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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2001. Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Seventh Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10180.
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Page i

REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH PROGRAM OF THE PARTNERSHIP FOR A NEW GENERATION OF VEHICLES

Seventh Report

Standing Committee to Review the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles

Board on Energy and Environmental Systems

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

Transportation Research Board

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2001. Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Seventh Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10180.
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Page ii

    National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418

    NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

    This report and the study on which it is based were supported by Contract No. DTNH22–00–G–07519. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2001. Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Seventh Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10180.
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Page iii

    THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

    National Academy of Sciences

    National Academy of Engineering

    Institute of Medicine

    National Research Council

    The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

    The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A.Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

    The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I.Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

    The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts and Dr. Wm. A.Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2001. Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Seventh Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10180.
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Page iv

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2001. Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Seventh Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10180.
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Page v

    STANDING COMMITTEE TO REVIEW THE RESEARCH PROGRAM OF THE PARTNERSHIP FOR A NEW GENERATION OF VEHICLES

    CRAIG MARKS (Chair), NAE, 1 AlliedSignal (retired), Bloomfield Hills, Michigan

    VERNON P.ROAN (Vice Chair), University of Florida, Gainesville

    WILLIAM AGNEW, NAE, General Motors Research Laboratories (retired), Washington, Michigan

    KENNERLY H.DIGGES, George Washington University, Washington, D.C.

    W.ROBERT EPPERLY, Epperly Associates, Mountain View, California

    DAVID E.FOSTER, University of Wisconsin, Madison

    NORMAN A.GJOSTEIN, NAE, University of Michigan, Dearborn

    DAVID F.HAGEN, Ford Motor Company (retired), Dearborn, Michigan

    JOHN B.HEYWOOD, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

    FRITZ KALHAMMER, Electric Power Research Institute (retired), Palo Alto, California

    JOHN G.KASSAKIAN, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

    HAROLD H.KUNG, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois

    DAVID F.MERRION, Detroit Diesel Corporation (retired), Brighton, Michigan

    JOHN SCOTT NEWMAN, NAE, University of California, Berkeley

    ROBERTA NICHOLS, NAE, Ford Motor Company (retired), Plymouth, Michigan

    F.STAN SETTLES, NAE, University of Southern California, Los Angeles

    Committee Subgroup on Systems Analysis and Electrical and Electronic Systems

    JOHN G.KASSAKIAN (Chair)

    JOHN B.HEYWOOD

    JOHN SCOTT NEWMAN

    ROBERTA NICHOLS

    F.STAN SETTLES

    Committee Subgroup on Batteries

    FRITZ KALHAMMER (Chair)

    HAROLD H.KUNG

    JOHN SCOTT NEWMAN

    VERNON P.ROAN

    1NAE=National Academy of Engineering

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2001. Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Seventh Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10180.
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Page vi

Committee Subgroup on Fuels

W. ROBERT EPPERLY (Chair)

DAVID E. FOSTER

DAVID F. MERRION

ROBERTA NICHOLS

Committee Subgroup on Fuel Cells

VERNON P. ROAN (Chair)

FRITZ KALHAMMER

HAROLD H. KUNG

JOHN SCOTT NEWMAN

Committee Subgroup on Internal Combustion Enginesand Emissions Control

DAVID E. FOSTER (Chair)

WILLIAM AGNEW

W. ROBERT EPPERLY

DAVID F. HAGEN

JOHN B. HEYWOOD

DAVID F. MERRION

Committee Subgroup on Materials and Safety

NORMAN A. GJOSTEIN (Chair)

KENNERLY H. DIGGES

DAVID F. HAGEN

F. STAN SETTLES

Committee Subgroup on Cost Analysis

CRAIG MARKS (Chair)

WILLIAM AGNEW

DAVID F. HAGEN

DAVID F. MERRION

F. STAN SETTLES

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2001. Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Seventh Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10180.
×

Page vii

Project Staff

JAMES ZUCCHETTO, Responsible Staff Officer, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems (BEES)

NAN HUMPHREY, Senior Program Officer, Transportation Research Board

SUSANNA E.CLARENDON, Senior Project Assistant and Financial Associate (BEES)

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2001. Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Seventh Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10180.
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Page viii

    BOARD ON ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS

    ROBERT L. HIRSCH (Chair), RAND, Arlington, Virginia

    RICHARD E. BALZHISER, NAE, 1 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. (retired), Menlo Park, California

    DAVID L. BODDE, University of Missouri, Kansas City

    PHILIP R. CLARK, NAE, GPU Nuclear Corporation (retired), Boonton, New Jersey

    WILLIAM L. FISHER, NAE, University of Texas, Austin

    CHRISTOPHER FLAVIN, Worldwatch Institute, Washington, D. C.

    HAROLD FORSEN, NAE, Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, D. C.

    WILLIAM FULKERSON, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (retired) and University of Tennessee, Knoxville

    MARTHA A. KREBS, California Nanosystems Institute, Los Angeles, California

    GERALD L. KULCINSKI, NAE, University of Wisconsin, Madison

    EDWARD S. RUBIN, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    ROBERT W. SHAW JR. , Aretê Corporation, Center Harbor, New Hampshire

    JACK SIEGEL, Energy Resources International, Inc. , Washington, D. C.

