National Academies Press: OpenBook

Assessing the TMDL Approach to Water Quality Management (2001)

Chapter: Appendix B Biographies of the Committee Members and NRC Staff

« Previous: Appendix A Guest Presentations at the First Meeting of the NRC Committee15 January 2426, 2001
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Biographies of the Committee Members and NRC Staff." National Research Council. 2001. Assessing the TMDL Approach to Water Quality Management. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10146.
Page 105
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Biographies of the Committee Members and NRC Staff." National Research Council. 2001. Assessing the TMDL Approach to Water Quality Management. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10146.
Page 106
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Biographies of the Committee Members and NRC Staff." National Research Council. 2001. Assessing the TMDL Approach to Water Quality Management. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10146.
Page 107
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Biographies of the Committee Members and NRC Staff." National Research Council. 2001. Assessing the TMDL Approach to Water Quality Management. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10146.
Page 108
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Biographies of the Committee Members and NRC Staff." National Research Council. 2001. Assessing the TMDL Approach to Water Quality Management. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10146.
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Appendix B Biographies of the Committee Members and NRC Staff Kenneth H. Reckhow (chair) is a professor at Duke University with faculty appointments in the School of the Environment and the Depart- ment of Civil and Environmental Engineering. In addition, he is director of The University of North Carolina Water Resources Research Institute and an adjunct professor in the Department of Civil Engineering at North Carolina State University. He currently serves as president of the Na- tional Institutes for Water Resources and is chair of the North Carolina Sedimentation Control Commission. He has published two books and over 80 papers, principally on water quality modeling, monitoring, and pollutant loading analysis. In addition, Dr. Reckhow has taught several short courses on water quality modeling and monitoring design, and he has written eight technical guidance manuals on water quality modeling. He is currently serving, or has previously served, on the editorial boards of Water Resources Research, Water Resources Bulletin, Lake and Res- ervoir Management, Journal of Environmental Statistics, Urban Eco- systems, and Risk Analysis. He received a B.S. in engineering physics from Cornell University in 1971 and a Ph.D. from Harvard University in environmental systems analysis in 1977. Dr. Reckhow is currently a member of the NRC’s Committee to Improve the USGS National Water Quality Assessment Program. Anthony S. Donigian, Jr., is president and principal engineer for AQUA TERRA Consultants. His expertise is in watershed modeling; nonpoint pollution and water quality modeling; chemical fate, transport, and exposure assessment; and model validation and testing. Mr. Donig- ian has 30 years of a broad range of experience in the development, test- ing, and application of modern analytical techniques for the assessment of environmental contamination and water resources planning problems. 105

106 Assessing the TMDL Approach to Water Quality Management He is an internationally recognized authority on modeling nonpoint pol- lution and chemical migration in the environment, primarily for water, soil, and groundwater systems. His recent research and applications studies have concentrated on regional and watershed-scale modeling of nutrients and impacts of management practices, movement of contami- nants through the vadose zone, groundwater contamination by pesticides and hazardous wastes, model validation issues and procedures, and the evaluation of control alternatives such as best management practices, conservation tillage, and remedial actions at waste sites. Mr. Donigian received an A.B. in engineering sciences and a B.S. in engineering from Dartmouth College and an M.S. in civil engineering from Stanford Uni- versity. James R. Karr is a professor of aquatic sciences and zoology and an adjunct professor of environmental engineering, environmental health, and public affairs at the University of Washington, Seattle. He was on the faculties of Purdue University, University of Illinois, and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; he was also deputy director and acting director at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama. He has taught and done research in tropical forest ecology, or- nithology, stream ecology, watershed management, landscape ecology, conservation biology, ecological health, and science and environmental policy. He is a fellow in the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the American Ornithologists' Union. Dr. Karr has served on the editorial boards of BioScience, Conservation Biology, Ecological Applications, Ecological Monographs, Ecology, Ecosystem Health, Freshwater Biology, Ecological Indicators, and Tropical Ecology. He developed the index of biotic integrity (IBI) to directly evaluate the ef- fects of human actions on the health of living systems. Dr. Karr holds a B.S. in fish and wildlife biology from Iowa State University and an M.S. and Ph.D. in zoology from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Jan Mandrup-Poulsen is an environmental administrator with the Watershed Assessment Section of the Florida Department of Environ- mental Protection. He is responsible for evaluating surface water quality, surface water/groundwater interactions, and mixing zones, and for de- termining the Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) allowable to sup- port designated uses. He has coauthored materials on nonpoint source regulation in Florida and permitting guidance documents for point source discharges in Florida with consideration of the TMDL program. He is a

