

2,4-D toxicity in, I: 125, 179–180;

II: 42;

IV: 28, 37, 42, 43, 66, 68, 73, 76

arsenic toxicity in;

IV: 39

cacolydic acid toxity in, II: 42;

IV: 387

Korea, III: 240;

IV: 156

Korean War, II; 150;

III: 237;

IV: 150

L

Laos, I: 106

Laryngeal cancer, I: 461, 470–471;

II: 202–203;

IV: 277–280

biologic plausibility, III: 295;

IV: 279

epidemiologic studies, III: 293–295;

IV: 277–278, 280–281

epidemiology, III: 292;

IV: 277

herbicide exposure and, III: 293–295;

IV: 9, 277–278

herbicide occupational exposure studies, III: 293–294;

IV: 277–278

incidence, data by race/gender, for selected age groups, III : 292;

IV: 277

larynx, IV: 6, 8, 9

scientific literature update, III: 293–294, 295;

IV: 277–278

Vietnam veterans studies, III: 294–295;

IV: 278

See also Respiratory cancers

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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Latency effects in cancer studies, I: 231–232, 434, 435, 436–438, 494, 495, 727;

II: 2, 13–14, 175;

III: 3, 12–14, 266, 407–408

aging effects control, II: 261–262;

III: 409

arsenic and, II: 268;

III: 420

asbestos and, II: 268;

III: 420

data limitations, III: 413, 414, 415, 416

data requirements, II: 264, 265, 266;

III: 412, 414, 415, 416;

IV: 283

epidemiological studies, analysis of, II: 261–266;

III: 408–412

epidemiological studies, new, III: 419;

IV: 148, 254, 256, 269, 293, 329, 473, 483, 484, 506

gamma rays and, II: 268;

III: 418

literature review results, II: 266–267;

III: 416–418, 420–424, 426–427, 429;

IV: 257, 260, 263, 265, 271, 280, 297, 333, 343, 353, 368, 375

measurement errors, II: 263–264;

III: 411–412

mortality and incidence studies for examining, II: 263;

III: 410–411, 421, 422, 423, 424, 426, 427, 429

nickel and, II: 269;

III: 420

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, III: 428–430

potential problems with, II: 264, 265, 266;

III: 413, 414, 415, 416

prostate cancer, II: 273–275;

III: 426–428

radon daughters and, II: 268;

III: 418

random misclassification and, II: 263–264;

III: 411–412

relative risks, II: 264, 265, 266, 271, 275, 351;

III: 412, 413, 414, 415, 418, 420, 422, 426–427, 428, 430–431

respiratory cancer, II: 268–273;

III: 418, 420–426;

IV: 284, 285

smoking and, II: 268;

III: 418;

IV: 250, 273

time-related factors, II: 262, 263–264;

III: 411–412, 421, 422, 423, 424, 426, 427, 429;

IV: 464, 465

Vietnam veterans, relevancy for, II: 276, 351;

III: 12–13, 430–431;

IV: 466

See also Cancer

Lawn care, I: 119, 177–178;

IV: 274

LDL. See Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors

Leather tanners, I: 486, 514

Legal issues

Agent Orange manufacturers’ liability, I: 34–35

federal government liability, I: 34

South Korean Vietnam veterans, I: 62

Times Beach, Missouri, I: 41;

IV: 133

Legislation

epidemiologic studies on Agent Orange, II: 28;

III: 26

federal, I: 45–60;

III: 26–27

health care associated with Agent Orange, II: 28

Public Law 91–441,

I: 47, 62

Public Law 96–151,

I: 50, 52, 57;

II: 28;

III: 26, 240

Public Law 97–72,

I: 50;

II: 28;

III: 26

Public Law 98–181,

I: 51

Public Law 98–542,

I: 50–51;

II: 28–29;

III: 26–27

Public Law 99–272,

I: 50;

II: 28;

III: 26

Public Law 100–687,

I: 51

Public Law 101–239,

I: 51

Public Law 102–4,

I: 2, 7, 20, 21, 51, 572, 721, 728–730;

II: 1, 5, 17, 19, 29, 97, 247;

III: 1, 6, 14, 17, 20, 124, 132, 390, 397, 462, 475, 519, 525;

IV: 1, 2, 6, 15, 103, 132, 388

Public Law 102–585,

II: 28;

III: 26

Public Law 103–452,

II: 28;

III: 26

Public Law 104–110,

III: 26

Public Law 104–204,

III: 24, 26

Public Law 104–262,

III: 26

Public Law 105–114,

III: 25

Veterans’ Health Programs Extension and Improvement Act of 1979, III: 240

Vietnam veterans’ compensation, I: 47, 50–51, 55–56;

II: 28–29;

III: 26–27

Leiomyosarcomas, I: 475

See also Soft-tissue sarcoma

Lethality. See Deaths

Leukemia

acute lymphocytic leukemia, III: 383, 384;

IV: 377

acute myelogenous leukemia, IV: 417–429, 432

acute myeloid leukemia, III: 383–384;

IV: 9,377

agricultural workers and, I: 13, 332–333, 334–335, 566–568;

II: 136;

III: 387–388;

IV: 140,143–144, 216

children and, I: 628;

IV: 18, 417–424

chronic lymphocytic leukemia, III: 384–385;

IV: 208, 211, 377, 417, 422

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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chronic myeloid leukemia, III: 384, 385;

IV: 377–378, 417

epidemiologic studies, I: 564–572;

II: 136, 245–247;

III: 385–390, 391–392;

IV: 149, 198;

IV: 379–380, 381–383, 418–422, 427–429

epidemiology, I: 564;

II: 245;

III: 383–385;

IV: 377–378

herbicide association in, I: 13, 571, 577–578;

II: 7, 11, 20, 245–247, 249–250;

III: 7, 10, 385–390, 391–392;

IV: 379–380, 385, 418–422

herbicide environmental exposure and, III: 388–389, 392;

IV: 379, 419–420

herbicide occupational exposure and, III: 386–388, 391–392;

IV: 379, 418–419

incidence, data by type/race/gender, for selected age groups, III: 384;

IV: 377–378

production workers and, I: 564–566;

III: 386–387;

IV: 379

pulp/paper workers and, I: 568;

IV: 379

risk factors, I: 564

scientific literature update, II: 245–246;

III: 386–389;

IV: 379–380, 418–422

Seveso, Italy, studies, I: 13, 568–570, 571, 577;

III: 385, 386, 388–389, 390;

IV: 379

TCDD biologic plausibility in, I: 571;

III: 390;

IV: 380–381, 426

Vietnam veterans’ risk, I: 564, 570, 571–572;

II: 245, 246;

IV: 381, 426

Vietnam veterans’ studies, III: 385, 386, 389, 392;

IV: 373, 380, 420–422

Leydig cells, II: 71, 279;

III: 445;

IV: 405

LH. See Luteinizing hormone

Lindane, I: 91

Lipid and Lipoprotein Disorders, I: 688–690, 692;

IV: 492–497

biologic plausibility, III: 507;

IV: 495

epidemiologic studies, I: 45;

II: 333, 334;

III: 504–506, 520–521;

IV: 479, 493–494, 496–497

epidemiology, II: 333;

III: 503–504;

IV: 492–493

herbicide environmental exposure and, III: 520;

IV: 493–494

herbicide exposure association with, II: 7, 21, 333–334;

III: 504–508, 520–521;

IV: 493–494

herbicide occupational exposure and, III: 520;

IV: 493–494

scientific literature update, II: 334;

III: 504–506, 520, 521;

IV: 493–494

TCDD in, I: 152–153, 259–260;

II: 333, 334;

III: 505, 506, 507;

IV: 471, 474, 493–495

Vietnam veterans and, II: 333;

III: 505–506, 521;

IV: 494

See also Hypercholesterolemia;

Hyperlipidemia;

Liver disorders;

Metabolic and digestive disorders

Listeria

TCDD exposure and, II: 68

Liver cancer

background, IV: 267

biologic plausibility, IV: 270

children and, I: 628

epidemiologic studies, I: 453–455;

IV: 268–270

herbicide association in, I: 13, 457, 577;

IV: 143, 157, 385

picloram in, I: 190

research recommendations, I: 19, 727

risk factors, I: 453

Seveso, Italy, studies, I: 454–455;

IV: 269

TCDD in, I: 116, 138–139, 142, 143;

IV: 267, 386–387, 515

Vietnam veterans and, I: 391, 393, 455, 457;

IV: 269

See also Hepatobiliary cancers

Liver disorders

2,4-D in, I: 179;

III: 524;

IV: 505

2,4,5-T in, II: 42;

III: 524;

IV: 500, 505

arsenic and, IV: 39–41

biologic plausibility, III: 513–514, 524;

IV: 505

enzyme activity, I: 155–156, 685–687, 691–692

epidemiologic studies, I: 45;

II: 332–333;

III: 510–513;

IV 500–504

epidemiology, II: 331–332;

III: 509–510;

IV: 498–500

herbicide occupational exposure and, III: 510–512;

IV: 500–501

herbicides in, I: 125;

II: 332–333;

III: 510–514;

IV: 135, 139, 141, 500–505

picloram chronic toxicity, I: 191–192;

II: 42;

III: 524

scientific literature update, II: 332–333;

III: 510–513;

IV: 500–504z

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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Seveso, Italy, studies, I: 367;

IV: 501–502

TCDD in, I: 115, 124, 129–130, 151–156, 165–166;

II: 42, 331–333;

III: 509;

IV: 25–30, 34, 37, 41–44, 56–60, 66–73, 77, 83, 498–505

Vietnam veterans and, II: 332;

III: 512–513;

IV: 502–504

See also Lipid abnormalities;

Metabolic and digestive disorders

Lombardy, Italy, II: 147, 299;

IV: 329

Low birthweight

biologic plausibility, III: 458;

IV: 416–417

definition, I: 625;

IV: 413–414

epidemiologic studies, III: 456–457, 459;

IV: 414–416

epidemiology, I: 625–626;

III: 454, 455, 456;

IV: 413–414

herbicide association in, I: 14, 627–628;

II: 7, 11, 20;

III: 456–458, 459;

IV: 413–417

herbicide environmental exposure and, III: 459;

IV: 414–416

herbicide occupational exposure and, III: 459;

IV: 414–416

risk factors, I: 625–626;

IV: 412

scientific literature update, III: 457, 459;

IV: 414–416

Vietnam veterans exposure studies, III: 457, 459;

IV: 417

See also Preterm delivery (PTD);

Reproductive disorders

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors, I: 154–155;

II: 333, 334;

III: 503;

IV: 489, 492

Ludwigshafen, Germany; III: 153, 154, 269, 297, 484, 511

Lumber industry

sawmill workers herbicide exposure, III: 10, 156, 227–228, 338, 439–440, 447–448, 449, 452, 453, 457;

IV: 114, 142, 290, 296, 306, 307, 312, 333, 338, 343, 368, 404, 408, 418, 419, 422, 427

See also Forests

Lung cancer

2,4-D in, I: 177

agricultural/forestry workers and, I: 466;

IV: 142

biologic plausibility, III: 302;

IV: 284

cacodylic acid and, I: 187;

IV: 24

environmental exposure studies, III: 297–298, 301;

IV: 282–283

epidemiological studies, II: 139;

III: 296–298 , 300–301;

IV: 157, 210, 278, 282–284, 285–287, 473

epidemiology, III: 295–296;

IV: 281

herbicide association in, I: 472;

