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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Preparing for an Aging World: The Case for Cross-National Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10120.
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Index

A


Activities of daily living , 21 , 272

Africa

see also North Africa ;

Sub-Saharan Africa life expectancy , 48
median age, workforce , 40
Aging index , 40
AHEAD ,
see Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old Survey
AIDS , 15 , 49-50 , 58
Argentina , 71 , 72 , 73 , 75 , 76
Arthritis , 206
Asia
see also specific countries
bequests , 156
data standards , 8
intergenerational transfers , 190
labor force and median age , 40
life expectancy , 48
multidisciplinary approaches , 3
old-age mortality , 57
population projections , 32 , 34
researcher access to data , 282
speed of population aging , 39
tax incentives , 19
Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old Survey (AHEAD) , 113-116 (passim) , 119-120 , 191
Australia , 38 , 48 , 55 , 147 , 148
health status and care , 210 , 228
labor force participation , 69-77 (passim)
pensions , 78 , 79 , 80 , 81 , 87 , 147 , 148
Austria , 48 , 210
Azerbaijan , 38

B


Basic Survey of Japanese Living Conditions , 125
Belgium , 32 , 48 , 50 , 94
health care , 210
labor force participation , 69-76 (passim) , 85
pensions , 84 , 85,
Bequests , 103 , 106-107 , 108 , 115 , 155 , 156 , 158 , 166
tax on , 131 , 156-157 , 158 , 160
Bereavement , 14 , 264 , 271 , 272
Birth rate ,
see Fertility
Brazil , 38 , 55
British Household Panel Study , 113, 118(n.3) , 125 , 127
Bulgaria , 55
Bureau of the Census , 31(n.2) , 59 , 60
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Preparing for an Aging World: The Case for Cross-National Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10120.
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C


Canada , 38 , 43 , 55

health status and care , 210 , 228

labor force participation , 71 , 72 , 75 , 76 , 85
pensions , 78 , 80 , 84-88 (passim) , 94 , 147 , 148
wealth , 137 , 147 , 148
Cancer , 55-56
Capital gains , 110 , 118(n.3) , 123
Cardiovascular disease , 55-57 , 206 , 228 , 250
Caribbean ,
see Latin America/Caribbean
Causes of death ,
see Diseases and disorders ;
Life expectancy ;
Mortality
CentER Savings Survey (CSS) , 113 , 122 , 129 , 130 , 151
Chile , 38 , 45
labor force participation , 71 , 72 , 73 , 75 , 76
pensions , 87
China
cardiovascular disease , 228
elderly support ratios , 43
fertility , 45
life expectancy , 55
population projections , 38 , 39
Chronic diseases , 1 , 237
see also Disabled persons
life expectancy and , 56 , 206
Cognitive impairments , 12 , 23 , 91 , 93 , 178 , 208 , 213 , 230 , 231-232 , 233 , 259 , 260 , 271 , 273 , 277
Cohort studies , 4 , 25 , 142-144, 278, 282
Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) , 7 , 86 , 93-94 , 113-120 (passim) , 127(n.6) , 150 , 149 , 191 , 216 , 281
health status and care, general , 207 , 214
intergenerational transfers , 192
mortality estimations , 58-59
Colombia , 22
Community supports , 172
health care , 204 , 207-208 , 211 , 213 , 217
well-being , 253 , 256-257 , 258 , 272
Comorbidity , 212 , 216 , 227 , 228 , 264 , 270
Computer applications
at-home work , 95
CentER Savings Survey , 122
interviewing , 115 , 151 , 174(n.7)
Computer databases ,
see Databases
Confidentiality ,
see Privacy and confidentiality
Consumers and consumption , 105-110 (passim) , 122 , 123 , 128 , 220
cost of surveys , 105
disabled persons , 107-108
family factors , 106-107 , 108 , 161-162 , 163 , 166 , 169-170 , 189
housing wealth , 111-112
intergenerational transfers and , 106-107 , 108 , 161-162 , 163 , 166 , 169-170 , 189
retirement, consumption following , 105-110 (passim)
well-being , 257
Contraception , 16
Controlled studies , 20 , 280
wealth , 129-131
Cost factors , 19-20 , 155
childrearing and education , 166 , 170 , 177
consumption surveys , 105
cross-sectional studies , 20
health care , 2 , 17 , 155 , 158-159 , 166 , 168-169 , 181 , 200 , 201 , 203 , 208 , 210 , 217 , 220
longitudinal studies , 4 . 19-20
panel studies , 19-20
public pension systems , 19 , 155
retirement , 95 , 103 , 160
sampling, research , 20
Cross-sectional studies , 4 , 278 , 282
cost of , 20
health and socioeconomic status , 111
intergenerational transfers , 179
wealth , 111 , 142
Cultural factors , 18 , 21 , 250-251 , 287
elderly, definition of , 30
health status and care , 204 , 211 , 217 , 220
human capital investment , 159
intergenerational transfers , 12-13 , 157 , 159 , 174
kin networks , 174
retirement age , 97
well-being , 262
Czech Republic , 48

