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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2001. Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program: Phase I Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10158.
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References

Bavier, R, 1999 An Early Look at the Effects of Welfare Reform. Unpublished paper, Office of Management and Budget, Washington, DC.

Blank, R.M., and P.Ruggles 1994 Short-term recidivism among public assistance recipients. American Economic Review 84(2):49–53.


Castner, L. 2000 Trends in Food Stamp Program Participation Rates: Focus on 1994–1998. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service. Alexandria, VA.

Castner, L., and S.Cody 1999 Trends in Food Stamp Program Participation Rates: Focus on 1997. Alexandria, VA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service.

Currie, J., and J.Gruber 1996a Saving babies: The efficacy and cost of recent expansions of medicaid eligibility for pregnant women. Journal of Political Economy 104(6):1263–1296.

1996b Health insurance eligibility, utilization of medical care, and child health. Quarterly Journal of Economics 111(2):431–466.


Giannarelli, L., and J.Morton 2001 Estimating the Number of Infants and Children Who Are Income-Eligible for WIC. Presentation to the Panel to Evaluate USDA’s Methodology for Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program. March.

Gordon, A., K.Lewis, and L.Radbill 1997 Income Variability Among Families with Pregnant Women, Infants or Young Children. Alexandria, VA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service.

Greenstein, R., J.Duskal, and E.Lazere 1997 What is the WIC Full Funding Level? Washington, DC: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2001. Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program: Phase I Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10158.
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Greenstein, R., and L.Ku 2000 Estimating Full Funding Participation in WIC. Washington, DC: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities.

Institute of Medicine 1996 WIC Nutrition Risk Criteria: A Scientific Assessment. Committee on Scientific Evaluation of WIC Nutrition Risk Criteria. Food and Nutrition Board. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.


Lazere, E., K.H.Porter, and L.Summer 1991 How Many People Are Eligible for WIC? Washington, DC: Center for Budget and Policy Priorities.

Lewis, K., and M.Ellwood 1998 Medicaid Policies and Eligibility for WIC. Alexandria, VA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service.


Moffitt, R.A. 1992 Incentive effects in the U.S. welfare system: A review. Journal of Economic Literature 30(1):1–61.


Primus, W., L.Rawlings, K.Larin, and K.Porter 1999 The Initial Impacts of Welfare Reform on the Incomes of Single-Mother Families. Unpublished paper. Center for Budget Priorities, August.


Smith, B. 2001 Breastfeeding Trends in the U.S. and WIC Population Demographics. Presentation to the Panel to Evaluate USDA’s Methodology for Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program. March 15, 2001. Washington, DC.

Spencer, G.K. 2001 Estimating the Number of Infants and Children with the CPS and SIPP. Presentation to the Panel to Evaluate USDA’s Methodology for Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program. March 15, 2001. Washington, DC.


U.S. Census Bureau 1996 Poverty in the United States: 1995. Current Population Reports, Series P60–194. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce.

U.S. Census Bureau, and Bureau of Labor Statistics 2000 Current Population Survey Design and Methodology. Technical Paper 63. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce.

U.S. Congressional Budget Office 1990 Estimated Cost to Provide Full Funding for the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Washington, DC: U.S. Congressional Budget Office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture 2001 Who Gets First Priority for WIC Participation?. Food and Nutrition Service. http://www.fns.usda.gov/wic/MENU/FAQ/FAQ.HTM#7. April 10, 2001.

2000a WIC Participant and Program Characteristics 1998. Alexandria, VA: Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.

2000b WIC Program Consolidated Regulations. January.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2001. Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program: Phase I Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10158.
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1999a Estimating the Number of People Eligible for WIC and the Full-Funding Participation Rate: A Review of the Issues. Alexandria, VA: Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.

1999b Nutrition Risk and Eligibility for WIC. Alexandria, VA: Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.

1997 WIC Income Verification Study: Final Report. Alexandria, VA: Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.

1996 Estimation of Persons Income Eligible for the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in 1989: Final Report. Alexandria, VA: Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.

1993 Estimates of Persons Income Eligible for the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in 1989. Two volumes. Alexandria, VA: Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.

1992 The WIC Breastfeeding Report: The Relationship of WIC Program Participation to the Initiation and Duration of Breastfeeding. Food and Nutrition Service. Alexandria, VA: U.S. Department of Agriculture.

1987 Estimation of Eligibility for the WIC Program: Report of the WIC Eligibility Study. Alexandria, VA: Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.

U.S. House of Representatives 2001 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) 2001 Bill Report. Washington, DC.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

1998 A Report to the Committee on Appropriations, U.S. House of Representatives, on the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Surveys and Investigations Staff. March, 1998. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Wheaton, L., and L.Giannarelli 2000 Underreporting of Means-Tested Transfer Programs in the March CPS. American Statistical Association 2000 Proceedings of the Section on Government Statistics and Section on Social Statistics. Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2001. Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program: Phase I Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10158.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2001. Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program: Phase I Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10158.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2001. Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program: Phase I Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10158.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2001. Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program: Phase I Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10158.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2001. Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program: Phase I Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10158.
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Each year the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) must estimate the number of people who are eligible to participate in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). These USDA estimates have come under critical scrutiny in part because the number of infants and postpartum women who have actually enrolled in the program has exceeded the number estimated to be eligible by as much as 20 to 30 percent. These high "coverage rates" have led some members of Congress to conclude that some people who participate are truly ineligible, and that funding could be reduced somewhat and still meet the needs of truly eligible persons who wish to participate. But some advocates and state WIC agencies believe that the estimates of the number of eligible persons are too low and more people who are eligible and want to participate could do so.

In response to these concerns, the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) of the USDA asked the Committee on National Statistics of the National Research Council to convene a panel of experts to review the methods used to estimate the number of people nationwide who are eligible and likely to participate in the WIC program. The panel's charge is to review currently used and alternative data and methods for estimating income eligibility, adjunctive eligibility from participation in other public assistance programs, nutritional risk, and participation if the program is fully funded.

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