II: 6;

III: 296–302;

IV: 282–284

herbicide/pesticide applicators and, I: 326, 466–468;

II: 139;

IV: 142

incidence, data by gender/race, for selected age groups, III: 296;

IV: 281

latency and, III: 421, 422, 423, 424

occupational exposure studies, III: 296–297, 300–301, 421, 423;

IV: 142, 144, 282

paper/pulp mill workers and, I: 364, 468

production workers and, I: 461–466;

III: 421, 423;

IV: 282

Ranch Hands, IV: 9, 283

scientific literature update, III: 296–298;

IV: 282–284

Seveso, Italy, studies, I: 469;

III: 296, 297–298, 299, 422;

IV: 278, 282–283

Vietnam veterans and, I: 469–470, 472;

III: 298, 301, 424;

IV: 283, 284

See also Respiratory cancers

Luteinizing hormone (LH), II: 182, 279, 280, 281;

III: 41, 72–73, 444–445;

IV: 34, 399, 405

Lymphocytic leukemia. See Leukemia

M

Maine, I: 60, 400, 603;

II: 292;

III: 243;

IV: 158

Malathion, I: 87, 88, 91

Malignant lymphomas

2,4-D exposure and, I: 119, 177–178

epidemiology, II: 231;

IV: 137, 140, 143

See also Hodgkin’s disease (HD);

Multiple myeloma;

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL)

Mangrove forests, I: 31, 62, 90, 104

See also Forests

Manitoba, Canada, II: 135–136, 232, 242, 246;

IV: 198

March of Dimes, II: 286;

III: 435;

IV: 400

Marine Corps. See U.S. Marine Corps

Maryland. See Fort Detrick, Maryland

Massachusetts, I: 60, 400–401, 405–406, 445, 470, 496, 602–603, 613, 620, 621, 622;

II: 202, 291;

III: 243, 244, 303, 310,

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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315, 339, 346, 349, 353;

IV: 158, 291, 298, 299, 308, 334, 339, 345, 350, 363

Cancer Registry, III: 244

Mast cells, I: 693

MC-1 spray system, I: 25

MCPA. See 4-Chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid

MCPP. See 2-[4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy]-propanoic acid

Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, I: 735

Mekong Delta, II: 104

Melanoma

biologic plausibility, III: 317;

IV: 305

epidemiologic studies, III: 313–317;

IV: 299–302, 306–308

herbicide association with, III: 313–317;

IV: 302–308

herbicide environmental exposure and, III: 316;

IV: 302, 303

herbicide occupational exposure and, III: 316, 317;

IV: 302

incidence of, III: 313, 315;

IV: 299–300

mortality studies, III: 314–315, 316;

IV: 306–307

scientific literature update, III: 314–315;

IV: 302–304

Vietnam veterans studies, III: 316, 317;

IV: 303–306

See also Basal/squamous cell skin cancer;

Skin cancer

Melatonin, TCDD-induced wasting syndrome and, I: 165

Meta-analysis, I: 243, 244

Meta risk ratio (MRR), IV: 253, 265, 267n

Metabolic and digestive disorders

biological plausibility, II: 335;

III: 513–514;

IV: 505

epidemiological studies, II: 330–331, 332–335;

III: 510–513;

IV: 500–504

epidemiology, III: 508;

IV: 498–500

herbicides association in, II: 7, 11, 21, 330–331, 332–335;

III: 3, 510–514;

IV: 500–505

herbicides occupational exposure and, III: 510–512;

IV: 500–501

scientific literature update, III: 510–513;

IV: 500–504

Vietnam veterans and, III: 510, 512–513;

IV: 502–504

See also Diabetes mellitus;

Hyperthyroidism;

Hypoglycemia;

Lipid abnormalities;

Liver toxicity;

Ulcers, gastrointestinal

Methodological bias

biological stored samples, analysis, I: 20–21, 729–730

cancer studies, I: 436

controlling for, I: 33, 226–227, 234–235, 242–246;

IV: 105, 108–09

healthy worker effect, I: 230

herbicide exposure assessment, I: 17, 257–259, 286–287, 291, 724

latency studies, II: 263–264;

III: 408–412

proportionate mortality studies, I: 233

recall bias, I: 256, 601

reproductive outcome studies, I: 591–592, 601

self-reports, I: 270–271;

II: 109, 150

See also Methodology

Methodology

Agent Orange Study, I: 58–59, 63–64;

II: 2

Agent Orange Working Group, I: 19, 728

Alsea, Oregon, investigation, I: 372–373, 598

American Legion Agent Orange study, I: 602

assessment of strength of evidence, I: 238–241;

II: 88–97;

III: 124–133

BASF study, I: 312–313

biologic plausibility, II: 88, 92;

III: 124, 128

burden of proof approach, I: 226–227, 245

cancer expected incidence, I: 439–440

cancer studies, I: 435–440, 442–443, 445;

II: 175, 176;

III: 265–266

case-control studies, I: 234–235, 256–257, 326–341;

II: 94–95;

III: 130;

VI: 9

case reports, I: 235–236

Centers for Disease Control Birth Defects Study, I: 611–612

Centers for Disease Control epidemiologic studies, I: 19, 387–393, 498, 728

circulatory disease studies, I: 699–700, 705–706, 707;

II: 335;

IV: 11, 463, 502, 506

cohort studies, I: 229–232, 254–256, 318–323;

IV: 8–13, 28, 43, 46, 111, 114, 123–161 passim, 182–247 passim, 251–253, 256–388 passim, 402, 409, 418–422, 425–431, 473–474, 478–479, 483, 486–492, 500–509

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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confidence intervals, I: 244;

IV: 19, 43, 251, 278, 342, 385, 419, 445, 472, 483, 515

controlled observational studies, I: 228

Department of Veterans Affairs studies, I: 393–399, 494–495;

IV: 1, 15, 133, 151, 157–158, 255, 284, 399, 421

disease latency effects, I: 231–232, 434, 436–438, 494, 495, 727;

II: 351–357

dose-response relationship, I: 239–230, 252;

II: 89;

IV: 40

Dow studies, I: 307–312

epidemiologic studies evaluation, I: 300– 301;

II: 93–94;

III: 129–130;

IV: 103– 109, 132–161, 182–247

evidence categories, I: 227–237;

III: 132;

IV: 103–109 passim

experimental studies evaluation, II: 92–93

health outcome categories for herbicide association, I: 5–8, 223–225, 246–247;

II: 97;

III: 132;

IV: 6–12

herbicide environmental exposure assessment, I: 262–263, 269–270;

III: 156–157

herbicide exposure assessment strategies, I: 251–259, 270–287;

III: 144–145

herbicide exposure reconstruction model evaluation, I: 18, 289–290, 726;

II: 25

herbicide exposure, statistical association with diseases, II: 88, 90–91;

III: 1–2, 6, 126–127;

IV: 103

herbicide occupational exposure assessment, I: 262–264, 269–270;

III: 150–156

immune system research, I: 692

indirect adjustment, I: 229

information management, I: 735–738

judgment in, I: 245–246;

II: 96;

III: 131–132

latency and cancer studies, II: 261–266, 351;

III: 407–416

meta-analysis, I: 225, 237–238, 242–243

neurological assessment, I: 14, 641–642, 649

neuropsychiatric studies, I: 657

new evidence integration, II: 96;

III: 132

NIOSH studies, I: 303–305;

II: 350–351, 356, 357;

IV: 111, 136

Nitro, West Virginia, industrial accident studies, I: 305–307

NRC Commission on Life Sciences, I: 63

odds ratio determination, I: 234, 239;

II: 90;

III: 126–127;

IV: 105

Office of Technology Assessment, I: 19, 728

paper/pulp mill worker studies, I: 341, 364

publication bias, II: 95–96;

III: 131;

IV: 108

Ranch Hand study, I: 230–231, 385–386, 498, 757–762

random misclassification and latency, II: 263–264;

III: 411–412

relative risk assessment, I: 229, 239, 258;

II: 90, 351, 356;

III: 126, 127;

IV: 105

reproductive outcome studies, I: 591–592

respiratory disease studies, I: 708–709, 712–713;

II: 324

risk assessment, I: 225–226;

II: 89;

III: 127–128

sample size and disease frequency, I: 231, 242–243, 440, 499

Selected Cancers Study, I: 234–235, 498

self-reports, I: 270–271;

II: 109;

IV: 9, 113, 122, 125–126, 135, 141, 154–157, 159, 255, 262, 287, 297, 299, 304, 308, 310, 313, 320, 324, 325, 326, 335, 336–337, 339, 364, 380, 383, 402, 406, 418–419, 421–425, 484, 487, 492, 503–504, 507–509

soft-tissue sarcoma studies, I: 482–490, 497–500

standardized mortality ratio, I: 229–230

statistical significance/power, I: 226–227, 243

TCDD biomarkers, I: 259–262

Times Beach studies, I: 368–370

toxicologic studies evaluation, III: 128–129

type I error, I: 243

type II error, I: 243

Vietnam veterans disease risk estimation and latency, II: 349–357

Vietnam veterans serum TCDD mean maximum estimation, II: 349–350

See also Data sources;

Literature review;

Methodological bias;

Research needs;

Risk assessment methodology

2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, I: 700

6-Methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran, I: 153

Michigan, I: 374, 375, 383;

II: 113, 153, 161, 202, 308;

III: 159, 160, 218, 221, 234, 235, 243, 270, 357–358, 363, 373, 387, 388, 484, 511, 516;

IV: 133, 136, 149, 158, 231, 266, 335, 350, 355, 363, 368, 370, 381, 383, 414

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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Department of Management and Budget’s Vietnam-era Bonus List, II: 153, 161, 202, 208, 221, 225, 230, 234, 236, 246;

III: 308, 336, 353, 489

Department of Public Health, II: 161

See also Detroit, Michigan;

Midland, Michigan;

Tecumseh, Michigan

Midland, Michigan, III: 152, 221, 234;

IV: 149

Midwest Research Institute, I: 29–30

Milan, Italy, II: 243;

III: 232;

IV: 144

Military health care

Agent Orange legislation, II: 28;

III: 26, 27

Department of Veterans Affairs activities, II: 29;

III: 27

Military occupation specialty code (MOS), II: 153;

III: 242

Military operations

Agent Orange surplus disposal, I: 93–94

herbicide early research, I: 25–26;

II: 27–32;

III: 25–30

herbicide (strategic) use ban, I: 32, 45

herbicide use precautions, I: 95

South Vietnam tactical zones, I: 98

Vietnam distribution of personnel, I: 81, 82

Vietnam herbicide applications, I: 1, 3, 24, 27, 74, 84–96, 98–107, 286;

II: 26–27;

III: 135–142

Vietnam herbicides aerial spraying, I: 27, 85–91;

II: 26;

III: 135, 137, 138

Vietnam herbicides ground spraying, I: 94–96;

II: 26;

III: 138–140

Vietnam herbicides use early objections, I: 29, 31–32;

II: 26–27

Vietnam troop movements, I: 52–53, 96, 273–279, 287

Vietnam U.S. involvement, I: 75–76, 84

See also Military records;

Operation Ranch Hand

Military personnel. See Demographic data, Vietnam veterans;

Foreign veterans;

Military health care;

Military occupation specialty code (MOS);

Military operations;

Military records;

Operation Ranch Hand;

U.S. Air Force;

U.S. Army;

U.S. Army Chemical Corps;