D


Databases
Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old Survey (AHEAD) , 113-116 (passim) , 119-120 , 191
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CentER Savings Survey (CSS) , 113 , 122 , 129 , 130 , 151
cost studies , 19-20
Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) , 7 , 86 , 93-94 , 113-120 (passim) , 127(n.6) , 149 , 150 , 191 , 216 , 281
health status and care , 207 , 214-216
linked , 7 , 25 , 96 , 115(n.2) , 191 , 216-217 , 220 , 239 , 281
morbidity , 212 , 214 , 225 , 226-229 , 233 , 252
multidisciplinary approaches , 3 , 277
retirement , 91
Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) , 113-118 (passim) , 129
Survey of Income and Program
Participation (SIPP) , 113-117 (passim)
Definitional issues
see also Standards aging index , 40
demographic transition , 41
developed vs developing countries , 24
elderly , 2(n.1) , 25 , 30
fertility , 39(n.6)
health, general , 225-226 , 230 , 252
intergenerational transfers , 171-172
morbidity , 226-229
signs , 225-226
symptoms , 225
syndromes , 226
wealth , 117 , 118-119 , 149-150
well-being , 13 , 258-259 , 262
Denmark , 48
health care , 210
labor force participation , 70-76 (passim)
wealth , 137
Depression , 21 , 206 , 225 , 243 , 244
Developing countries
see also Latin America/Caribbean ;
North Africa ;
Sub-Saharan Africa ;
specific countries
defined , 24
fertility , 45 , 47
intergenerational transfers , 164 , 165 , 190 , 193
labor force participation , 40 , 69 , 74
life expectancy , 48 , 49 , 53-55
median age , 39 , 40
old-age mortality , 53-55
oldest old , 35
pension programs , 9 , 87
population by age and sex, chart , 46
population projections , 33-34 , 35
Diet ,
see Nutrition
Disabled persons , 2 , 9 , 16 , 17 , 23 , 27-28 , 206 , 209 , 212 , 220 , 230-231 , 235-237 , 256 , 258 , 276 , 279
see also Functional health status ;
Institutional care
cognitive impairments , 12 , 23 , 91 , 93 , 178 , 208 , 213 , 230 , 231-232 , 233 , 259 , 260 , 271 , 273 , 277
consumption by , 107-108
elderly support ratios , 42
employment and , 9 , 24-25
life expectancy and , 55
oldest old , 37
retirement , 9 , 67 , 69 , 77 , 86 , 91 , 94-95 , 97 , 203
social factors, general , 230-231 , 232
Diseases and disorders , 206 , 221 , 240-241 , 250 , 279
see also Disabled persons ;
Health status and health care ;
Medical care ;
Mental health and illness ;
Morbidity ;
Mortality
AIDS , 15 , 49-50 , 58
arthritis , 206
cancer , 55-56
cardiovascular disease , 55-57 , 206 , 228 , 250
chronic diseases , 1 , 56 , 206 , 237
cognitive impairments , 12 , 23 , 91 , 93 , 178 , 208 , 213 , 230 , 231-232 , 233 , 259 , 260 , 271 , 273 , 277
demographic transition , 41-42 , 44 , 47
old-age mortality , 54-57
oldest old , 37
research standards , 5 , 219-220

E


Economic factors , 2 , 3 , 5 , 6 , 8 , 30 , 161
see Consumers and consumption ;
Cost factors ;
Developing countries ;
Employment issues ;
Funding ;
Income ;
Intergenerational relations and transfers ;
Pensions ;
Savings ;
Socioeconomic status ;
Taxation ;
Wealth
capital gains , 110 , 118(n.3) , 123
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Preparing for an Aging World: The Case for Cross-National Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10120.
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elderly support ratios , 42

Flow of Funds (FOF) , 13 , 26 , 28 , 116 , 118 , 123 , 125 , 126 , 129 , 156
health care , 168-169
Gross National Product (GNP) , 18 , 254-256 , 257 , 258 , 273
health status and care , 200 , 202-203 , 204 , 208 , 209 , 220
cost factors , 2 , 17 , 155 , 158-159 , 166 , 168-169 , 181 , 200 , 201 , 203 , 208 , 210 , 217 , 220
life expectancy , 18 , 47 , 51
macroeconomic factors , 6 , 11 , 23 , 27 , 30 , 68 , 96 , 157 , 280
well-being , 253 , 254-256 , 257 , 258 , 273
Educational attainment , 16 , 149 , 250
health status and care , 203 , 205 , 222
intergenerational transfers , 165 , 192
Education, professional ,
see Professional education
Education, public ,
see Public education
Egypt , 55
Elderly support ratios , 40 , 42 , 43
Emigration ,
see Immigration and emigration
Emotional factors ,
see Mental health and illness
Employment issues , 2 , 3 , 4 , 8-9 , 23 , 27 , 66-98 , 250
see also Pensions ;
Retirement Africa , 40
age when still employed, rates of , 69
aging index , 40
disabilities , 9 , 24-25
elderly support ratios , 42
emigration of workers , 44
health status and care, general , 24-25 , 201-202 , 204 , 205 , 222-223 , 224
immigration , 15
labor force participation , 3 , 6 , 8 , 9 , 19 , 23 , 40 , 42 , 66 , 67 , 68-77 , 83 , 95-96 , 202 ;
see also Retirement gender factors , 69 , 71-77 , 78 , 88
older persons, working , 67
part-time and temporary , 14
self-employment , 77 , 121 , 125 , 126
transfer systems , 11
unemployment and health status , 205 , 224
unemployment insurance , 9 , 86 , 94-95 , 97
well-being , 13-14 , 264-265 , 273
worker-to-retiree ratios , 1 , 16 , 103
Estates ,
see Bequests
Ethical issues , 202 , 213-214
see also Privacy and confidentiality
Ethnicity ,
see Race/ethnicity
Europe
see also specific countries
aging index , 40
cardiovascular disease , 228
data standards , 8
fertility , 15 , 44-45
health status and care , 217 , 228
income security , 103-104
intergenerational transfers , 155 , 191
labor force participation , 70
life expectancy , 48 , 49
multidisciplinary approaches , 3
oldest old , 36 , 59
pensions , 86 , 103-104 , 146
population projections , 31-33 , 34 , 36 , 40
researcher access to data , 282
speed of population aging , 38 , 39
wealth , 103-104 , 121-125 , 126-131 , 134-135 , 146 , 149-150
well-being , 254
EVS ,
see German Income and Expenditure Survey

