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Page 167
Suggested Citation:"Study Committee Biographical Information." Transportation Research Board. 2001. Making Transit Work: Insight from Western Europe, Canada, and the United States -- Special Report 257. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10110.
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Study Committee Biographical Information

Les Sterman, Chairman, is Executive Director of the East-West Gateway Coordinating Council, the metropolitan planning organization for the St. Louis region. He joined the Council in 1979 and attained his current position in1983. He has served as cochairman of the National Association of Metropolitan Planning Organizations, on the Transportation Research Board’s Executive Committee, and on the Steering Committee of the Surface Transportation Policy Project. He earned his M.S. from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.


David J. Armijo is Director of Operations for the Orange County Transportation Authority in Orange, California. He was previously Director of Contract Transit Services for Dallas Area Rapid Transit and Director of Transit for the City of Santa Fe, New Mexico. He currently serves as a board member for the California Transit Association and on the American Public Transportation Association’s Commuter Rail Committee. He earned his B.A. from San Diego State University.


David Bayliss is a transportation consultant with Halcrow Fox in London, England. Until 1999 he was Director of Planning for London Transport, where he led major planning efforts for the Docklands Light Railway, the Jubilee Line subway extension, and the Croydon Tramlink. He is a member of the Royal Academy of Engineering and has been an active participant in transportation-related activities of the World Bank and the European Union. He is a visiting professor at Imperial College, London. He earned his B.S. from the University of Manchester.

Page 168
Suggested Citation:"Study Committee Biographical Information." Transportation Research Board. 2001. Making Transit Work: Insight from Western Europe, Canada, and the United States -- Special Report 257. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10110.
×

Stephen J. Del Giudice is Director of Planning and Development, Frederic R. Harris, Inc., Baltimore, Maryland. From 1991 to 1999, he was a Member of the Prince George’s County Council, Upper Marlboro, Maryland. He chaired the Council’s planning and transportation committees. In 1994 he served as Chairman of the Transportation Planning Board for the Washington Metropolitan Region. From 1985 to 1990, he was Mayor of the City of Takoma Park, Maryland, and in 1990 served as President of the Washington Metropolitan Council of Governments. He earned his J.D. from Antioch Law School and his M.A. from the University of Toledo.


Helen E. Gault is Manager of Planning and Development for the Ottawa-Carleton Regional Transit Commission, Ontario, Canada. She previously served as the Commission’s Director of Systems Planning. Before moving to Ottawa, she was a senior research associate in the Transport Operations Research Group at the University of Newcastle, England. She earned her Ph.D. from the University of Durham, England.


Genevieve Giuliano is Professor in the School of Urban Planning and Development at the University of Southern California. She is a member of the Transportation Research Board’s Executive Committee and has served on several National Research Council committees, including the Committee on Improving the Future of U.S. Cities Through Improved Metropolitan Area Governance. She earned her Ph.D. from the University of California, Irvine.


Charles A. Lave is Professor of Economics and Director of the Graduate Program in Transportation Sciences at the University of California, Irvine. He was chairman of the Economics Department from 1978 to 1983 and chairman of the Faculty of Social Sciences from 1978 to 1984. He has served on several Transportation Research Board study committees and written extensively on highways, mass transit, and other modes of transportation. He earned his Ph.D. from Stanford University.


Herbert S. Levinson is a transportation consultant based in New Haven, Connecticut. He was previously Professor of Transportation at the Polytechnic University of New York and the University of Connecticut. He was Senior Vice President at Wilbur Smith and Associates, where he worked on transportation projects in the United States and abroad for more than 25 years. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and has

Page 169
Suggested Citation:"Study Committee Biographical Information." Transportation Research Board. 2001. Making Transit Work: Insight from Western Europe, Canada, and the United States -- Special Report 257. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10110.
×

served on many Transportation Research Board committees and panels, including the Steering Committee for the Conference on Transportation Issues in Large U.S. Cities. He coedited the 1982 book Urban Transportation Perspectives and Prospects. He earned his B.S. from the Illinois Institute of Technology.


John R. Pucher is Professor of Urban Planning at Rutgers University, where he is also a research associate in the Transportation Policy Institute of the Alan M. Voorhees Transportation Center. His area of expertise is international transportation policy, economics, and finance. He coauthored the 1996 book The Urban Transportation Crisis in Europe and North America. He earned his Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.


Jack M. Reilly is Director of Planning and Development for the Capital District Transportation Authority in Albany, New York. He is also an adjunct professor of civil engineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. He has served on numerous Transportation Research Board committees, including the Steering Committee for a Workshop on Transit Fare Policy and Management. He has toured and studied transit systems in Europe under the sponsorship of the German Marshall Fund of the United States. He earned his Ph.D. from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.