U.S. Coast Guard;

U.S. Marine Corps;

U.S. Navy;

U.S. Special Forces;

Vietnam veterans;

Women veterans

Military records, I: 742–743

herbicide exposure assessment use, I: 271–280, 287–288;

II: 101;

III: 138, 140;

IV: 125

herbicide spray missions records, I: 27, 62, 84–85, 104–106

HERBS tapes, I: 62, 96–98;

III: 146, 148;

IV: 123–125

research recommendations, I: 17, 724–725

Vietnam casualties, I: 82–83

Vietnam herbicide ground spraying, I: 94, 95;

IV: 110–111, 113–114

Vietnam service identification in, II: 24–25, 175

Vietnam veterans in, I: 75–80, 106;

II: 150–153

Minnesota, I: 37, 326, 332, 333, 468;

II: 47, 137–138, 178, 199, 325;

III: 226–227, 229, 440–441;

IV: 144, 210, 286, 306, 344, 349, 354, 362, 369, 375, 382

Department of Agriculture, II: 137;

III: 226, 440;

IV: 149

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, I: 641

Miscarriages. See Spontaneous abortion

Missouri, I: 621, 626, 664–665, 681;

II: 280;

III: 500;

IV: 133, 135, 148, 227, 272, 404, 484, 487, 493

See also Times Beach, Missouri;

Verona, Missouri

Mixed-function oxidase activity, I: 131, 155, 156

Models and modeling. See Herbicide exposure reconstruction model;

Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models

Monsanto Company, I: 34, 35, 38, 305–307, 444, 674, 700;

II: 114–115, 179, 182, 193, 204, 207, 220, 236;

III: 152, 171–172, 220, 348;

IV;136, 185–186, 257, 260, 271, 371, 290, 301, 333, 343

Montagnards, I: 31, 371, 599

Montana, II: 268;

III: 420;

IV: 149, 344, 349, 354, 362, 369, 375, 382

Mortality. See Child mortality studies;

Deaths;

Mortality studies;

Perinatal deaths

Mortality of Vietnam Veterans: The Veteran Cohort Study, III: 273, 285–286

Mortality studies, II: 130;

IV: 140, 141, 144, 146, 149, 156, 157, 159, 184–194, 252, 253

basal/squamous cell skin cancer, III: 319, 321

cancer, I: 442–445;

II: 133, 134, 136, 137, 185;

IV: 137, 140, 142, 143, 150, 199–200–206

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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circulatory disorders, II: 335

death certificate data, I: 236–237;

II: 136, 137–138

female reproductive cancers statistics, II: 211

Finland respiratory cancer mortality and latency, II: 271;

III: 422

Germany, in, IV: 137, 138

latency results, II: 263;

III: 410–411, 421, 422, 423

melanoma, III: 314–315, 316

methodology, I: 229–233, 435

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted by, IV: 105, 136, 251

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and latency, III: 429

prostate cancer and latency, II: 273, 274, 275, 276;

III: 426, 427

Ranch Hand baseline mortality studies, II: 151;

IV: 151–153

respiratory cancer mortality and latency, II: 270, 271;

III: 421, 422, 423, 424

Seveso, Italy, children study, II: 147;

IV: 148

Seveso, Italy, males cancer mortality and latency, II: 271, 275;

III: 422, 427;

IV: 148

standardized mortality ratio, I: 229–230

women veterans, II: 152–153, 201

See also Child mortality studies;

Deaths;

Perinatal deaths

MOS. See Military occupation specialty code

Motor/coordination dysfunction

epidemiological studies, II: 309–310;

III: 469–470;

IV: 445–447

herbicide association in, I: 661–662;

II: 4, 7, 11, 21, 309–310;

III: 469–470;

IV: 443–447

herbicide environmental exposure studies, I: 658–659;

IV: 445–447

herbicide occupational exposure studies, I: 658;

IV: 445–447

scientific literature update, II: 309–310;

III: 470;

IV: 445–447

Vietnam veterans’ risk, I: 662;

II: 309, 310

See also Ataxia;

Dystonia;

Neurobehavioral toxicity;

Neurological disorders;

Parkinsonism;

Stroke

Motor/sensory/coordination problems, I: 14, 658–662

MPTP, I: 661;

IV: 445, 448

MRR. See Meta risk ratio

Multiple myeloma, I: 331, 334, 335, 336, 341;

IV: 6, 8, 10, 144, 149

agricultural/forestry workers and, I: 558–561;

II: 138–139, 238–239, 241–243,

III: 379–380;

IV: 140

biologic plausibility, I: 563;

III: 383;

IV: 374

epidemiologic studies, I: 331, 334, 335, 336, 341, 557–563;

II: 138–139, 237–244;

III: 377–383;

IV: 199, 209, 211, 212, 215, 372–373, 374–376

epidemiology, I: 526, 528;

II: 236–237;

III: 377;

IV: 371–372

herbicide association in, I: 10, 11–12, 563, 574, 576;

II: 6, 8, 20, 89, 236–244, 247;

III: 7, 8, 9, 20, 24, 377–383,

IV: 18, 143

herbicide environmental exposure and, II: 241, 243;

III: 380, 382;

IV: 372–373

herbicide occupational exposure and, II: 237–243;

III: 378–380, 381–382;

IV: 372

histopathology, I: 527

incidence, data by race/gender, for selected age groups, III: 377;

IV: 371–372

paper/pulp workers and, II: 143

production workers and, II: 237–238;

III: 378–379;

IV: 373

risk estimates, II: 240–241

scientific literature update, III: 378–380;

IV: 372–373

Vietnam veterans’ compensation, II: 24, 30, 31

Vietnam veterans’ risk, I: 563;

II: 231, 244;

IV: 374

Vietnam veterans’ studies, III: 380, 382;

IV: 373

See also Malignant lymphomas

Myeloid leukemia. See Leukemia

Myocardial infarction, I: 708;

IV: 135, 507–510

See also Cardiovascular disorders;

Circulatory disorders

N

NAS. See National Academy of Sciences

Nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer

biologic plausibility, III: 292;

IV: 275

clinical description, I: 457–458

epidemiologic studies, II: 6, 187–189;

III: 290–291;

IV: 143, 274–276

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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epidemiology, I: 458–459;

II: 187–188;

III: 288–289;

IV: 273

herbicide association in, I: 13, 19, 460, 577;

II: 2, 6, 11, 12, 20, 89, 187–189, 249–250;

III: 7, 10, 290–292;

IV: 7, 11

herbicide environmental exposure and, II: 189;

III: 290, 291;

IV: 274–275

herbicide occupational exposure and, II: 188–189;

III: 290, 291;

IV: 274

incidence, data by race/gender, for selected age groups, III: 289;

IV: 273

scientific literature update, III: 290;

IV: 274–275

treatment, I: 458

Vietnam veterans’ risk, I: 460;

IV: 275

Vietnam veterans’ studies, II: 189;

III: 290, 291;

IV: 275

Nasal olfactory mucosa, I: 130

National Academy of Sciences (NAS), I: 2, 28–29, 31, 43, 47, 51, 55, 57;

II: 1, 17, 25, 29, 30, 63;

III: 1, 23, 28, 146;

IV: 1, 15

National Cancer Institute (NCI), I: 9, 30, 37, 439;

II: 231;

III: 218, 363

National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), III: 266;

IV: 249

ICD-9 cancer codes, SEER program site groupings for, III: 537–539;

IV: 524–526

National Death Index, II: 130, 152, 153

National Diabetes Data Group (NDDG), III: 492, 493

National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey III (NHANES III), III: 498

National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), III: 499;

IV: 411

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), I: 8, 12, 36–37, 260, 264, 270, 285, 303–305, 443, 478, 479, 499, 564, 573, 577, 650–651, 686, 731;

II: 13, 95, 101, 103, 105, 114–115, 128–129, 132, 178, 196, 206, 221, 229, 269, 270, 272, 273, 274, 275, 280, 309, 322, 350–351, 356, 357;

III: 11, 12, 131, 144, 162, 170–171, 218, 219–220, 306, 310, 420, 421, 424, 425, 426, 428, 445, 449, 469, 481, 500, 502;

IV: 10, 111, 133–134, 136, 182–184, 251, 257, 260, 263, 265, 268, 270–271, 277, 280, 282–283, 288, 290, 292, 295, 297, 300, 327, 331, 333, 341, 343, 346, 349, 351, 353, 356, 358, 366, 368, 372, 375, 379

National Institutes of Health (NIH), I: 92

National Library of Medicine, I: 735

National Medical Expenditures Survey (NMES), III: 243;

IV: 238

National Occupational Mortality Surveillance System, III: 231, 470

National Personnel Records Center, I: 17, 77, 385, 724;

II: 150, 152;

III: 237, 242

National Research Council, I: 20, 62–64

National Survey of the Vietnam Generation, IV: 411

National Technical Information Service, III: 29

National Toxicology Program, I: 139–141;

IV: 284

National Veterans Legal Services Project, I: 60

National Vietnam Veterans Birth Defects/ Learning Disabilities Registry and Data Base, I: 741–742;

II: 292–293

National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study, I: 79, 83, 655

Nature, IV: 511

Navy. See U.S. Navy

NCHS. See National Center for Health Statistics

NCI. See National Cancer Institute

NDDG. See National Diabetes Data Group

Nebraska, I: 9, 37, 332, 333–334, 535;

II: 139, 231, 233–234, 241;

III: 229, 363;

IV: 143–144, 211, 216, 360, 375, 382

Nebraska Lymphoma Study, II: 139

Neonatal death. See Perinatal death

Netherlands, I: 316–317, 323, 325–326, 443, 464, 468, 477, 558;

II: 132–133, 179, 196, 199, 220, 226, 232, 238, 243, 269;

III: 10, 223, 226, 230, 236, 348, 441–442, 490;

IV: 252–253, 256–257, 259–260, 262, 265, 293, 295–296, 302, 306, 333, 340, 343, 346, 348, 351, 353, 356, 358–360, 365, 368, 372, 374–375, 379, 381, 404–405

Central Bureau of Statistics, II: 133

herbicide exposure assessment, III: 150–151

National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, II: 132–133

See also Rotterdam, Netherlands

Neural tube defects, II: 297;

III: 437–438;

IV, 18, 400–405

See also Birth defects;

Reproductive disorders;

Spina bifida

Neurasthenia, I: 649;

IV: 440

See also Cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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Neurobehavioral toxicity

2,4-D, I: 180;

II: 305;

III: 473, 474

biological plausibility, II: 314;

III: 474–475

definition, II: 304

epidemiological studies, II: 306, 307–308, 309–310, 311, 312–313, 314;

III: 467–473

epidemiology, II: 304–305, 307;

III: 466, 468

evidence in epidemiological studies, II: 314;

III: 473–474

herbicide association, II: 305–314;

III: 3, 467–475

herbicide environmental exposure studies, II: 306;

III: 467

herbicide occupational exposure studies, II: 306;

III: 467

TCDD, II: 305, 307–308, 309, 310–311, 314;

III: 469, 470–471, 474, 475;

IV: 25–26

Vietnam veterans increased risk, II: 305, 306, 314;

III: 475–476

See also Ataxia;

Cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders;

Depressive disorders;

Motor/coordination dysfunction;

Neurological disorders;

Peripheral nervous system (PNS) disorders;

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD);

Stroke

Neuroblastoma, I: 594

children and, I: 628;

IV: 422, 425

Neurologic disorders

2,4-D in, I: 179;