F


Family factors , 1-2 , 3 , 4 , 13 , 17 , 26 , 27 , 155-193 (passim)
see also Fertility ;
Intergenerational
relations and transfers ;
Marital status ;
Wealth
bequests , 103 , 106-107 , 108 , 115 , 155 , 156 , 158 , 166
tax on , 131 , 156-157 , 158 , 160
bereavement , 14 , 264 , 271 , 272
care of elderly by , 157 , 158-159 , 166 , 171 , 172-174 , 178 , 180-181 , 192-193 , 203 , 220
coresidence , 19 , 166 , 174 , 177 , 180 , 183 , 184
emotional support , 156 , 171 , 176 , 179 , 181
time transfers , 2 , 16 , 24 , 158 , 166 , 172 , 175 , 178-179
consumption and , 106-107 , 108 , 161-162 , 163 , 166 , 169-170 , 189
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elderly support ratios , 42
health status of elderly , 203 , 220 , 221 ;
see also “care of...” supra
kin networks , 172-176 , 179 , 180-184 (passim)
life-cycle model , 107
life expectancy , 47
retirement , 77 , 93 , 159
siblings , 159 , 174 , 175-176
tax incentives , 19
well-being , 156 , 158 , 258 , 264 , 268
Family Saving Survey , 125
Federal Reserve , 116 , 118
Females ,
see Fertility ;
Gender factors
Fertility , 1 , 15-16 , 30 , 39 , 41 , 45 , 47 , 57 , 181
defined , 39(n.6)
demographic transition , 41-42 , 44 , 47
developing countries, general , 45 , 47
extended family , 156
historical perspectives , 15-16 , 30 , 39 , 44-45
intergenerational transfers , 156 , 162-163 , 165 , 183 , 184 , 189-190
migration and , 44-45
oldest old and , 36
research standards , 5 , 279
Financial Research Survey , 113 , 124-125 , 127
Finland , 210
Flow of Funds (FOF) , 13 , 26 , 28 , 116 , 118 , 123 , 125 , 126 , 129 , 156
health care , 168-169
France , 38 , 39 , 43 , 48 , 55 , 94
health care , 210
labor force participation , 70-76 (passim) , 85
pensions , 78-82 (passim) , 84 , 85 , 87 , 146
wealth , 135 , 136 , 137 , 146
Functional health status , 5 , 26 , 27-28 , 91 , 93 , 201 , 203 , 207 , 208 , 212 , 220 , 221 , 224-234 (passim) , 237 , 243 , 258 , 259 , 262 , 271 , 279
see also Chronic diseases ;
Disabled persons ;
Institutional care
cognitive , 12 , 23 , 91 , 93 , 178 , 208 , 213 , 230 , 231-232 , 233 , 259 , 260 , 271 , 273 , 277
Funding
health care services , 208 , 211
research harmonization , 5 , 278-279

G


Gender factors , 25-26
see also Fertility
health status and care , 220 , 223 , 228
labor force participation , 69 , 71-77 , 78 , 88
life expectancy , 48-55 (passim)
living arrangements of elderly persons , 188
mortality rates , 52 , 53 , 54 , 55-56 , 241-243
pensions , 80 , 82 , 88 , 91 , 92
old-age mortality , 52 , 54 , 55-56
oldest old , 47 , 50
population by age and sex, chart , 46
retirement , 91 , 92 ;
see also “pensions” supra
well-being , 26
German Income and Expenditure Survey (EVS) , 123-124 , 130-131
German Socio-Economic Panel , 124
Germany , 43 , 55 , 94
health care , 210
labor force participation , 69-76 (passim) , 85
living arrangements of elderly persons , 188
pensions , 78-82 (passim) , 84 , 85 , 86 , 87 , 146 , 147 , 148
wealth , 113 , 123-124 , 129 , 130-131 , 135-140 (passim) , 146 , 147
Graduated minimum data set , 215-216 , 220
Greece , 32 , 48
Gross national product (GNP) , 254-256 , 257 , 258 , 273
life expectancy , 18

H


Handicapped persons ,
see Disabled persons
Harmonization ,
see Standards
Head-count ratios , 40-41
Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) , 7 , 86 , 93-94 , 113-120 (passim) , 127(n.6) , 149 , 150 , 191 , 216 , 281
Health status and health care , 1 , 5 , 16 , 23 , 27-28 , 200-244 , 256 , 258 , 276
see also Disabled persons ;
Diseases and disorders ;
Functional health
status ;
Life expectancy ;
Medical care ;
Mental health ;
Morbidity ;
Mortality ;
Well-being
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Preparing for an Aging World: The Case for Cross-National Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10120.
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committee methodology , 3
community supports , 204 , 207-208 , 211 , 213 , 217
contraception , 16
cost of health care , 2 , 17 , 155 , 158-159 , 166 , 168-169 , 181 , 200 , 201 , 203 , 208 , 210 , 217 , 220
cultural factors , 204 , 211 , 217 , 220
defined , 225-226 , 230 , 252
educational attainment and , 203 , 205 , 222
education of public , 207
elderly, definition of , 30
employment and, general , 24-25 , 201-202 , 204 , 205 , 222-223 , 224
family factors , 203 , 220 , 221 ;
see also “care of...” under Family factors
funding , 208 , 211 ;
see also Medicaid ;
Medicare
gender factors , 220 , 223 , 228
home care , 158 , 175 , 181 , 211 , 213 , 220 , 232
income security , 102
institutional care , 42 , 121 , 181 , 209 , 210 , 218-219
intergenerational transfers , 13 , 17 , 155 , 158-159 , 166 , 168-169
longitudinal research, general , 4 , 206-207 , 214 , 220-221 , 224
nutrition , 47 , 202 , 203 , 205 , 207 , 224 , 250 , 271
oldest old , 37
pain and pain management , 225 , 253 , 265 , 266 , 267 , 269 , 273
preventive care , 12 , 201 , 202 , 203 , 207-208 , 209 , 210 , 213 , 220 , 227 , 228 , 230 , 231 , 238 , 240 , 244
professional training , 201 , 202
public health services , 1 , 47 , 202 , 205 , 207 , 208 , 209 , 211 , 250
retirement , 9 , 67 , 69 , 77 , 86 , 91 , 93 , 94-95 , 98 , 203
self-care , 209 , 211 , 212 , 213 , 220 , 231 , 232 , 233 , 237
self-rated health status , 129 , 206 , 207 , 225 , 229-230 , 232 , 253 , 260 , 261-262 , 263 , 265 , 266 , 273
social factors, general , 200 , 201 , 203 , 204 , 206 , 212 , 220 , 221 , 224
socioeconomic status , 26 , 110-111 , 203 , 208 , 220 , 221-225
standards , 207 , 213 , 215-216
technology , 201 , 202 , 208
wealth and income security , 10 , 110-111 , 128 , 129 , 203
Heart disease ,
see Cardiovascular disease
Historical perspectives , ix , 1 , 15-16 , 18 , 30
capital gains and savings , 110
employer-provided pensions , 102
employment , 66
fertility , 15-16 , 30 , 39 , 44-45
life expectancy , 47 , 48 , 49 , 52 , 53 , 55 , 56 , 205-206 , 250
living standards , 102
OECD labor force , 8
oldest old , 59
pensions/retirement income , 66 , 102
savings , 102 , 110 , 116
speed of population aging , 38-39
wealth , 114-116 , 123
Home health care , 158 , 175 , 181 , 211 , 213 , 218 , 220 , 232
self-care , 209 , 211 , 212 , 213 , 220 , 231 , 232 , 233 , 237
Housing , 155 , 158 , 202 , 203 , 205 , 256-257
coresidence of elderly and children , 19 , 166 , 174 , 177 , 180 , 183 , 184
institutional care , 42 , 121 , 181 , 209 , 210 , 218-219
living arrangements of elderly persons , 180 , 188 , 212 , 253
wealth, home ownership as , 111-112 , 121 , 128 , 131 , 132 , 140-141 , 142 , 158 , 175
HRS ,
see Health and Retirement Survey
Hungary , 38 , 48