Appendix B 107 frequent speaker on the topics related to the Florida Department of Envi- ronmental Protection watershed management approach, TMDLs, and the Impaired Waters Rule. Mr. Mandrup-Poulsen received his B.S. in at- mospheric and oceanic science from the University of Michigan and his M.S. in biological oceanography and M.B.A. from Florida State Univer- sity. H. Stephen McDonald is a principal with Carollo Engineers. He has 22 years of experience in the areas of wastewater planning, water- shed management, wastewater disinfection, biosolids treat- ment/reuse/disposal, and chemical and biological wastewater treat- ment/reuse. He is currently project manager for the development of TMDLs for several watersheds, including the Truckee River from Lake Tahoe to Pyramid Lake and the Calleguas Watershed in California. For the Truckee River, he is developing the Coordinated Monitoring Program and an adaptive management watershed/water quality modeling and stakeholder process to establish TMDLs for nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and total dissolved solids (TDS). Mr. McDonald has devel- oped master plans for water and wastewater treatment facilities in many western regions, including Sacramento County, the city of Fresno, CA; and the cities of Reno, Sparks, and Washoe County, NV. He holds a B.S. in biology from Portland State University and a B.S. in chemical engineering from Oregon State University. He has an MBA from Cali- fornia State University in Hayward and is a registered professional engi- neer in California. Vladimir Novotny is a professor of environmental and water re- sources engineering at Marquette University and director of the Institute for Urban Environmental Risk Management. He is also president of the consulting firm Aqua Nova International, Ltd. His research has included risk-based urban watershed management integrating water quality and flood-control objectives, development of an adaptive methodology for online computerized modeling and real-time control of wastewater treatment facilities, and development of algorithms for control of urban sewer systems. He developed nationwide manuals on attainment of wa- ter quality goals (use attainability analysis) and abatement of winter dif- fuse pollution by road deicing operations. He is a past chair of an inter- national group of specialists dealing with diffuse pollution and watershed management with the International Water Association. Dr. Novotny re- ceived a diploma engineer degree in sanitary engineering and a candidate of science degree in sanitary and water resources from the Technical

108 Assessing the TMDL Approach to Water Quality Management University of Brno, Czechoslovakia and a Ph.D. in environmental engi- neering from Vanderbilt University. Richard A. Smith joined the Water Resources Division of the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1975 and began working with a small re- search team on statistical methods in water quality and their applications to the extensive and diverse water quality monitoring records maintained by the USGS. Throughout the 1980s, his research dealt with patterns of change in the nation’s water quality and with statistical analysis of data collected from the more than 400 stream and river monitoring stations in the Survey's NASQAN program. In the early 1990s he began to investi- gate the possibility of using the rapidly advancing technology of GIS to enable the use of monitoring data in making statistically based predic- tions of water quality in unmonitored waters. For more than a decade he has also been very interested in the question of the adequacy of the na- tion's monitoring programs. He recently served on a panel of scientists charged with making recommendations for a comprehensive monitoring plan for the drinking-water supply watersheds serving New York City. Dr. Smith received his B.S. and M.S. in biology from the University of Richmond and his Ph.D. in environmental engineering from Johns Hop- kins University. Chris O. Yoder is manager of the Ecological Assessment Section of the State of Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. His current respon- sibilities include ecological evaluation of Ohio’s surface water resources including streams, rivers, lakes, and wetlands; development of ambient biological, physical, and chemical assessment methods, indicators, and criteria for rivers, streams, inland lakes, wetlands, Lake Erie, and the Ohio River; reporting on the condition of Ohio surface water resources on a local, regional, and statewide scale; and development of environ- mental indicators for the surface water program. Previously he was a principal investigator of a cooperative agreement with the U.S. EPA Of- fice of Water for developing approaches to implementing bioassessments and biological criteria within state and federal water quality management programs. Mr. Yoder received a B.S. in agriculture from Ohio State University and his M.A. in zoology from DePauw University.