II: 48;

III: 45–46, 473, 474

assessment issues, I: 14, 641–642;

IV: 440–441

biologic plausibility, III: 474–475;

IV: 457–459

childhood cancer, I: 628

classification of, I: 640;

II: 304–305

cognitive and neuropsychiatric effects, I: 649–658;

III: 468–469;

IV: 441–443

epidemiologic studies, I: 44–45, 643–648;

II: 141, 305, 307, 309;

III: 467–473;

IV: 441–459

herbicide association in, I: 14, 657, 661, 666;

III: 467–476;

IV: 441–459

herbicide occupational exposure studies and, I: 649–651, 658, 662–663;

III: 467

motor/coordination dysfunction, I: 14, 658–662;

III: 469–470;

IV: 443–448

peripheral nervous system disorders, I: 662–666;

III: 470–473;

IV: 454–459

Seveso, Italy, studies, I: 365–366, 523;

II: 141;

IV: 227

TCDD in, I: 160–166;

II: 3, 75;

III: 84–85, 469, 470–471, 474, 475;

IV: 441–443, 445

Vietnam veterans’ compensation, I: 55

Vietnam veterans’ offspring and, I: 609, 660

Vietnam veterans’ risk, I: 658, 662, 666;

III: 475–476;

IV: 459

See also Cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders;

Motor/coordination dysfunction;

Neurobehavioral toxicity;

Peripheral nervous system (PNS) disorders

Newark, New Jersey, II: 128–129;

III: 219, 220;

IV: 134–135

New Brunswick, Canada, III: 234;

IV: 149

New Hampshire, I: 341, 364;

III: 232;

IV: 146, 222

New Jersey, I: 656, 695;

II: 280;

III: 243, 500;

IV: 158, 483, 487, 493

Agent Orange Commission, I: 60, 280–281, 401–402, 741;

II: 292

See also Newark, New Jersey

New Mexico, I: 60, 402;

III: 243;

IV: 159

New York, I: 60, 364–365, 402–403, 444, 470, 495, 626;

II: 202;

IV: 149, 159, 230, 291, 298, 355, 364, 371

See also Binghamton, New York;

Camp Drum, New York

New Zealand, I: 329–331, 373, 486, 490, 535–536, 552, 560–561;

II: 132, 134, 242;

III: 226, 229;

IV: 113, 142, 143, 149, 206, 215, 216, 297, 361, 369, 375, 404

See also Northland, New Zealand

NHANES III. See National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey III

NHIS. See National Health Interview Survey

NHL. See Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

Nickel, respiratory cancer and latency, II: 269;

III: 420

NIH. See National Institutes of Health

NIOSH. See National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

Nitro, West Virginia

industrial accident, I: 38–39, 305–307, 597, 607, 686, 700;

II: 287;

III: 152, 220, 318;

IV: 136

NMES. See National Medical Expenditures Survey

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL)

2,4-D in, I: 256–257

age of onset, I: 436

agricultural/forestry workers and, I: 530–540;

II: 135, 138, 139, 232–234;

III: 364–365;

IV: 140

biologic plausibility, III: 366;

IV: 358–359

cytogenetic studies, III: 365–366

epidemiologic studies, I: 328, 329, 330, 331, 333–334, 335–338, 383, 384, 391–393, 401, 528–540, 573–574;

II: 134–135, 138, 139, 231–234;

III: 362–371;

IV: 116, 137, 199, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 294, 356–358, 359–364

epidemiology, I: 526, 527;

II: 231;

III: 362;

IV: 355–356

herbicide association in, I: 8–10, 548, 573–574;

II: 5, 6, 20, 102, 108, 231–234, 247;

III: 6, 7, 20, 24, 362–371;

IV: 6, 8, 17, 384, 422, 425

herbicide environmental exposure studies, I: 540–541;

II: 234;

III: 365, 369;

IV: 149, 357

herbicide occupational exposure and, II: 232–234;

III: 363–365, 367–369;

IV: 142, 143–144, 146, 356

histopathology, I: 526

incidence, data by race/gender, for selected age groups, III: 362;

IV: 355–356

latency issues, III: 428–430

paper/pulp workers and, I: 540

production workers and, I: 9, 529–530, 548;

II: 232;

III: 363–364, 429

research recommendations, I: 19, 727

scientific literature update, II: 232–234;

III: 363–366;

IV: 356–358

Selected Cancers Study and, I: 234–235

Vietnam veterans and, I: 9, 401, 526, 541–548, 549;

II: 231, 234;

III: 363, 365, 370–371;

IV: 156–157, 357–358, 359

Vietnam veterans compensation, I: 51, 55–56;

II: 24, 29, 30, 31

See also Malignant lymphomas

Nonmelanoma skin cancer. See Basal/ squamous cell skin cancer;

Skin cancer

North America, II: 197;

III: 510

North Carolina, IV: 202

See also Agricultural Health Study

North Dakota, IV: 149, 344, 349, 354, 362, 369, 375, 382

Northeast Pharmaceutical and Chemical Corporation, I: 40

Northland, New Zealand, III: 234;

IV: 149

Norway, III: 10, 225, 442–443;

IV: 197, 209, 404

Central Population Register, III: 225, 442

Medical Birth Registry, III: 225, 442

Population Registry, III: 236

See also Frierfjord, Norway

Null hypothesis, I: 225

O

Occupational herbicide exposure, I: 5, 303

acute and subacute transient peripheral neuropathy and, II: 312;

IV: 10

agricultural/forestry workers, II: 183–184, 197–198, 232–234, 238–239, 241–243;

III: 178–195, 224–232, 284–285, 335, 364–365, 379–380, 387–388;

IV: 112–113, 140–142

basal/squamous cell skin cancer and, III: 321, 323;

IV: 309

birth defects and, II: 286–287;

III: 437;

IV: 404

bladder cancer and, III: 348, 350;

IV: 341–342

bone cancer and, III: 303, 305;

IV: 288–289

brain tumors and, III: 357–358, 360;

IV: 351

breast cancer and, II: 214–216;

III: 324–326, 328;

IV: 317

breast cancer estimated risk, II: 218

cancer mortality, I: 443–444;

II: 133, 134, 136, 137

cancer risk factor, I: 442;

II: 133–135

cervical cancer and, III: 332

childhood cancer, IV: 418–419, 427

circulatory disorders and, III: 515–516;

IV: 506–507

diabetes mellitus and, III: 496;

IV: 483–484

epidemiologic studies, I: 303–365;

II: 3, 6–7, 113–140;

III: 170–196, 218, 219–232, 268–271, 274–280, 282–283, 284, 287, 290, 291, 293–294, 296–297, 300–301, 303, 305, 308–309, 312, 316, 317, 321, 323, 324–326, 328, 332–333, 335–336, 337, 338, 341, 344, 345, 348, 350, 353, 354, 357–378, 360, 363–365, 367–369, 372–373, 374–375, 378–380, 381–382, 386–388, 391–392, 437, 450, 454, 455, 456, 459, 467, 483–485, 489, 491, 496,

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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510–512, 515–516, 520;

IV: 134–147, 251–254, 257–258, 259–260, 262–263, 265–266, 268–269, 276, 277–278, 280, 285–286, 290, 292–293, 306, 307, 312, 318–319, 324, 325, 333–334, 338, 343–344, 348–349, 353–354, 359–361, 368–369, 374–375, 381–382, 404, 408, 418–419, 427, 445, 446, 473–474, 483–484, 489–490, 500–501, 506–507

exposure assessment strategies, I: 253–256, 258–259, 262–267, 269–270;

II: 5, 99–101, 107–108;

III: 144–145, 150–156

exposure indices development, II: 107–108;

III: 161–162

female reproductive system cancers and, III: 332–333;

IV: 321

gastrointestinal/digestive disorders and, III: 510–512;

IV: 500–501

gastrointestinal tract tumors and, II: 178–179;

III: 268–271, 274–280;

IV: 251–254

hepatobiliary cancer and, II: 182–184, 185, 186;

III: 282–283, 284, 287;

IV: 268–269

Hodgkin’s disease and, II: 235–236;

III: 372–373, 374–375;

IV: 365–366

immune system disorders and, III: 489, 491

infant death and, III: 456

infertility and, III: 450;

IV: 406–407

laryngeal cancer and, III: 293–294;

IV: 277–278

leukemia and, III: 386–388, 391–392;

IV: 198, 379

lipid abnormalities and, III: 520;

IV: 114–15, 117, 493

low birthweight and, III: 459;

IV: 414–416

lung cancer and, III: 296–297, 300–301, 421, 422, 423, 424;

IV: 282

melanoma and, III: 316, 317;

IV: 302

multiple myeloma and, II: 237–243;

III: 378–380, 381–382;

IV: 372

nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer and, II: 188–189;

III: 290, 291;

IV: 274

neonatal death and, III: 455

neural tube defects numbers, II: 297

neurobehavioral disorders association studies, II: 306;

III: 467

non-Hodgkin’s disease and, II: 232–234;

III: 363–365, 367–369, 429;

IV: 356

ovarian cancer and, III: 333

production workers, II: 182–183, 191, 193–197, 206–207, 232, 237–238;

III: 170–178, 219–224, 284, 363–364, 378–379, 386–387, 420, 423, 426, 429;

IV: 111–112, 134–140, 251–254, 271, 282, 288–289, 296–297, 302, 321, 327–329, 336, 340–341, 346–347, 351, 356, 365–366, 372, 379

professional herbicide/pesticide applicators, II: 198–200;

III: 182–185, 226–228;

IV: 113–114, 142–143, 404

prostate cancer and, II: 219–220, 222;

III: 335–336, 337, 338, 341, 426, 427;

IV: 327–329

pulp/paper workers, I: 37–38, 267, 341, 364, 443, 447, 454, 468, 516, 523, 540, 561–562 , 568;

II: 126–127, 184, 200, 243;

III: 196, 232;

IV: 114, 134, 252, 268

renal cancers and, III: 353, 354;

IV: 346–347

research recommendations, I: 15–16, 731

respiratory cancers and, II: 190, 191–200;

IV: 282

respiratory disorders and, III: 483–485;

IV: 473–474

sawmill workers, III: 10, 156, 227–228, 338, 439–440, 447–448, 449, 452, 453, 457;

IV: 114

skin cancer and, III: 312;

IV: 300, 301

soft-tissue sarcomas, II: 206–207;

III: 308–309;

IV: 292–293

stillbirths and, III: 454

testicular cancer and, III: 344, 345;

IV: 336

uterine cancer and, III: 333

Vietnam veteran exposure vs., I: 4, 285, 290

See also Herbicide exposure assessment;

Herbicides

Occupations. See Agricultural/forestry workers;

Highway workers;

Leather tanners;

Paper/pulp industry workers;

Production workers;

Professional herbicide/pesticide applicators;

Railroad workers;

Tannery workers

Odds ratio, I: 224, 234;

II: 90;

III: 126–127;

IV: 105

Office of Technology Assessment, I: 19, 50, 52, 57, 728;

II: 28;

III: 26

OGTT. See Oral glucose tolerance test

Ohio, I: 336, 550

See also Hancock County, Ohio

Olshan, Andrew, III: 25

Ontario, Canada, II: 199

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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Operation Ranch Hand, I: 3, 4, 15, 16–17, 24, 74;

II: 5, 14, 18, 23, 54, 251, 293;

III: 6, 11, 12, 22, 23, 37, 50, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139;