I


Immigration and emigration , 15 , 44-45
Income , 16 , 23 , 91 , 98 , 102-151 (passim)
see also Pensions ;
Socioeconomic status
consumption and , 105
health status , 222
intergenerational transfers , 166 , 178
multidisciplinary approaches , 3
replacement income , 19 , 78 , 80 , 81 , 85 , 104 , 142 , 146 , 148
well-being , 253 , 254-256 , 258 , 260-261 , 264
Income Panel Survey (IPS) , 129 , 130
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Preparing for an Aging World: The Case for Cross-National Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10120.
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India , 55

Indonesia , 71-76 (passim) , 190

Inheritance ,

see Bequests

Institutional care , 121 , 181 , 209 , 210 , 218-219

elderly support ratios , 42
Institutional factors , 5-7
elderly, definition of , 30
health care , 217 , 219
Insurance , 140
see also Social security systems disability , 9
health, general , 103 , 171 , 200 , 211 , 220
life insurance , 121-122 , 131
Medicaid and Medicare , 15 , 155 , 169 , 216
unemployment , 9 , 86 , 94-95 , 97
Interdisciplinary approaches ,
see Multidisciplinary approaches
Intergenerational relations and transfers , 3 , 4 , 11-12 , 17 , 24 , 27 , 155-199 , 276
see also Family factors ;
Pensions bequests , 103 , 106-107 , 108 , 115 , 155 , 156 , 158 , 166
tax on , 131 , 156-157 , 158 , 160
consumption and , 106-107 , 108 , 161-162 , 163 , 166 , 169-170 , 189
cultural factors , 12-13 , 157 , 159 , 174
defined , 171-172
developing countries , 164 , 165 , 190 , 193
educational attainment and , 165 , 192
fertility and , 156 , 162-163 , 165 , 183 , 184 , 189-190
health status and care , 13 , 17 , 155 , 158-159 , 166 , 168-169
human capital investment and , 159 , 165 , 178 , 190 ;
see also “educational attainment” supra
income and , 166 , 178
macromodels , 11 , 27 , 157 , 158 , 181 , 182 , 183 , 189-190
marital status , 176 , 181 , 183-184
micromodels , 11 , 27 , 157-158 , 181 , 182-183 , 189 , 190-191
mortality rate , 165 , 183 , 189
panel studies , 179-180 , 190-191
policy evaluation studies , 158-159
population dynamics, general , 161-162 , 165
research methodology , 160-166 , 171-193
savings and , 11 , 103 , 106-107 , 156 , 158-159 , 159-160 , 169 , 171 , 189 , 190
social factors, general , 12 , 171
taxation , 131 , 160 , 168 , 192
time transfers , 2 , 16 , 24 , 158 , 166 , 172 , 175 , 178-179
International Center for Health and Society , 224
International Classification of Diseases and Conditions , 227-228
International Data Base , 31(n.2)
Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research , 214
Ireland , 210
Italy , 48 , 55 , 184
health care , 210
labor force participation , 69 , 85
pensions , 78-82 (passim) , 84 , 85 , 87 , 146
population projections , 31-32
wealth , 113 , 123-133 , 136 , 137 , 138 , 139 , 141 , 144 , 146

J


Jamaica , 38
Japan , 15
aging index , 40
elderly support ratios , 42 , 43
employment rates by age and pension
age , 69
fertility , 44-45
health care , 210
intergenerational transfers , 155
labor force participation , 69-76 (passim) , 85
life expectancy , 47 , 48 , 49 , 52 , 55
old-age mortality , 52
pensions , 78 , 79 , 81 , 84-88 (passim) , 94 , 146
population projections , 32 , 33 , 36 , 37-38
wealth , 104 , 113 , 125-126 , 127 , 128 , 131 , 135-139 (passim) , 145 , 146 , 149-150

K


Kenya , 55
Kin networks , 172-176 , 179 , 180-184 (passim)
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Preparing for an Aging World: The Case for Cross-National Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10120.
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L