Appendix B 109 NRC Staff Leonard Shabman is a professor in the Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and director of the Virginia Water Resources Research Cen- ter. He earned his Ph.D. in resource and environmental economics from Cornell University. His research interests include water supply, water quality, and flood hazard management; fishery management; and the role of economists in public policy formulation. Dr. Shabman was a member of the NRC’s Committee on Watershed Management, Committee on USGS Water Resources Research, Committee on Flood Control Alterna- tives in the American River Basin, and the Committee on Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy. Laura J. Ehlers is a senior staff officer for the Water Science and Technology Board of the National Research Council. Since joining the NRC in 1997, she has served as study director for seven committees, in- cluding the Committee to Review the New York City Watershed Man- agement Strategy, the Committee on Riparian Zone Functioning and Strategies for Management, and the Committee on Bioavailability of Contaminants in Soils and Sediment. She received her B.S. from the California Institute of Technology, majoring in biology and engineering and applied science. She earned both an M.S.E. and a Ph.D. in environ- mental engineering at the Johns Hopkins University. Her dissertation, entitled RP4 Plasmid Transfer Among Strains of Pseudomonas in a Bio- film, was awarded the 1998 Parsons Engineering/Association of Envi- ronmental Engineering Professors award for best doctoral thesis.

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Over the last 30 years, water quality management in the United States has been driven by the control of point sources of pollution and the use of effluent-based water quality standards. Under this paradigm, the quality of the nation's lakes, rivers, reservoirs, groundwater, and coastal waters has generally improved as wastewater treatment plants and industrial dischargers (point sources) have responded to regulations promulgated under authority of the 1972 Clean Water Act. These regulations have required dischargers to comply with effluent-based standards for criteria pollutants, as specified in National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits issued by the states and approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Although successful, the NPDES program has not achieved the nation's water quality goals of "fishable and swimmable" waters largely because discharges from other unregulated nonpoint sources of pollution have not been as successfully controlled. Today, pollutants such as nutrients and sediment, which are often associated with nonpoint sources and were not considered criteria pollutants in the Clean Water Act, are jeopardizing water quality, as are habitat destruction, changes in flow regimes, and introduction of exotic species. This array of challenges has shifted the focus of water quality management from effluent-based to ambient- based water quality standards.

Given the most recent lists of impaired waters submitted to EPA, there are about 21,000 polluted river segments, lakes, and estuaries making up over 300,000 river and shore miles and 5 million lake acres. The number of TMDLs required for these impaired waters is greater than 40,000. Under the 1992 EPA guidance or the terms of lawsuit settlements, most states are required to meet an 8- to 13-year deadline for completion of TMDLs. Budget requirements for the program are staggering as well, with most states claiming that they do not have the personnel and financial resources necessary to assess the condition of their waters, to list waters on 303d, and to develop TMDLs. A March 2000 report of the General Accounting Office (GAO) highlighted the pervasive lack of data at the state level available to set water quality standards, to determine what waters are impaired, and to develop TMDLs.

This report represents the consensus opinion of the eight-member NRC committee assembled to complete this task. The committee met three times during a three-month period and heard the testimony of over 40 interested organizations and stakeholder groups. The NRC committee feels that the data and science have progressed sufficiently over the past 35 years to support the nation's return to ambient-based water quality management. Given reasonable expectations for data availability and the inevitable limits on our conceptual understanding of complex systems, statements about the science behind water quality management must be made with acknowledgment of uncertainties. This report explains that there are creative ways to accommodate this uncertainty while moving forward in addressing the nation's water quality challenges.

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