IV: 13, 18, 117–119, 150–156, 160–161

application techniques, I: 25, 85–86, 87–88;

IV: 120–122

Army Chemical Corps and, IV: 123–124

birth defects in offspring of, IV: 18, 403–404, 408, 430

chloracne and, IV: 8, 464–466

continuation of, IV: 21, 160–161

epidemiological studies, II: 31, 32, 150–152, 154–156;

III: 28–29, 237, 438–439, 498;

IV: 9, 10, 150–156, 255, 262, 269, 272, 275–276, 278, 280, 283–284, 287, 291, 295, 298–299, 301, 303–305, 308–310, 313, 327, 329, 331–332, 334–336, 339, 342–343, 345, 347, 350, 352, 355, 357, 359, 362–363, 366, 370, 373, 376, 380, 383, 430–431, 435, 474, 479, 480, 485–488, 494, 502–504, 508–510

herbicide formulations, I: 88–91

herbicide surplus disposal, I: 93–94

herbicide volume used, data by type, III: 136

neurological disorders in, IV: 442, 454–455, 459

number of military personnel in, I: 94, 273

objectives, I: 85

operations data, I: 86, 87, 92, 106–107

porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT), IV: 466–467

questionnaires, self-administered, II: 109, 151;

IV: 124

start of, I: 84, 85

suspension of, I: 27, 31, 32, 92–93;

II: 109

targeting procedures, I: 86

TCDD half-life in, IV: 24, 28, 43

See also Air Force Health Study (AFHS)

Operational Report Lessons Learned, IV: 125

Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), III: 498, 500

Oregon, I: 336–337, 341;

II: 149;

III: 230, 232, 234;

IV: 149, 231

See also Alsea, Oregon

Outreach activities

Vietnam Veterans and, II: 31;

III: 28

Ovarian cancer, I: 338–339, 506, 510–511;

III: 333

herbicide association in, I: 13, 512;

II: 6;

III: 333;

IV: 320–323, 326, 385

See also Reproductive system cancers, women

P

P450, I: 130, 144–145, 170, 709;

II: 56, 70, 72, 74, 76;

III: 220;

IV: 27, 41–42, 47–48, 50–52, 54–55, 58–60, 63, 65, 67–69, 72–76, 78

PACER HO, I: 93

PAI-2. See Plasminogen activator inhibitor

Pancreatic cancer. See Gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancers

Paper/pulp industry workers

cancers in, I: 443, 454, 468, 516, 523, 540, 568;

II: 200;

IV: 114, 134, 252, 268

chemical exposures in, I: 37–38, 267;

III: 155–156;

IV: 134, 252

epidemiologic studies, I: 38, 341, 364;

II: 126–127, 184, 200, 243;

III: 196, 232;

IV: 134, 221–223, 252, 268

hepatobiliary cancer, II: 184

multiple myeloma and, II: 243

Parkinsonism, I: 661;

II: 140, 149, 309–310;

III: 469–470, 475;

IV: 144, 443–445, 448, 458

See also Motor/coordination dysfunction

Parma, Italy, IV: 445

See Also Italy

PCBs. See Polychlorinated bephenyls

PCDDs. See Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins

PCDFs. See Polychlorinated dibensofurans

PCMR. See Proportionate cancer mortality ratio

PCP. See Pentachlorophenol

PCT. See Porphyria cutanea tarda

Pennsylvania, I: 60, 403, 562;

II: 244;

III: 243;

IV: 186

1,2,3,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (PnCDD), II: 64, 65

2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran (PnCDF), II: 64, 65

Pentachlorophenol (PCP), II: 320;

III: 221, 511, 516;

IV: 257, 260, 263, 265, 271, 280, 285, 290, 296, 338, 353, 359, 368, 381

Pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (PROD)

TCDD and, II: 64

PEPCK. See Hepatic phosphoenol pyruvate carboxy kinase

Perimeter spraying. See Ground/perimeter spraying

Perinatal death

biologic plausibility, III: 453, 458;

IV: 413

definitions, I: 618–619;

II: 284;

III: 451;

IV: 412

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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descriptive epidemiology, I: 619–620;

II: 284–285;

III: 451

epidemiological studies, I: 620–624;

II: 285–286;

III: 451–453, 454, 455, 456

herbicide association in, I: 14, 624;

II: 7, 11, 20, 278, 285–286;

III: 451–454, 455, 456;

IV: 413

herbicide environmental exposure and, III: 454, 455, 456

herbicide occupational exposure and, III: 454, 455, 456

risk factors, I: 619–620

scientific literature update, II: 285;

III: 452–453, 454, 456

TCDD biologic plausibility in, I: 624

Vietnam veterans and, II: 285;

III: 454, 455, 456;

IV: 413

Peripheral nervous system (PNS) disorders, I: 55, 662–666;

II: 304, 312;

IV: 440

acute and subacute transient peripheral neuropathy, II: 2, 6, 89, 311–314;

III: 7, 8, 473;

IV: 10, 18, 457–459

chronic persistent peripheral neuropathy, II: 89, 310–311;

III: 470–472; 454–456

epidemiological studies, II: 310–311, 312–314;

III: 470–473;

IV: 135, 454–455, 457

herbicide association with, I: 666;

II: 2, 6, 10, 11, 21, 89, 310–314;

III: 7, 8, 21, 470–473; 454–457

herbicide environmental exposure studies, I: 663–665;

II: 312–313

herbicide occupational exposure studies, I: 662–663;

II: 312

methodology, II: 311–312

scientific literature update, II: 310–311;

III: 471, 473;

IV: 454–455, 457

Seveso, Italy, residents and, II: 312–313

Vietnam veterans’ risk, I: 666;

II: 311, 313;

IV: 457, 459

See also Neurobehavioral toxicity;

Neurological disorders

Pesticide/herbicide applicators. See Professional herbicide/pesticide applicators

Pesticides. See Agricultural herbicides;

Desiccant herbicides;

Fungicides;

Herbicides;

Insecticides;

Phenoxy herbicides;

Selective herbicides

Pharmacokinetics

2,4-D, I: 175

2,4,5-T, I: 182

cacodylic acid, I: 186–187

picloram, I: 190

TCDD, I: 127–133, 260–261, 284;

II: 53–54;

III: 161;

IV: 41, 42, 47

TCDD-induced wasting syndrome, I: 162–166

Phenoxy herbicides, I: 8, 9, 10, 11, 27;

III: 150, 151, 154, 222, 223, 422, 423, 429

action of, I: 27;

IV: 16

IARC registry and, IV: 137

See also Herbicides

Phenoxyenolpyruvate carboxykinase, I: 172

Phenoxypropionic acids, I: 327

Phytar 560-G, I: 89

Picloram, I: 88, 90, 91;

II: 4;

III: 5, 19, 135, 136, 137, 218;

IV: 5, 117–119, 133

acute toxicity, I: 191

animal studies, I: 189–192;

III: 50, 396, 460

biologic plausibility, III: 460, 524;

IV: 426

carcinogenicity, I: 118, 119, 190–191;

II: 40;

III: 396

chemical properties/structure, I: 111, 114–115, 189;

II: 38;

III: 32

chronic exposure, I: 191–192

developmental/reproductive toxicity, I: 192;

II: 42;

III: 460;

IV: 416, 426, 431, 434–435

domestic use, I: 189

genotoxicity, I: 191

immunotoxicity, I: 122–123, 192;

II: 41

liver toxicity, I: 125;

II: 42;

III: 524

metabolism, I: 115, 116

pharmacokinetics, I: 190;

IV: 27–28

toxicity profile update, II: 51;

III: 50;

IV: 22–24, 31, 33–34, 40–41

volume used in Operation Ranch Hand, data, III: 136;

IV: 117

PKC. See Protein kinase C

Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-2), II: 74

Plasmodium, TCDD exposure and, II: 68

Plausibility. See Biologic plausibility

Pleurisy, I: 711, 713

See also Respiratory disorders

PMRs. See Proportional mortality ratios

PnCDD. See 1,2,3,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (PnCDD)

PnCDF. See 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran

Pneumoconiosis, I: 713

See also Respiratory disorders

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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Pneumonia, I: 710, 713

See also Respiratory disorders

PNS. See Peripheral nervous system (PNS) disorders

Pointman Project, I: 60, 280, 401–402, 656

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), II: 64, 67, 68, 182, 329;

III: 236, 515;

IV: 138, 399

Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), I: 126, 327;

II: 53, 64, 133, 149, 320, 329;

III: 153, 154, 156, 160, 221, 223, 236, 511, 515, 516;

IV: 111–112, 114

Polychlorinated diensofurans (PCDFs), II: 53, 64, 68, 149, 320, 329;

III: 153, 154, 160, 223, 236

Polymorphonuclear neutrophils, I: 148

Population characteristics. See Age and aging;

Gender;

Deaths;

Demographic data, Vietnam veterans;

Perinatal death;

Race/ethnicity

Porphyria, I: 153–154

Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT)

biological plausibility, II: 323;

III: 482;

IV: 468

clinical features, I: 679,

IV: 466–467

epidemiologic studies, I: 680–682;

II: 6, 129, 321–323;

III: 481–482;

IV: 194, 467–468

epidemiology, II: 321;

III: 480–481;

IV: 10, 466–467

herbicide association in, I: 10, 682;

II: 5, 6, 10, 20, 129, 321–323;

III: 7, 8, 20, 24, 481–482;

IV: 17, 18, 135, 183, 467, 468

scientific literature update, II: 322–323;

III: 482;

IV: 467–468

Vietnam veterans’ compensation, I: 50, 55;

II: 24, 28–29, 30, 31

Vietnam veterans’ risk, I: 682–683;

II: 321, 322, 323;

III: 481, 482;

IV: 468

See also Skin sensitivity

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), I: 397–398, 653–656, 658;

II: 304, 308;

IV: 440

See also Cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders

Prague, Czechoslovakia, III: 224

Preterm delivery (PTD), III: 454, 455, 456–458, 459;

IV: 400, 413, 416, 432

See also Low birthweight

PROD. See Pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase

Production workers

bladder cancer, I: 513–517;

IV: 341–342

brain cancer, I: 523;

IV: 351

cancer mortality, I: 443–444;

II: 133, 134, 270, 273, 274;

III: 423, 426, 429;

IV: 251, 268

chemical industry production workers studies, I: 303–318;

II: 114–118, 128–135, 171–175, 182–183, 191, 193–197, 206–207, 232, 237–238, 273–274, 275;

III: 170–178, 219–224, 363–364, 378–379, 386–387, 422, 423, 426, 429;

IV: 270, 292

chloracne, I: 674–676

circulatory disorders, I: 700–701;

IV: 506–507

diabetes mellitus, I: 684 ;

IV: 483–484

epidemiologic studies, I: 36–37, 303–318;

II: 113, 114–118, 128–135, 182–183, 191, 193–197, 232, 237–238;

III: 170–178, 219–224, 284, 363–364, 378–379, 386–387;

IV: 182–197, 300, 312

female reproductive/breast cancer, I: 508–510;

IV: 317, 321

gastrointestinal tract cancers, I: 447;

IV: 251–254

gastrointestinal ulcers, I: 691

German herbicide employees, exposure assessment, II: 4–5, 105, 108;

III: 423, 429

hepatic enzyme dysfunction, I: 686, 687

hepatobiliary cancers, I: 453–454, 455;

II: 182–183;

III: 284;