Labor force participation , 3 , 6 , 8 , 9 , 19 , 23 , 40 , 42 , 66 , 67 , 68-77 , 83 , 95-96 , 202

see also Retirement

gender factors , 69 , 71-77 , 78 , 88

Latin America/Caribbean

see also specific countries
emigration , 44
fertility , 45
labor force participation , 70 , 72 , 74
life expectancy , 48 , 49
old-age mortality , 54 , 57
pensions , 87
population projections , 32 , 33
well-being , 255-256
Legal issues
see also Privacy and confidentiality age discrimination laws , 96
Life-cycle model , 106 , 107-108 , 134 , 169-170 , 189
Life expectancy , 16 , 18 , 30 , 42 , 47-57 , 250 , 251
chronic diseases and , 56 , 206
developing countries , 48 , 49 , 53-55
disabled persons , 55
economic factors , 18 , 47 , 51
family factors , 47
gender factors , 48-55 (passim)
historical perspectives , 47 , 48 , 49 , 52 , 53 , 55 , 56 , 205-206 , 250
medical care and , 2 , 18 , 47 , 59-60
oldest old , 53 , 59
political factors , 47
research methodology , 50-52
social factors, general , 47
socioeconomic status , 47 , 51
Longitudinal research , 4 , 150-151 , 278 , 283
see also Cohort studies
Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old Survey (AHEAD) , 113-116 (passim) , 119-120 , 191
cost studies , 4 , 19-20
Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) , 7 , 86 , 93-94 , 113-120 (passim) , 127(n.6) , 149 , 150 , 191 , 216 , 281
health status and care, general , 4 , 206-207 , 214 , 220-221 , 224
National Survey of Family Income and Expenditure (NSFIE) , 125 , 131 , 135(n.7)
National Surveys of Families and Households , 184
retirement , 4 , 91
Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF)1 , 113-118 (passim) , 129
Survey of Household Income and Wealth , 122-123 , 130
Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) , 113-117 (passim)
Lung cancer , 55
Luxembourg , 210

M


Macroeconomic factors , 6 , 11 , 23 , 27 , 30 , 68 , 96 , 157 , 280
Macromodels , 16-17
health system , 209
intergenerational transfers , 11 , 27 , 157 , 158 , 181 , 182 , 183 , 189-190
Malaysia , 190
Males ,
see Gender factors
Marital status , 77 , 82 , 88 , 91 , 223
age at marriage , 159
intergenerational transfers , 176 , 181 , 183-184
well-being , 268
Median age , 39-40
mortality , 56
Medicaid , 15 , 155
Medical care , 204-205 , 206 , 250
alternative , 13 , 209 , 220
cost of , 2 , 17 , 155 , 158-159 , 166 , 168-169 , 181 , 200 , 201 , 203 , 208 , 210 , 217 , 220
funding , 208 , 211 ;
see also Medicaid ;
Medicare
home health care , 158 , 175 , 181 , 211 , 213 , 218 , 220 , 232
institutional care , 42 , 121 , 181 , 209 , 210 , 218-219
life expectancy and , 2 , 18 , 47 , 59-60
oldest old , 37
professional education , 201 , 202
self-care , 209 , 211 , 212 , 213 , 220 , 231 , 232 , 233 , 237
socioeconomic status , 26 , 110-111
technology , 201 , 202 , 208
utilization intensity , 207 , 209 , 211-212 , 220 , 221
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Preparing for an Aging World: The Case for Cross-National Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10120.
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Medicare , 15 , 155 , 169 , 216

Men ,

see Gender factors

Mental health and illness , 28 , 206 , 207 , 220 , 223 , 224 , 243-244 , 253 , 258 , 260 , 261 , 262 , 265-267 , 268 , 270

see also Well-being

bereavement , 14 , 264 , 271 , 272

cognitive impairments , 12 , 23 , 91 , 93 , 178 , 208 , 213 , 230 , 231-232 , 233 , 259 , 260 , 271 , 273 , 277
depression , 21 , 206 , 225 , 243 , 244
emotional support by kin , 156 , 171 , 176 , 179 , 181 , 182
hedonic adaptation , 253-256 , 260
institutional care , 218
moods , 14 , 28 , 206 , 253 , 254 , 260 , 261 , 265 ;
see also “depression” supra
resilience , 263-264 , 271-272
Methodology ,
see Research methodology
Metrics of aging , 37-40
Mexico
elderly support ratios , 43
labor force participation , 71 , 72 , 73 , 75 , 76
life expectancy , 55
Micromodels , 16-17 , 25 , 93 , 112 , 278
see also Panel studies
intergenerational transfers , 11 , 27 , 157-158 , 181 , 182-183 , 189 , 190-191
longitudinal , 4
wealth , 113-131 , 150-151
Migration ,
see Immigration and emigration
Minority groups ,
see Race/ethnicity
Moods , 14 , 28 , 206 , 253 , 254 , 260 , 261 , 265
depression , 21 , 206 , 225 , 243 , 244
Morbidity , 24 , 26 , 207 , 209 , 261 , 270
see also Disabled persons ;
Diseases and disorders ;
Functional health status
comorbidity , 212 , 216 , 227 , 228 , 264 , 270
data systems , 212 , 214 , 225 , 226-229 , 233 , 252
defined , 226-229
functional status vs morbidity data , 233
social inequalities , 111 , 221
Monte Carlo methods , 182 , 183
Mortality , 41 , 47 , 57 , 58-60 , 205-206 , 214 , 219
see also Life expectancy cohort studies , 58-59
demographic transition , 41-42 , 44 , 47
extended family , 156
gender factors , 52 , 53 , 54 , 55-56 , 241-243
intergenerational transfers and morality rate , 165 , 183 , 189
median age , 56
old-age , 52-57
oldest old, population projections , 35 , 36
research methodology , 5 , 58-59 , 237-243 , 279
socioeconomic status , 111 , 221 , 238
Multidisciplinary approaches , 3-4 , 16 , 22 , 24-25 , 276-277 , 282 , 283
Multinational Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease , 238

N


National Institute on Aging , 2 , 22 , 31(n.2)
National Survey of Family Income and Expenditure (NSFIE) , 125 , 131 , 135(n.7)
National Surveys of Families and Households , 184
Netherlands
employer-provided/private pensions , 9 , 87-90 (passim) , 94 , 109
employment rates by age and pension age , 69
health care , 210
public pensions , 78 , 80 , 82 , 84 , 85 , 86 , 89 , 146 , 147 , 148
unemployment/disability insurance , 94
wealth , 113 , 121-122 , 119 , 121-122 , 127 , 128 , 129-130 , 135 , 136-143 (passim) , 146 , 147 , 151
New Zealand
health status and care , 210 , 228
labor force participation , 69-78 (passim)
pensions , 78 , 79 , 81 , 82 , 87
North Africa , 32 , 34
North America
labor force participation , 70
population projections , 32 , 33 , 34
see also Canada ;
United States of America
Norway , 48 , 210
Nutrition , 47 , 202 , 203 , 205 , 207 , 224 , 250 , 271
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Preparing for an Aging World: The Case for Cross-National Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10120.
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O