    ROBERT SOCOLOW, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey

    KATHLEEN C. TAYLOR, NAE, General Motors Corporation, Warren, Michigan

    JACK WHITE, Association of State Energy Research and Technology Transfer Institutions, Falls Church, Virginia

    JOHN J. WISE, NAE, Mobil Research and Development Corporation (retired), Princeton, New Jersey

    Staff

    JAMES ZUCCHETTO, Director

    RICHARD CAMPBELL, Program Officer

    ALAN CRANE, Program Officer

    MARTIN OFFUTT, Program Officer

    SUSANNA CLARENDON, Financial Associate

    PANOLA GOLSON, Project Assistant

    ANA-MARIA IGNAT, Project Assistant

    SHANNA LIBERMAN, Project Assistant

1NAE = National Academy of Engineering

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2001. Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Seventh Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10180.
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Page ix

Acknowledgments

The committee wishes to thank all of the members of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles, who contributed a significant amount of their time and effort to this National Research Council (NRC) study by giving presentations at meetings, responding to requests for information, or hosting site visits. The committee also acknowledges the valuable contributions of other organizations that provided information on advanced vehicle technologies and development initiatives. Finally, the chair wishes to recognize the committee members and the staff of the NRC Board on Energy and Environmental Systems for their hard work in organizing and planning committee meetings and their individual efforts in gathering information and writing sections of the report.

This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The content of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Charles Amann (NAE), Gary L.Borman (NAE), Pat Flynn (NAE), Robert A. Frosch (NAE), Harvard University, Roger McClellan (IOM), Jerome G.Rivard (NAE), Global Technology and Business Development, Dale F.Stein (NAE), R.Rhoads Stephenson, and Supramaniam Srinivasan, Princeton University.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2001. Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Seventh Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10180.
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Page x

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions and recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Trevor Jones, Biomec, Inc., appointed by the NRC's Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, and Gary Byrd, consulting engineer, appointed by the Report Review Committee, who were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2001. Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Seventh Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10180.
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Page xi

Contents

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1
1     INTRODUCTION 13
    Program Progress, 16
    The Evolving Context, 17
    Scope of Review, 18
2     DEVELOPMENT OF VEHICLE SUBSYSTEMS 20
    Candidate Systems, 20
    Internal Combustion Reciprocating Engines, 22
    Fuel Cells, 37
    Electrochemical Energy Storage, 43
    Power Electronics and Electrical Systems, 50
    Structural Materials, 55
    Vehicle Safety, 63
    Fuel Issues, 66
3     VEHICLE ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENTS 71
    Systems Analysis, 71
    Hybrid Production Vehicles, 72
    Concept Cars and Production Prototypes, 76
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2001. Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Seventh Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10180.
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Page xii

4     PROGRAM OVERVIEW 78
    The Changing Context, 78
    Program Perspectives, 79
    Summary, 82
5     PNGV's RESPONSE TO THE SIXTH REPORT 84
REFERENCES 86
APPENDIXES
    A     Biographical Sketches of Committee Members 93
    B     The PNGV Response to Recommendations in the Sixth Report 100
    C     Presentations and Committee Activities 111
    D     United States Council for Automotive Research Consortia 114
ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS 115
Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2001. Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Seventh Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10180.
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Page xiii

Tables and Figures

TABLES

2–1 CIDI Engine Technology R&D Plan Technical Targets for an 80-mpg PNGV Vehicle, 25
2–2 Fuel Properties of Ad Hoc Fuel Test Program, 33
2–3 Engine Operating Conditions of Ad Hoc Fuel Test Program, 34
2–4 Proposed Revised Technical Targets for Integrated Fuel Cell Power Systems, 44
2–5 New Targets for Batteries, 46
2–6 Current Status and Targets for Power Electronics and Motors, 51
2–7 New Target Specifications for Two System Sizes for the AEMD, 52
 
2–8 Weight-Reduction Targets for the Goal 3 Vehicle, 55
 
2–9 Selected Attributes of PNGV 2000 Concept Vehicles, 56
2–10 Weight Savings for Lightweight Materials, 56

FIGURES

2–1 Lightweight materials: affordability influences, 58
2–2 Polymer composite pickup box, 60
2–3 Cost of polymer composite pickup box relative to the cost of steel pickup box, 60
2–4 The ACC Focal Project III body-in-white structure, 61
3–1 Honda Insight power-train configuration, 73
3–2 Toyota Prius power-train configuration, 74
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2001. Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Seventh Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10180.
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Page xiv

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2001. Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Seventh Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10180.
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Page xv

REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH PROGRAM OF THE PARTNERSHIP FOR A NEW GENERATION OF VEHICLES

Seventh Report

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2001. Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Seventh Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10180.
×

Page xvi

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2001. Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Seventh Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10180.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2001. Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Seventh Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10180.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2001. Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Seventh Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10180.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2001. Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Seventh Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10180.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2001. Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Seventh Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10180.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2001. Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Seventh Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10180.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2001. Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Seventh Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10180.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2001. Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Seventh Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10180.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2001. Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Seventh Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10180.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2001. Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Seventh Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10180.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2001. Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Seventh Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10180.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2001. Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Seventh Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10180.
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Page R12
Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2001. Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Seventh Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10180.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2001. Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Seventh Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10180.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2001. Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Seventh Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10180.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2001. Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Seventh Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10180.
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Page R16
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This is the most recent report of the National Research Council’s Standing Committee to Review the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), which has conducted annual reviews of the PNGV program since it was established in late 1993.

The PNGV is a cooperative R&D program between the federal government and the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR, whose members are DaimlerChrysler, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors) to develop technologies for a new generation of automobiles with up to three times the fuel economy of a 1993 midsize automobile. The reports review major technology development areas (four-stroke direct-injection engines, fuel cells, energy storage, electronic/electrical systems, and structural materials); the overall adequacy of R&D efforts; the systems analysis effort and how it guides decisions on R&D; the progress toward long-range component and system-level cost and performance goals; and efforts in vehicle emissions and advanced materials research and how results target goals.

Unlike previous reports, the Seventh Report comments on the goals of the program, since the automotive market and U.S. emission standards have changed significantly since the program was initiated.

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