IV: 268–269

herbicide exposure assessment, I: 264–265;

II: 103, 105, 107–108;

III: 150–154

Hodgkin’s disease, I: 9;

IV: 365–366

immune system disorders, I: 697–698

international register of workers exposed to phenoxy herbicides, II: 131–135;

III: 175–177, 222–223

latency and cancer, II: 269, 270, 272, 273–274, 275;

III: 422, 423, 426, 429;

IV: 284, 293,

leukemia, I: 564–566, 570–571;

III: 386–387;

IV: 379

lipid abnormalities, I: 688–689;

IV: 493

multiple myeloma, I: 557–578;

II: 237–238;

III: 378–379;

IV: 372

nasal/nasopharyngeal cancers, I: 458, 459;

IV: 274

neurologic/neuropsychiatric disorders, I: 649, 650–651, 662–663

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, I: 9, 529–530, 548;

II: 134, 135, 232;

III: 363–364, 429;

IV: 356

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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porphyria cutanea tarda, I: 680;

II: 129

prostate cancer, I: 518;

II: 273–274, 275;

III: 426, 427;

IV: 327–329

renal cancer, I: 515;

IV: 346–347

reproductive outcomes, I: 596–598, 607, 620, 621

respiratory cancer, I: 10, 461–466, 471;

II: 191, 193–197, 269, 270, 272;

III: 423;

IV: 282

respiratory disorders, I: 709–710;

IV: 273–274

skin cancer, I: 502;

IV: 300, 301

soft-tissue sarcoma, I: 8, 477–479, 499;

II: 132, 134–135, 206–207;

IV: 292–293

testicular cancer, I: 519;

IV: 336

See also Indutrial accidents

Professional herbicide/pesticide applicators cancer in, I: 320–321, 323, 325–326, 443, 447, 466–468, 488, 491;

II: 137–138, 198–200;

III: 422;

IV: 321, 327–328, 330, 336

cohort studies, IV: 202–206

epidemiologic studies, I: 323–326, 447, 466–468;

II: 120–126, 137–140;

III: 182–185 , 226–228;

IV: 142–143, 144–145

Finland respiratory cancer mortality and latency, II: 271;

III: 422

herbicide exposure assessment, I: 266–267;

II: 107–108;

III: 155;

IV: 113–114

reproductive outcomes, I: 324–325;

IV: 410

See also Herbicide application methods;

Herbicides

Prolactin, I: 165

Proportionate cancer mortality ratio (PCMR), II: 179, 183, 197–198, 203, 204–205, 207, 210, 212, 216, 219, 224, 226, 227, 229, 233, 235, 246

Proportionate mortality ratio (PMR), I: 232–233;

II: 161, 180, 185, 208, 225, 230, 234, 236, 242, 246;

III: 417–418, 428;

IV: 253, 369

Prostate cancer

biologic plausibility, III: 343;

IV: 332

epidemiologic studies, I: 518–519;

II: 6, 219–223;

III: 335–342;

IV: 202, 327–329, 330–331, 333–335

epidemiology, I: 513, 514–515;

II: 217, 219;

III: 334;

IV: 326–327

evidence of association for, IV: 18

herbicide association in, I: 10, 11, 519–521, 575–576;

II: 2, 6, 8–9, 20, 89, 217–223, 247;

III: 7, 8, 9, 20, 335–343;

IV: 6, 8, 10

herbicide environmental exposure studies, II: 221, 222;

III: 336, 338, 342;

IV: 329

herbicide occupational exposure studies, II: 219–220, 222;

III: 335–336, 337, 338, 341;

IV: 202, 327–329

histopathology, I: 513

incidence, data by race, for selected age groups, III: 334;

IV: 249, 326–327

latency issues, II: 13, 14;

III: 426–428

mortality and latency, II: 273, 274, 275;

III: 426, 427

research recommendations, I: 19, 727

risk, estimated, II: 222–223

scientific literature update, III: 336–339;

IV: 74, 327–331

Seveso, Italy, male mortality and latency, II: 275,

III: 336, 338, 427;

IV: 329

Vietnam veterans’ risk, I: 11, 518, 519, 522;

II: 221, 223;

III: 343, 431;

IV: 332

Vietnam veterans’ studies, III: 336, 338, 339, 340, 342;

IV: 329

See also Genitourinary cancers

Protein kinase C (PKC), II: 4, 52, 59, 60, 61, 62;

III: 65–67, 105;

IV: 69–71, 72

Psychiatric disorders

assessment for, I: 641

epidemiological studies, I: 649–657

herbicide association in, I: 14, 657;

IV: 135, 151

posttraumatic stress disorder, I: 397–398, 653–656, 658;

IV: 440

PTD. See Preterm delivery

PTSD. See Posttraumatic stress disorder

Public concern, I: 1, 2, 23–24, 29–32, 35–36, 39

federal government response to, I: 45–60;

II: 27–32;

III: 25–30

Public Law 91–441,

I: 47, 62

Public Law 96–151,

I: 50, 52, 57;

II: 28;

III: 26, 240

Public Law 97–72,

I: 50;

II: 28;

III: 26, 240

Public Law 98–181,

I: 51

Public Law 98–542,

I: 50–51;

II: 28–29;

III: 26– 27

Public Law 99–272,

I: 50;

II: 28;

III: 26

Public Law 100–687,

I: 51

Public Law 101–239,

I: 51

Public Law 102–4,

I: 2, 7, 20, 21, 51, 572, 721, 728–730;

II: 1, 5, 17, 19, 29, 97, 247;

III: 1, 6, 14, 17, 20, 124, 132, 390, 397, 462, 475, 519, 525;

IV: 1, 2, 6, 15, 103, 388

Public Law 102–585,

II: 28;

III: 26

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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Public Law 103–452,

II: 28;

III: 26

Public Law 104–110,

III: 26

Public Law 104–204,

III: 24, 26

Public Law 104–262,

III: 26

Public Law 105–114,

III: 25

Pulmonary system

TCDD absorption, I: 129;

IV: 135, 156

Vietnam veterans disorders, I: 402

See also Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD);

Respiratory cancers;

Respiratory disorders

Q

QSAR models. See Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models

Quail Run mobile home park, I: 268, 369–370, 455, 665, 681, 687, 694;

II: 144, 184;

III: 200–201, 234, 283;

IV: 115, 148

Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models, III: 106;

VI: 84

Questionnaires, II: 109, 136, 150, 292;

IV: 111, 124

R

RA. See Retinoic acid

Race/ethnicity

acute lymphocytic leukemia incidence, data by race, III: 384;

IV: 378

acute myeloid leukemia incidence, data by race, III: 384;

IV: 378

bladder cancer incidence, data by race, III: 347;

IV: 340

bone cancer incidence, data by race, III: 302;

IV: 288

brain tumor incidence, data by race, III: 356;

IV: 351

breast cancer incidence, data by race, III: 324;

IV: 314

cancer studies and, II: 179, 180, 181, 183, 214, 219, 227, 237;

IV: 249–250

cardiovascular disorders, adjusted by, IV: 494, 507

chronic lymphocytic leukemia incidence, data by race, III: 384;

IV: 378

chronic myeloid leukemia incidence, data by race, III: 384;

IV: 378

diabetes prevalence, data by race, III: 492;

IV: 484–486, 492

female reproductive system cancer incidence and other effects, data by race, III: 330;

IV: 321, 414, 421, 423, 429

gastrointestinal tract cancer incidence, data by race and cancer type, III: 267;

IV: 250

Hodgkin’s disease incidence, data by race, III: 372;

IV: 365

laryngeal cancer incidence, data by race, III: 292;

IV: 273

leukemia incidence, data by type and race, III: 384;

IV: 378

liver/intrahepatic bile duct cancer incidence, by race, III: 282;

IV: 267, 502

lung cancer incidence, data by race, III: 296;

IV: 281

melanoma incidence, data by race, III: 313;

IV: 300

motor dysfunction, adjusted by, IV: 444

multiple myeloma incidence, data by race, III : 377;

IV: 372

nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer incidence, data by race, III: 289;

IV: 273

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma incidence, data by race, III: 362;

IV: 356

prostate cancer incidence, data by race, III: 334;

IV: 326–327

renal cancers incidence, data by race, III: 352;

IV: 346

risk adjusted by, IV: 135, 150–152, 154–156

soft-tissue sarcoma incidence, data by race, III: 306;

IV: 292

testicular cancer incidence, data by race, III: 343;

IV: 335

Vietnam veterans, I: 81, 82, 83, 84;

II: 180

See also Alaskan natives;

Asian Americans;

Demographic data, Vietnam veterans

Radiation exposure, I: 564, 595

Radon daughters

respiratory cancer and latency, II: 268;

III: 418

Railroad workers, I: 323–324, 467, 486, 649–650, 658;

IV: 206

Ranch Hand study. See Air Force Health Study (AFHS)

RARb. See Retinoic acid receptor b

Reagan, Ronald, III: 26

Rectal cancer. See Gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancers

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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Registries. See Agent Orange Registry (AOR);

Dioxin Registry;

European registry;

National Vietnam Veterans Birth Defects/Learning Disabilities Registry and Data Base

Regression analysis, II: 281

Relative risk, I: 224, 229, 230, 239, 258;

II: 90, 178, 264, 265, 266, 271, 275, 297, 351, 356;

III: 126–127, 412, 413, 414, 415, 418, 420, 422, 426–427, 428, 430–431;

IV: 83, 105, 138, 142, 153, 254, 277, 278, 282, 284, 303, 310, 315, 321, 322, 329, 331, 332, 366, 373, 379, 424, 447, 472, 500

Renal cancer

See Kidney cancer

Renal toxicity

cacodylic acid and, II: 50–51

TCDD and, II: 77;

III: 75–76;

IV: 76–77

Reproductive disorders

2,4-D in, I: 180–181;

II: 42, 280–282;

III: 46, 460, 461–462;

IV: 416

2,4,5-T in, I: 185;

II: 42, 280–282, 287;

III: 462;

IV: 404;

IV: 416

animal studies, I: 123–124;

III: 460–462;

IV: 426, 431–435

biologic plausibility, II: 300;

III: 444, 451, 453, 458, 460–462;

IV: 416, 426

cacodylic acid in, I: 189;

II: 42;

IV: 403, 407, 411, 413, 416, 431, 435

epidemiologic studies, III: 436, 437–438, 443, 445–449, 450, 451–453, 454, 455, 456–457, 459;

IV: 135, 153, 209, 227, 228, 233, 431;

IV: 416, 426

herbicide association in, I: 13–14, 605, 634;

II: 6, 7, 278–279, 300–301;

III: 3, 434– 435, 436–444, 445–454, 455, 456–458, 459;

IV: 135

male-mediated, I: 593–595;

III: 444–451;

IV: 413

methodological approach to study of, I: 591–592

occupational risk factors, I: 594–595;

IV: 399–400, 402, 404, 408, 418–419

picloram in, I: 192;

II: 42;

III: 462;

IV: 403, 413, 416, 431

Ranch Hand study, I: 758–762;

II: 293–295;

III: 436, 438, 439, 446–447, 449, 452–453, 457–458;

IV: 233

research recommendations, I: 727

TCDD in, I: 123–124, 156–159;

II: 3, 41–42, 71–72, 282, 285–286;

III: 92–105, 446–449, 460–461, 462;

IV: 26, 81–82, 416

Vietnam veterans’ increased disease risk, II: 278, 298, 300–301;