Oceania , 32 , 33 , 34

Oldest old , 2 , 26 , 30 , 31 , 35-37 , 47 , 50 , 53 , 57 , 58 , 59 , 181 , 202 , 213 , 238 , 240 , 241 , 263
Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old Survey (AHEAD) , 113-116 (passim) , 119-120 , 191 , 234
developing countries , 35
disabled , 37
gender factors , 47 , 50
life expectancy , 53 , 59
mortality , 35 , 36
Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) , 8 , 78 , 82 , 87 , 135 , 140 , 148 , 220
see also member countries
Overlapping generations model , 160-161

P


Pain and pain management , 225 , 253 , 265 , 266 , 267 , 269 , 273
Pakistan , 71 , 72 , 73 , 75 , 76
Panel studies , 4 , 278
cost factors , 19-20
intergenerational transfers , 179-180 , 190-191
wealth , 113-120 , 121-122 , 127-131 , 151
Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) , 107 , 113 , 114 , 115 , 118 , 119 , 129 , 134 , 191
Pensions , 27 , 66 , 77-91 (passim) , 112
see also Retirement age at , 69
caregivers , 158-159
developing countries , 9 , 87
disability , 9 , 67 , 69 , 77 , 86 , 91 , 94-95 , 97 , 203
elderly support ratios , 42
employer-provided/private , 9 , 15 , 67 , 86-91 , 92 , 94-95 , 97 , 109 , 119 , 128 , 131 , 142 , 147 , 149-150
gender factors , 80 , 82 , 88 , 91 , 92
health care and , 200
historical perspectives , 66 , 102
immigration and , 15
indexation , 78 , 79 , 82-83
median age and , 40
public , 6 , 8-9 , 17 , 66-69 (passim) , 78-86 , 92 , 93-94 , 95 , 96 , 97 , 103 , 109 , 119 , 142 , 147 , 149-150 , 156 , 157 , 171 , 278
costs , 19 , 155
taxation and , 6 , 68 , 84 , 85 , 93 , 97 , 148
replacement income , 19 , 78 , 80 , 81 , 85 , 104 , 142 , 146 , 148
research methodology , 66 , 67 , 93-96
Peru , 55
Philippines , 74
Poland , 38
Policy evaluation studies , 20-21 , 279-281 , 282
elderly support ratios , 42
intergenerational transfers , 158-159
oldest old , 37
retirement , 68
speed of population aging , 39
Political factors
health care , 200 , 201 , 208 , 213-214
income security and health insurance , 103
life expectancy , 47
Population dynamics , ix , 1 , 15 , 22 , 23 , 31-57 , 202 , 276
see also Fertility ;
Mortality intergenerational transfers and , 161-162 , 165
oldest old , 35-37
Portugal , 210
Preventive health care , 12 , 201 , 202 , 203 , 207-208 , 209 , 210 , 213 , 220 , 227 , 228 , 230 , 231 , 238 , 240 , 244
Privacy and confidentiality , 8 , 23 , 25 , 192 , 217
public in-home services , 158
Professional education, medical, 201 , 202
PSID ,
see Panel Study of Income Dynamics
Psychological factors ,
see Mental health and illness ;
Well-being
Psychometrics , 117 , 119-120
Public education
cost of childrearing , 166 , 170 , 177
health , 207
Public health services , 1 , 47 , 202 , 205 , 207 , 208 , 209 , 211 , 250

Q


Quality of life ,
see Well-being
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Preparing for an Aging World: The Case for Cross-National Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10120.
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R


Race/ethnicity , 185-186 , 220
Recent Social Trends , 251
Replacement income , 19 , 78 , 80 , 81 , 85 , 104 , 142 , 146 , 148
Research methodology , 18-21 , 276-287
see also Databases ;
Longitudinal research ;
Macromodels ;
Micromodels ;
Panel studies ;
Sampling ;
Standards access to data , 281-282
aging index , 40
committee study at hand , 2-3 , 22-28
computer-assisted interviewing , 115 , 151 , 174(n.7)
consumption surveys , 105
controlled studies , 20 , 129-131 , 280
cross-sectional studies
demographic projections, general , 57-58
employment , 66 , 77
functional status , 232-235
harmonization, funding , 5 , 278-279
head-count ratios , 40-41
health status and care , 204-244
intergenerational transfers , 160-166 , 171-193
kin networks , 172-176 , 179 , 181-188 (passim)
life-cycle model , 106 , 107-108 , 134 , 169-170 , 189
life expectancy , 50-52
Monte Carlo methods , 182 , 183
mortality , 5 , 58-59 , 237-243 , 279
multidisciplinary approaches , 3-4 , 16 , 22 , 24-25 , 276-277 , 282 , 283
oldest old , 59
overlapping generations model , 160-161
pensions , 66 , 67 , 93-96
physiological/pathological measures , 235-237
policy evaluation studies , 20-21
psychometrics , 117 , 119-120
retirement , 4 , 66-67 , 68 , 77 , 91-98
wealth , 5 , 112-131 , 135 , 149-151
well-being , 252-270 , 272-273
Resilience , 263-264 , 271-272
Retirement , 3 , 8-9 , 16 , 23 , 27 , 66-98 (passim) , 103 , 160 , 250 , 276
see also Pensions age at , 9 , 15 , 78 , 84
cultural factors , 97
early vs normal , 6 , 67 , 68 , 69 , 70 , 83 , 85 , 86 , 91 , 96 , 102 , 112 , 155 , 160
age of offspring at parental retirement , 159
consumption following , 105-110 (passim)
costs , 95 , 103 , 160
disability , 9 , 67 , 69 , 77 , 86 , 91 , 94-95 , 97 , 203
family factors , 77 , 93 , 159
gender factors , 91 , 92
health status, general , 9 , 67 , 69 , 77 , 86 , 91 , 93 , 94-95 , 98 , 203
historical perspectives , 66 , 102
incentives , 67 , 68 , 77 , 83-86 , 91 , 93 , 95
research methodology , 4 , 66-67 , 68 , 77 , 91-98
savings and , 95 , 103 , 142
social factors, general , 66 , 91 , 93 , 97
wealth , 66 , 91 , 93 , 97 , 112
well-being , 13-14 , 250 , 271 , 272 , 273
worker-to-retiree ratios , 1 , 16 , 103
Russia , 55