Beverly A. Scott is General Manager of the Rhode Island Public Transit Authority, a statewide agency serving more than 900,000 people. She previously served as Deputy General Manager of the Washington Area Metropolitan Transit Authority, Assistant Executive Director for the New Jersey Transit Corporation, and Vice President for Surface Transportation at the New York City Transit Authority. She earned her Ph.D. from Howard University.


Joel A. Tarr is Richard S. Caliguiri Professor of Urban and Environmental History and Policy at Carnegie-Mellon University. He specializes in the study of how technology, infrastructure, and other historical factors have affected urban growth and development in the United States and abroad. He is past President of the Historical Society of the American Public Works Association. He earned his Ph.D. from Northwestern University.

Jeffrey M. Zupan is a transportation planning consultant based in Chestnut Ridge, New York. He previously served as Director of Planning for New Jersey Transit and as Chief Planner and Systems Analyst for the

Page 170
Suggested Citation:"Study Committee Biographical Information." Transportation Research Board. 2001. Making Transit Work: Insight from Western Europe, Canada, and the United States -- Special Report 257. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10110.
×

Regional Plan Association. He has been a visiting professor and lecturer on urban design and transportation policy at New York University and Columbia University. He has written extensively on urban rail, land use, and public transportation policy. He earned his M.S. from the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn.

Page 167
Suggested Citation:"Study Committee Biographical Information." Transportation Research Board. 2001. Making Transit Work: Insight from Western Europe, Canada, and the United States -- Special Report 257. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10110.
×
Page 167
Page 168
Suggested Citation:"Study Committee Biographical Information." Transportation Research Board. 2001. Making Transit Work: Insight from Western Europe, Canada, and the United States -- Special Report 257. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10110.
×
Page 168
Page 169
Suggested Citation:"Study Committee Biographical Information." Transportation Research Board. 2001. Making Transit Work: Insight from Western Europe, Canada, and the United States -- Special Report 257. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10110.
×
Page 169
Page 170
Suggested Citation:"Study Committee Biographical Information." Transportation Research Board. 2001. Making Transit Work: Insight from Western Europe, Canada, and the United States -- Special Report 257. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10110.
×
Page 170
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TRB Special Report 257 - Making Transit Work: Insight from Western Europe, Canada, and the United States describes the differences in public transit use among U.S., Canadian, and Western European cities; identifies those factors, from urban form to automobile usage, that have contributed to these differences; and offers hypotheses about the reasons for these differences--from historical, demographic, and economic conditions to specific public policies, such as automobile taxation and urban land use regulation.

Travelers often return from major European cities marveling at the ubiquity and efficiency of urban transit services and wondering why U.S. cities fare so poorly by comparison in this regard. With few exceptions, such as its central role in serving New York City, public transit has a far more prominent role in Canada and Western Europe than in the United States. This is true not only in major cities, but also in smaller communities and throughout entire metropolitan areas. Transit is used for about 10 percent of passenger trips in urban areas of Western Europe, compared with 2 percent in the United States.

A number of factors have contributed to this differential, including higher taxes on motor vehicles, steep fuel taxes, and concerted efforts to control urban development and preserve the form and function of historic cities in both Canada and Western Europe. Moreover, both regions have devoted considerably more attention and resources to ensuring that transit services are convenient, comfortable, and reliable.

At the outset of the 20th century, American cities were leaders in introducing and using transit. Today, however, much of metropolitan America is largely suburban in character. The preponderance of suburban development is due to an abundance of inexpensive land available outside of cities, burgeoning metropolitan populations and economies, and perceptions of inner-city economic and social strife, combined with the ubiquity of the automobile. Transit works best in areas with high concentrations of workers, businesses, and households, whereas suburbs are characterized by low-density development.

The committee that studied the issue of making transit work better in the United States concluded that dramatic changes in transportation investments, land use controls, and public attitudes—including much denser settlement patterns, together with Western European–style fuel taxes and other disincentives to driving—would be required to reshape the American urban landscape in ways that would fundamentally favor transit use. Nonetheless, there is ample opportunity for transit to play a more prominent role in meeting passenger transportation demand in many U.S. cities. Although it is not reasonable to expect the modal share of transit in most U.S. metropolitan areas to equal that of European cities, there are many areas in which transit is appropriate and its use can be increased. American cities that have retained high levels of central-city employment and dense residential development and have a history of transit service can learn from and apply the policies and practices used abroad.

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