III: 444, 462;

IV: 417, 426, 431

See also Birth defects;

Cervical cancer;

Endometrial cancer;

Hydatidiform mole;

Hydrocephalus;

Hypospadias;

Infertility;

Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR);

Low birthweight;

Neural tube defects;

Ovarian cancer;

Perinatal death;

Preterm delivery (PTD);

Reproductive system cancers, women, I: 13, 14, 505–512, 577;

II: 6;

IV: 320–326

biologic plausibility, III: 334;

IV: 323

epidemiologic studies, I: 508–512;

II: 211–213;

III: 330–334;

IV: 321–326

epidemiology, I: 505, 506–508;

II: 211;

III: 329–330;

IV: 320–321

herbicide association in, I: 13, 14, 512, 577;

II: 6, 11, 20, 211–213, 249–250;

III: 7, 10, 330–334;

IV: 7, 11, 323, 385

herbicide environmental exposure and, III: 333;

IV: 321–322, 325, 326–329, 334

herbicide occupational exposure and, III: 332–333;

IV: 321

histopathology, I: 506

incidence and mortality statistics, II: 211;

III: 329–330;

IV;321

scientific literature update, II: 212;

III: 331–332;

IV: 321–324

Vietnam veterans’ risk, I: 512;

II: 211, 213;

III: 334;

IV: 323–324

Vietnam veterans’ studies, III: 333;

IV: 322–323

See also Breast cancer;

Ovarian cancer;

Reproductive disorders;

Uterine cancer

Request for Proposals (RFP), II: 25, 26;

III: 6, 126, 150;

IV: 5, 126–127

Research

Department of Veterans Affairs efforts, II: 29–30;

III: 27–28;

IV: 151, 157–58

experimental studies update, II: 43–45

herbicide exposure and cancer latency, literature review, II: 266–275;

III: 416–431

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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herbicide exposure assessment strategies, recent literature, II: 104–109;

III: 157–162;

IV: 5

publication bias, II: 95–96;

III: 131;

IV: 108

See also Research needs

Research needs

biomarkers, I: 17, 725;

II: 25

cost of, I: 727

health outcome priorities, I: 19, 726–727

herbicide exposure assessment, I: 4, 15, 16–17, 287–290, 291, 721–722, 724–728

herbicide occupational exposure data, I: 731

Hodgkin’s disease, I: 19, 727

military records, I: 17, 724–725;

II: 24–25

motor/coordination dysfunction, I: 660–661

neurobehavioral functioning, I: 657

recommendations, I: 15–21, 721–731;

II: 23–24;

III: 23;

IV: 13

research management, I: 16, 17–18, 723–724, 726

risk assessment, I: 731

serum mandated testing, I: 21, 730

Vietnamese population studies, I: 731

Respiratory cancers

agricultural/forestry workers and, I: 466;

II: 197–198

arsenic and, latency, II: 268;

III: 420

asbestos and, latency, II: 268;

III: 420

epidemiologic studies, I: 461–472;

II: 189–203;

IV: 274–275, 276, 277–278, 280, 285–287

epidemiology, I: 460–461;

II: 189–191;

IV: 273–274, 277, 281

evidence of association for, IV: 6, 8, 18

Finland male herbicide/pesticide applicators mortality and latency, II: 271;

III: 422

gamma rays and, latency, II: 268;

III: 418

herbicide association in, I: 10–11, 19, 574–575;

II: 6, 8, 20, 89;

II: 189–203, 247, 269–273;

III: 7, 8, 9, 20, 24;

IV: 6, 8, 275, 279, 284,

herbicide environmental exposure and, II: 190, 193, 200–201;

IV: 274–275, 278, 282–283

herbicide occupational exposure and, II: 190, 191–200;

IV: 274, 277, 282

latency issues, II: 13–14, 268–273;

III: 418, 420–426

literature review, II: 269–272;

III: 420–424

nickel and, latency, II: 269;

III: 420

paper/pulp workers and, I: 468–469;

II: 200

production workers and, I: 461–466;

II: 191, 193–197;

III: 420, 422, 423, 429;

IV: 277, 282

professional herbicide/pesticide applicators, II: 198–199

radon daughters and, latency, II: 268;

III: 418

relative mortality and latency, II: 270;

III: 421, 422, 423, 424

risk estimates, II: 190, 192–193

risk factors, I: 461

Seveso, Italy, men lung cancer mortality, II: 271;

III: 422, 424;

IV: 278

Seveso, Italy, outcomes, I: 469;

IV: 275, 278, 282–283

smoking and, latency, II: 268;

III: 418

Vietnam veterans’ compensation, I: 55;

II: 24, 30, 31

Vietnam veterans’ risk, I: 460–461, 469–470, 472;

II: 190, 201–202, 203;

III: 430–431;

IV: 275–276, 279, 283, 284

See also Laryngeal cancer;

Lung cancer;

Respiratory disorders

Respiratory disorders

biologic plausibility, III: 486;

IV: 475

epidemiologic studies, II: 324–326;

III: 483–486;

IV: 272–274

epidemiology, III: 482–483;

IV: 468–471

herbicide association in, I: 14, 713;

II: 7, 11, 21, 324–336;

III: 3, 483–486;

IV: 275

herbicide occupational exposure and, III: 483–485;

IV: 273–274

paper/pulp mill workers and, I: 341, 364

production workers and, I: 709–710;

IV: 273–274

research methodology, I: 708–709, 712–713;

II: 324

scientific literature update, II: 325;

III: 483–486;

IV: 272–274

TCDD in, I: 170, 472, 709–710, 712, 713–714;

III: 484;

IV: 468, 471–475

Vietnam veterans’ risk, I: 713–714;

III: 485–486;

IV: 275

See also Asthma;

Bronchitis;

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD);

Emphysema;

Influenza;

Pleurisy;

Pneumoconiosis;

Pneumonia;

Respiratory cancers;

Tuberculosis

Retinoic acid (RA), II: 73;

III: 53, 73, 98

Retinoic acid receptor b (RARb), II: 73

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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RFP. See Request for Proposals

Ribonucleic acid (RNA), II: 55, 58, 59, 62, 74, 75;

III: 80, 82, 99, 101, 102, 103, 104

Risk assessment methodology, I: 5, 221, 246

EPA dioxin research, I: 59–60

predisposing factors, I: 731

relative risk determination, I: 224, 229, 258;

II: 351, 356;

IV: 105

standardized mortality ratio in, I: 229–230

strength of association in, I: 239

terminology, I: 224

Vietnam veterans’ disease risk estimation, II: 349–357;

IV: 17

Vietnam veterans’ TCDD concentrations with time after exposure, II: 356–357

Vietnam veterans’ TCDD serum levels back-extrapolated to measure dose, II: 357

Vietnam veterans’ TCDD serum levels linear extrapolation, II: 356

Vietnam veterans’ TCDD serum levels use to estimate disease risk, II: 350–357;

IV: 182

Risk assessment, Vietnam veterans, I: 5, 14–15, 221, 225–226, 246, 247–248, 578;

II: 14, 22–23, 91;

III: 14–15, 22–23, 127–128, 475–476, 525;

IV: 388, 517

amyloidosis, IV: 513

birth defects, I: 618;

II: 298, 300–301

bone cancer, I: 474–475;

IV: 290

breast cancer risk, II: 218;

III: 329;

IV: 318

cancer, I: 440, 442–443, 578;

II: 251, 276;

III: 397, 430–431

cancer in offspring, I: 630–631;

IV: 426

chloracne, I: 678–679;

II: 321;

IV: 466

circulatory disorders, I: 708;

IV: 510

diabetes mellitus, I: 692;

III: 503;

IV: 489

disease risk methodology, II: 349–357

female reproductive system cancers, I: 512;

III: 334;

IV: 323

fetal/infant death, I: 625;

IV: 413

gastrointestinal cancers, I: 452;

IV: 356

genitourinary tract cancers, I: 522

hepatic enzyme disorders, I: 692;

IV: 505

hepatobiliary cancers, I: 457;

II: 187;

IV: 270

Hodgkin’s disease, I: 557;

IV: 367

immune system disorders, I: 699;

III: 491;

IV: 481

leukemia, I: 571–572;

IV: 381

linear extrapolation of exposure and risk, II: 356

lipid abnormalities, I: 692;

III: 507–508;

IV: 495

low birthweight outcomes, I: 628;

IV: 417

motor/coordination dysfunction, I: 662

multiple myeloma, I: 563;

IV: 374

nasal/nasopharyngeal, I: 460;

IV: 275

neuropsychiatric outcomes, I: 658

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, I: 549;

IV: 359

peripheral nervous system disorders, I: 666;

II: 314;

IV: 459

porphyria cutanea tarda, I: 682–683;

II: 323;

IV: 468

prostate cancer risk, II: 223;

III: 343;

IV: 332

reproductive outcomes, I: 634;

II: 300–301;

IV: 407, 431

respiratory cancer, I: 472;

II: 190, 192–193;

IV: 279, 284

respiratory disorders, I: 713–714;

IV: 475

skin cancer, I: 505;

IV: 305–306, 311

soft-tissue sarcoma, I: 500;

IV: 17, 296

spina bifida in offspring, II: 298, 301;

IV: 403

spontaneous abortion, I: 605;

IV: 411

TCDD concentrations with time after exposure, II: 356–357

TCDD serum levels back-extrapolated to measure dose, II: 357

TCDD serum levels linear extrapolation, II: 356

TCDD serum levels use to estimate disease risk, II: 350–357

RNA. See Ribonucleic acid

Ronnel, II: 128;

III: 219;

IV: 134

Rotterdam, Netherlands, III: 236

Rung Sat Special Zone, I: 100, 104, 105, 106

Russia, II: 319

See also USSR

S

Salmonella, TCDD exposure and, II: 68

Saskatchewan, Canada, II: 135–136, 200, 232, 242, 246, 325;

III: 232

Sawmills. See Lumber industry

Schistosoma haematobium, III: 347

Scientific literature update, IV: 27–32, 104–105, 108, 248–388 passim, 399–435 passim

Seasonal factors

herbicide distribution and, I: 26, 87

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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SEER program. See Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program

Selected Cancers Study

exposure assessment use, II: 101;

III: 146, 231, 240

goals, I: 59, 387, 391

hepatobiliary cancers, II: 185;

III: 283

Hodgkin’s disease in, I: 554–556

liver cancer in, I: 455

methodology, I: 57, 234–235, 243, 258, 391–393, 440, 527

nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer, I: 459;

II: 189

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in, I: 9, 541–543, 573;

II: 231;

IV: 17

soft-tissue sarcoma in, I: 493, 498

Selective herbicides, I: 24, 88

See also Herbicides

Self-Report Symptom Inventory, I: 641

Senate Committee on Veterans Affairs, II: 24, 27–28;

III: 23–24, 25

Serontonergic system, I: 166

Serum levels, TCDD, I: 4, 19, 21, 261, 281–285, 289, 290, 725, 728, 729, 742–743;

II: 4–5, 104–106;

III: 140–142, 146–147;

IV: 37, 46, 112, 114, 125–126, 252, 293, 331

back-extrapolated serum TCDD as measure of dose, II: 357;

IV: 154

Centers for Disease Control validation study, I: 281–284;

II: 103, 104

concentrations of TCDD with time after exposure, II: 356–357;

III: 159–161

estimated mean maximum levels, II: 252–255

latency results, linear extrapolation from long exposure, II: 356

measurement technique, I: 260;