S


Sampling , 4
cost factors , 20
kin networks , 174
wealth , 117 , 127 , 128
Savings , 2 , 10 , 23 , 26 , 27 , 116 , 118 , 121 , 125 , 129 , 131-132 , 140 , 142 , 146-147
aggregate rates , 104-106 , 130
capital gains and , 110
caregivers , 158-159
consumption surveys , 105
health services and , 201
historical perspectives , 102 , 110 , 116
human capital investment and , 159
intergenerational transfers , 11 , 103 , 106-107 , 156 , 158-160 , 169 , 171 , 189 , 190
retirement , 95 , 103 , 142
social security systems , 119 , 169 , 170
tax-preferred , 111
well-being , 257
SCF ,
see Survey of Consumer Finances
Self-care , 209 , 211 , 212 , 213 , 220 , 231 , 232 , 233 , 237
see also Home care
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Preparing for an Aging World: The Case for Cross-National Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10120.
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Self-employment , 77 , 121 , 125 , 126
Self-esteem , 223 , 260 , 262 , 263 , 269
Self-rated well-being, including health status , 129 , 206 , 207 , 225 , 229-230 , 232 , 253 , 255 , 257 , 259-262 , 263 , 265 , 266 , 270-271 , 272-273
Sex differences ,
see Gender factors
Siblings , 159 , 174 , 175-176
Singapore , 38 , 54 , 87
SIPP ,
see Survey of Income and Program Participation
Social factors , 5 , 6 , 8 , 17 , 21 , 25 , 280
see also Community supports ;
Cultural factors ;
Family factors ;
Political factors
bereavement , 14 , 264 , 271 , 272
disabilities , 230-231 , 232
health status and care , 200 , 201 , 203 , 204 , 206 , 212 , 220 , 221 , 224
intergenerational transfer systems , 12 , 171
life expectancy , 47
median age , 39-40
retirement , 66 , 91 , 93 , 97
well-being , 251 , 252 , 253 , 260 , 267-268 , 276
Social security systems , 9 , 11 , 15 , 19 , 39 , 52 , 66 , 69 , 78 , 94 , 168 , 169 , 170 , 171
Medicare and Medicaid , 15 , 155 , 169 , 216
savings and , 119 , 169 , 170
taxes , 97
wealth , 119 , 147 , 148 , 149 , 150
welfare , 66 , 77 , 86 , 149
Socio-Economic Panel (SEP) , 113 , 121-122 , 129-130
Socioeconomic status , 2 , 3-4 , 6 , 15 , 17 , 26 , 30 , 147 , 192-193
see also Income ;
Wealth health status and care , 26 , 110-111 , 203 , 208 , 220 , 221-225
inequalities , 103 , 118 , 132 , 137-139 , 147-148 , 221
life expectancy , 47 , 51
longitudinal research , 4
medical care and , 26 , 110-111
morbidity rates and , 111 , 221
mortality , 111 , 221 , 238
well-being , 251 , 253 , 254-256 , 257 , 258 , 273
Soll und Haben Survey , 124
South Africa , 43
South Korea , 43 , 45
labor force participation , 71-76 (passim)
Spain , 38 , 48 , 84 , 85 , 210
Sri Lanka , 38
Standards , 3 , 8 , 21 , 279-280 , 282
see also Definitional issues activities of daily living , 21 , 272
disease research , 5 , 219-220
fertility research , 5 , 279
funding to develop , 5 , 278-279
health status and care , 207 , 213 , 215-216
living standards , 10 , 102 , 262
public transfers , 157
research harmonization, funding , 5 , 278-279
transfer systems , 13 , 157
wealth research , 5 , 116-117 , 135
well-being , 273 ;
see also “living standards” supra
Statistics Netherlands , 121 , 129-130
Stock market , 10 , 13 , 24 , 112 , 115 , 118 , 121 , 124 , 129 , 131 , 139 , 156
capital gains , 110 , 118(n.3) , 123
Sub-Saharan Africa
see also specific countries
AIDS , 15 , 49-50
life expectancy , 49
population projections , 32 , 33 , 34
Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) , 113-118 (passim) , 129
Survey of Household Income and Wealth , 122-123 , 130
Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) , 113-117 (passim)
Sweden , 32 , 38 , 48 , 53 , 55
health care , 210
labor force participation , 69-76 (passim) , 85
pensions , 84 , 85 , 86 , 146 , 147 , 148 , 149
wealth , 135 , 136 , 137 , 146 , 147
Switzerland, pensions , 87

T


Taiwan , 43 , 54 , 56 , 57 , 175-176 , 190 , 191
Taxation , 155
elderly support ratios , 42
family care of elderly , 19
health care costs , 168
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Preparing for an Aging World: The Case for Cross-National Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10120.
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implicit tax on continuing work , 6 , 68 , 93 , 201
intergenerational transfers, general , 131 , 160 , 168 , 192
median age and , 39-40
public pensions , 6 , 68 , 84 , 85 , 93 , 97 , 148
savings, tax-preferred , 111
wealth , 131
Thailand , 38 , 45 , 55 , 74
Time transfers, intergenerational , 2 , 16 , 24 , 158 , 166 , 172 , 175 , 178-179
Time-use data , 269-270
Toward a Social Report , 251
Transfer systems ,
see Intergenerational relations and transfers ;
Pensions ;
Social security systems ;
Welfare
Transportation , 13 , 93 , 175 , 202 , 207 , 224
Tunisia , 38
Turkey , 55 , 210