II: 349–350

pharmocokinetics, I: 259–261

recommendations, I: 20–21

significance of, I: 4, 19, 261, 284–285, 289, 290, 725, 742–743;

II: 4–5, 102–106, 108–109

testing, mandated, I: 728, 729

Vietnam veterans disease risk estimation, use for, II: 350–357

Services HERBS tapes. See HERBS tapes

Seveso, Italy; III: 9;

IV: 8–9, 147–148

accidental contamination in, I: 43;

II: 140–141;

III: 232–233;

IV: 147

birth defects, II: 287;

III: 436

bladder cancer, I: 517;

II: 226–227;

III: 348, 349;

IV: 341

bone cancer, III: 303;

IV: 289

brain tumors, I: 523;

II: 230;

III: 356, 358;

IV: 351–352

breast cancer, II: 216;

III: 324–326, 327;

IV: 315

cancer incidence, II: 141, 148

cancer mortality, I: 444;

III: 422, 424

childhood cancer, II: 299–300;

IV: 425

child mortality study, II: 147

chloracne, I: 267, 676–677;

IV: 464

circulatory disorders, I: 701–702;

IV: 507–509

diabetes mellitus, III: 495;

IV: 11, 484

epidemiologic studies, I: 44–45, 63, 365–368;

II: 113, 141–143, 148;

III: 130, 197–200, 232–233, 283, 285, 290, 296, 297–298, 303, 307, 309, 314, 318, 325–326, 327, 330, 331, 332, 336, 338, 344, 348, 349, 352, 353, 356, 358, 363, 365, 372, 373, 380, 385, 386, 388–389, 390, 436, 449, 495, 505;

IV: 224, 225, 226, 227, 258–259, 261, 263–264, 266, 271–272, 276, 280, 286–287, 291, 297–298, 306–307, 313, 319, 325–326, 334, 338, 344, 349, 354–355, 361–362, 369–370, 375–376, 382–383, 428, 430–431, 491

exposure assessment, I: 267–268, 285, 598–599;

II: 4–5, 103, 105–106;

III: 150, 156, 158, 160–161, 162;

IV: 111, 114–115, 126

female reproductive cancers, I: 511;

II: 211–212, 213;

III: 330, 331, 332;

IV: 321–322

gastrointestinal tract tumors, II: 177, 180;

III: 271, 273;

IV: 254

gastrointestinal ulcers, I: 691;

IV: 501–502

hepatic enzyme disorders, I: 686–687

hepatobiliary cancers, II: 184;

III: 283, 285;

IV: 269

Hodgkin’s disease, II: 236;

III: 372, 373

immune modulation, I: 695

infertility, III: 449

latency and cancer risk, II: 271, 272, 273, 274, 275;

III: 13, 408, 414, 420, 422, 424, 425, 426, 427, 428, 430

leukemia, I: 13, 569–570, 571;

II: 245–246;

III: 385, 386, 388–389, 390;

IV: 379, 425

lipid abnormalities, I: 689;

III: 505

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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liver cancer, I: 454–455

liver disorders, I: 367;

IV: 501–502

lung cancer, I: 469;

II: 271;

III: 296, 297–298, 299, 422, 424;

IV: 282–283

mortality studies, I: 652;

II: 141, 271, 272–273, 275;

III: 422, 424, 426, 427

multiple myeloma, I: 562;

II: 243;

III: 380;

IV: 372–373

nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer, II: 189;

III: 290;

IV: 275

neurological disorders, II: 141

neuropsychiatric outcomes, I: 651–652

non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, I: 540–541;

II: 234;

III: 363, 365;

IV: 357

‘peripheral nervous system disorders, I: 663–664;

II: 10, 312–313

porphyria cutanea tarda, I: 680–681

prostate cancer, I: 11;

II: 9, 221, 248, 274, 275;

III: 336, 338, 426, 427;

IV: 329

renal cancer, II: 225;

III: 352, 353;

IV: 347

reproductive outcomes/toxicity, I: 598–599;

II: 72;

III: 436, 449;

IV: 400, 430–431

respiratory cancer, II: 200–201, 269, 272;

III: 422, 424;

IV: 278, 279, 282–283, 284

respiratory outcomes, I: 710;

IV: 472–473, 474, 475

response to accident, I: 43–44

skin cancer, I: 503;

II: 12, 209, 210;

III: 314, 318;

IV: 302

soft-tissue sarcoma, I: 491–492;

II: 206, 207, 208;

III: 307, 309;

IV: 293–294, 295

testicular cancer, II: 228;

III: 344;

IV: 336

SFR. See Standardized fertility ratio

SGOT. See Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)

SGPT. See Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)

Shanghai, China, II: 188

Silvex, I: 309, 324;

II: 128;

III: 219;

IV: 134

Skaraborg, Sweden, III: 234;

IV: 149

Skin cancer

animal studies, I: 141, 142–143;

IV: 5, 24, 31, 40

biologic plausibility for TCDD, I: 503;

IV: 305, 311

clinical features, I: 501, 502

epidemiologic studies, I: 502–503;

II: 209–211;

III: 312–313;

IV: 19, 149, 154, 232, 302–305, 306–308, 312–313

epidemiology, I: 501–502;

II: 209;

III: 312, 313;

IV: 299–300

herbicide association in, I: 12, 576;

II: 7, 11–12, 21, 209–211, 249–250;

III: 8, 10, 21, 312;

IV: 7, 11

herbicide occupational exposure and, III: 312;

IV: 302

TCDD in, I: 141, 142–143, 502–503;

II: 209–211;

III: 313–316, 317, 319, 320, 322;

IV: 19

Vietnam veterans and, II: 209;

III: 312;

IV: 303–304, 305, 309–311

See also Basal/squamous cell skin cancer;

Melanoma

Skin sensitivity

2,4-D and, I: 181

picloram and, I: 192

Ranch hands, IV: 8

TCDD and, I: 172–174

See also Chloracne;

Porphyria cutanea tarda

Sleep disorders, I: 650;

IV: 442

SMRs. See Standardized mortality ratios

Social Security Administration, II: 130, 152, 153

Society for Epidemiologic Research, II: 25

Soft-tissue sarcoma (STS), I: 311, 314

age of onset, I: 436

agricultural/forestry workers and, I: 322, 326–328, 329–330, 335–336, 337, 339–340;

IV: 140, 149

biologic plausibility of TCDD in, I: 500;

III: 311;

IV: 296

case-control studies, I: 481–491;

IV: 143–44

CDC Selected Cancers Study and, IV: 157

children and, I: 628

clinical features, I: 475, 476

cohort studies, I: 231, 243

epidemiologic studies, I: 231, 476, 477–500;

II: 132, 134–135, 205–208;

III: 306–310, 311;

IV: 149, 187, 216, 292–295, 296–299

epidemiology, I: 475;

II: 205;

III: 304, 306;

IV: 116, 136–137, 140, 143–144, 149, 157

herbicide association in, I: 8, 9–10, 500, 572–573;

II: 5, 6, 20, 205–208, 247;

III: 6, 7, 20, 24, 306–310, 311;

IV: 6, 8, 17

herbicide environmental exposure studies, I: 375, 383, 384;

II: 207–208;

III: 309;

IV: 293–294

herbicide occupational exposure studies, III: 308–309;

IV: 292–293

IARC registry and, IV: 137, 293

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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incidence, data by race/gender, for selected age groups, III: 306;

IV: 292

Midland, Michigan cohort, IV: 136

pesticide applicators and, I: 491

production workers and, I: 8, 477–479, 499;

II: 132, 134–135, 206–207;

IV: 136, 292–293

research recommendations, I: 19, 727

risk factors, I: 10, 477

scientific literature update, II: 206–208;

III: 308–310; 292–295

Vietnam veterans and, I: 395–396, 401, 475, 492–498, 500;

II: 205, 208;

III: 309–310;

IV: 157, 294–295

Vietnam veterans compensation, I: 51, 55, 56;

II: 24, 29, 30, 31

See also Kaposi’s sarcoma;

Leiomyosarcomas

Somatostatin, I: 168, 169

South America, III: 510

South Dakota, IV: 149, 344, 349, 354, 362, 369, 375, 382

Southeast Asia, II: 181, 188, 294, 295;

III: 29, 237, 239, 241, 243, 282, 289, 318, 321, 452;

IV: 267

South Korea, I: 61–62;

II: 108–109

Soviet Union. See Russia;

USSR

Spain, IV: 144–145, 207, 401

Special Forces. See U.S. Special Forces

Sperm parameter disorders

altered sperm parameters, I: 631, 632, 633–634;

II: 7, 11, 20;

III: 444–451;

IV: 200, 405–406, 433

See also Reproductive disorders

Spina bifida, I: 609, 611, 612;

II: 6, 295–296

Vietnam veterans offspring, II: 9–10, 296, 298, 309;

III: 7, 8, 9–10, 21, 24–25, 437–438;

IV: 7, 10, 18, 404–405

See also Birth defects;

Neural tube defects

Spontaneous abortion, I: 592

agricultural/forestry workers and, I: 336–337;

IV: 197, 410–411

Alsea, Oregon, case, I: 42–43, 372–373, 598

definition, I: 595–596;

II: 282;

IV: 409

epidemiologic data, quality of, I: 603–605

epidemiologic studies, II: 283;

IV: 410–411

epidemiology, II: 282–283

herbicide association in, I: 14, 605;

II: 7, 20, 278, 283–284; 411–412

herbicide environmental exposure and, I: 598–599;

IV: 410–411

herbicide occupational exposure and, I: 596–598;

IV: 410

maternal risk factors, I: 596

Ranch Hand participants, II: 283–284

risk factors, I: 594;

IV: 409

scientific literature update, II: 283–284;

IV: 410–411

Vietnamese civilians and, I: 599–601

Vietnam veterans’ increased risk, II: 283;

IV: 411

Vietnam veterans’ wives and, I: 405–406, 601–603

See also Reproductive disorders

Standardized fertility ratio (SFR), III: 448

Standardized incidence ratio (SIR), IV: 252–253, 269, 289, 293–294, 328–329, 336, 357, 365–366, 379

Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs)

cancer studies, II: 134, 136, 137, 178, 182, 183, 191, 193, 194, 195, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 204, 206, 269, 270, 271, 273, 274;

III: 420, 421, 422, 423, 424, 425, 426, 429;

IV: 138, 142, 153;

IV: 251–253, 268, 292, 302, 327, 332, 341, 346–347, 351–352, 365–366, 372, 379

role of, I: 229–230

State governments, I: 60

Vietnam veterans epidemiologic studies by, I: 399–405, 495–496;

II: 153, 158–159, 161, 202, 292;

III: 213–215, 243–244

See also specific state

Statistics Sweden, IV: 145

Umea Department of Oncology, II: 138;

III: 228

University Hospital, Linkoping, II: 138;

III: 228, 229

University Hospital, Umea, III: 228

See also Skaraborg, Sweden;

Umea, Sweden;

Uppsala, Sweden

Stillbirth. See Perinatal death

Stomach

cancer, I: 446, 447;

II: 7, 12;

III: 274–275;

IV, 250–254, 256, 259n, 385

TCDD effects in, I: 169

See also Gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancers

Streptococcus pneumoniae

TCDD exposure and, II: 68

Stroke

herbicide exposure risk, I: 658, 659, 660

See also Motor/coordination dysfunction;

Neurobehavioral toxicity

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 2001. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10098.
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