U


United Kingdom
elderly support ratios , 43
employer-provided/private pensions , 9 , 86 , 87 , 88 , 89-90 , 91 , 94 , 104
employment rates by age and pension age , 69
health status and care , 210 , 223 , 224-225 , 228
intergenerational transfer of wealth , 107
labor force participation , 69-77 (passim) , 85
life expectancy , 48 , 55
pensions , 78 , 79 , 80 , 83-91 (passim) , 94 , 104 , 147 , 148-149
social security, Medicare, and Medicaid , 15
speed of population aging , 38
wealth , 113 , 118(n.3) , 124-125 , 126-129 , 131 , 135 , 136 , 138 , 147-148
United Nations , ix , 23 , 44 , 58 , 59 , 214
U.S. Census Bureau ,
see Bureau of the Census
United States of America
capital gains , 110
employer-provided/private pensions , 9 , 86 , 87 , 88-90 , 94-95 , 109
employment rates by age and pension age , 69
health care , 210
immigration , 44
intergenerational transfers , 164 , 165 , 166-168 , 184-187 , 190-191
labor force participation , 69 , 71-76 (passim) , 85
life expectancy , 48
marital status , 181
mortality , 53
multidisciplinary approaches , 3
oldest old , 35-37
pensions , 9 , 78 , 79 , 80 , 84-90 (passim) , 94-95 , 103 , 109 , 146 , 147 , 179
savings , 103 , 110 , 134
speed of population aging , 38
wealth , 113 , 114-120 , 126-129 , 132-139 (passim) , 146 , 147-148 , 149 , 179
well-being , 251 , 267
Uruguay , 33

W


Wealth , 10-11 , 13 , 23 , 26 , 27 , 102-151 , 171
see also Income ;
Intergenerational relations and transfers ;
Pensions ;
Savings ;
Socioeconomic status ;
Stock market
capital gains , 110 , 118(n.3) , 123
committee methodology , 24
consumption and , 110 , 118(n.3) , 123
controlled studies , 129-131
cross-sectional studies , 111 , 142
defined , 117 , 118-119 , 149-150
elderly support ratios , 42
flow of funds (FOF) , 13 , 26 , 28 , 116 , 118 , 123 , 125 , 126 , 129 , 156
health care , 168-169
Gross National Product (GNP) , 18 , 254-256 , 257 , 258 , 273
health status and , 10 , 110-111 , 128 , 129 , 203
historical perspectives , 114-116 , 123
home ownership , 111-112 , 121 , 128 , 131 , 132 , 140-141 , 142 , 158 , 175
inequalities , 103 , 118 , 132 , 137-139 , 147-148 , 221
micromodels , 113-131 , 150-151
multidisciplinary approaches , 3
panel studies , 113-120 , 121-122 , 127-131 , 151
psychometrics , 117 , 119-120
research , 5 , 112-131 , 135 , 149-151
standards , 5 , 116-117 , 135
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Preparing for an Aging World: The Case for Cross-National Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10120.
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retirement and , 66 , 91 , 93 , 97 , 112
sampling methodologies , 117 , 127 , 128
social security systems , 119 , 147 , 148 , 149 , 150
stock market , 10 , 13 , 24 , 112 , 115 , 118 , 121 , 124 , 129 , 131 , 139 , 156
capital gains , 110 , 118(n.3) , 123
taxation , 131
unfolding brackets , 116 , 117 , 120 , 127 , 128
Welfare , 66 , 77 , 86 , 149
see also Medicaid
Well-being , 13-14 , 25 , 28 , 201 , 250-273
see also Health status and care ;
Mental health and illness ;
Privacy and confidentiality
activities of daily living , 21 , 272
bereavement , 14 , 264 , 271 , 272
committee methodology , 3
community supports , 253 , 256-257 , 258 , 272
consumption and , 257
cultural factors , 262
defined , 13 , 258-259 , 262
economic factors , 251 , 253 , 254-256 , 257 , 258 , 273
employment and , 13-14 , 264-265 , 273
family factors , 156 , 158 , 258 , 264 , 268
gender factors , 26
income and , 253 , 254-256 , 258 , 260-261 , 264
living arrangements , 180 , 188 , 212 , 253
living standards , 10 , 102 , 262
marital status , 268
pain and pain management , 225 , 253 , 265 , 266 , 267 , 269 , 273
public programs vs family efforts , 157 , 158
resilience , 263-264 , 271-272
retirement , 13-14 , 250 , 271 , 272 , 273
savings , 257
self-esteem , 223 , 260 , 262 , 263 , 269
self-rated well-being, including health status , 129 , 206 , 207 , 225 , 229-230 , 232 , 253 , 255 , 257 , 259-262 , 263 , 265 , 266 , 270-271 , 272-273
social factors, general , 251 , 252 , 253 , 260 , 267-268 , 276
socioeconomic status , 251 , 253 , 254-256 , 257 , 258 , 273
standards , 273 ;
see also “living standards” supra
time-use data , 269-270
transportation , 13 , 93 , 202 , 207 , 224
Women ,
see Gender factors
Work ,
see Employment issues ;
Labor force participation
World Assembly on Aging , ix
World Bank , 148
World Health Organization , 21 , 54 , 224 , 227-228 , 230 , 240 , 252
World Population Prospects , 31(n.2)

Z


Zimbabwe , 55
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2001. Preparing for an Aging World: The Case for Cross-National Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10120.
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Aging is a process that encompasses virtually all aspects of life. Because the speed of population aging is accelerating, and because the data needed to study the aging process are complex and expensive to obtain, it is imperative that countries coordinate their research efforts to reap the most benefits from this important information.

Preparing for an Aging World looks at the behavioral and socioeconomic aspects of aging, and focuses on work, retirement, and pensions; wealth and savings behavior; health and disability; intergenerational transfers; and concepts of well-being. It makes recommendations for a collection of new, cross-national data on aging populations—data that will allow nations to develop policies and programs for addressing the major shifts in population age structure now occurring. These efforts, if made internationally, would advance our understanding of the aging process around the world.

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