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D Key Terms The following are key terms used often in the literatures related to the technologies examined by the committee. These terms will be especially useful to readers who wish to examine the literature more closely. The terms are arranged alphabetically within a topic heading. BIOFEEDBACK AND STRESS MANAGEMENT Alpha and theta producers: EEG patterns reflecting reduced levels of electrocortical activity and explored often in studies on meditation and related forms of relaxation; found in some studies to correlate with various induced states of relaxation. Autogenic training: Sclf-generated regulation of tension levels without specific biofeedback on recorded internal events. Instructions are presented to encourage relaxation. Battle fatigue: Symptoms are similar to battle shock but are long-term and more insidious in their onset. The victim is usually unable to perform duties for over 72 hours. May require evacuation to nearby medical facilities. Battle shock: The immediate onset of severe anxiety with symptoms that last up to 72 hours. Ideally managed at the lowest level of care possible. Biofeedback: A class of techniques that provide information to subjects about a variety of internal events, including heart rate, electromyog
APPENDIX D 253 raphy, autonomic events, respiration, brain frequencies, finger tem- perature, and peripheral vasoconstriction. Learned control of these internal events is a possible path to performance enhancement. Cognitive versus physiological measures: Two types of measures for assessing effects of treatments on tension reduction: cognitive meas- ures are self-reports of tension, frequency of problems, anxiety, distress, ability to relax, severity of problem, and so on; physiological measures include EMG and finger temperature data. Conditioned emotional response (CER): In the context of biofeedback, refers to learned responses (feelings) to stressful situations; learned suppression of a CER is one path to developing an effective antistress response. EEG synchronization: Refers to hemispheric symmetry indicative of an integration of hemispheric functioning, for example, correlated alpha waves. Electromyography (EMG): An electrical signal generated by muscle tension; a technique used to infer general muscle relaxation. Hawthorne effect: Effects on behavior that result from merely being selected to participate in an experiment. Identified by investigators conducting studies on the effects of setting (lighting, music) on performance at the Hawthorne plant of General Electric, this effect has been used to account for findings in biofeedback and other tension-reduction studies. Hemispheric lateraliry: Refers to the relative predominance of right or left hemisphere activity. Relaxation techniques may serve to inhibit either (or both) right (associated with intuitive cognitive styles) or left (associated with logical and analytical styles) hemisphere activity. Meditation practice: Any of several groupings of attentional strategies, including a focus on the whole field, as in mindfulness meditation; a focus on a specific object within a field, as in concentrative meditation; or a shifting back and forth between the two, as in integrated meditation. Placebo control group: Exposure to nonspecific treatment, such as a potpourri of soft, soothing music to induce relaxation. Stress management: The techniques or structures designed for recog- nizing the signs of stress and for administering treatments in an organizational context (as distinguished from treatment per se). The plan is often guided by the principles of immediacy (quick adminis- tration of treatment), proximity (close facilities), and expectancy (expect to recover).
254 APPENDIX D Three-echelon model: A flexible medical delivery system designed to take account of the severity of casualties: the first echelon is limited in scope, relying on "buddy care" provided in situ; the second echelon is a site some distance from hostilities where victims are treated by medical personnel; and the third echelon is a site with permanent facilities and staff to provide longer-term care. Waiting-list control group: Designed to control for Hawthorne-type effects, subjects are told that they will be in the experiment but actually receive no treatment. COHESION Cohesion: Cohesion consists of three components: intermember attrac- tion (sociometric choice, friendship), instrumental value of the group (value of membership for achieving common goals), and risk taking (willingness of members to express true feelings). Other components include a sense of belonging, interpersonal influence, and teamwork. Cohort system: A set of procedures (used by the Army) designed to increase unit cohesion by strengthening friendship ties and a sense of belonging. Cross-culting loyalties: Refers to shared identifications (loyalties) held by members of competing groups. Hypothesized to moderate the intensity of competition. Expert power: A source of leader influence that derives from perceptions of a leader as having superior knowledge in an area of importance to the members, notably in the context of a current or expected situation. Group attributes or properties: Characteristics of groups that contribute to cohesion, including group composition (extent of homogeneity), relation of group to members (provision of benefits), channels of communication, ideological strength, and goal satisfaction. Group-serving patterns: Attributions of responsibility for success or failure, namely, diffusing responsibility to the whole group and attributing more responsibility to self for failure and no more than equal responsibility to self and others for success; these patterns have been found to enhance cohesion. Interacting versus coacting teams: This distinction is best reflected in the difference between basketball (requires coordination among members) and bowling (each member performs apart from other members).
APPENDIX D 255 Legitimate power: A source of leader influence that derives from attitudes of "correct" behaviors, of "oughtness." Normative control system: A system designed to influence behavior through internalization of group values and norms. The objective of such systems is to enhance personal commitment to a unit and its objectives; contrast with coercive motivation (emphasizes negative consequences) and to utilitarian control (uses monetary reward or other tangible benefits). Referent power: A source of leader influence, referent power is based on personal relationships and on intense identifications between the leader and his or her subordinates. HEMISPHERIC LATERALITY Apraxias: Disorders in the execution of skilled purposive movements in the absence of significant motor weakness, incoordination, or sensory loss. Dichotic listening: A technique used to assess differences in function between the hemispheres; it entails simultaneous presentation of competing information to the left and right ears. Dual-code theory: An approach to the mental representation of objects that states that memories are tied to sensory modalities and that information is represented as sensory or motor experiences. Dual-task experiments: A technique that consists of asking the subject to do two tasks simultaneously that putatively involve both hemi- spheres. Hemisphericity: A notion that recognizes that different areas of the brain are specialized for different sensory, motor, and cognitive functions; in its more extreme versions, it is claimed that independent "minds" are supported by each cerebral hemisphere of the brain. Evidence to date does not support this claim. Hemispheric Synchronization ¢Hemi-Sync)~: A machine-aided process that is presumed to more closely align brain wave activity (frequency and amplitude) in both left and right hemispheres. Lateral orientation: Refers to the hypothesis, largely unsupported to date, that lateral eye movements index lateral cerebral activity, which in turn indicates cognitive activity associated with a particular hemisphere. Matching studies: Refers to a series of studies calling for judgments of "sameness" or "differences." Results are shown to have implications
256 APPENDIX D for the dual-code theory defined above; they hint at a verbal-visual dichotomy for memory representation. Modes of processing: A distinction is made between serial (successive cognitive operations) and parallel (simultaneous operations) process- ing in relation to the left and right hemispheres; the two modes of processing have also been referred to as analytic versus gestalt, respectively. Priming: Refers to a procedure used to call forth either a verbal or a visual representation, to wit, a cue given verbally would prime the verbal store, and a visual cue would prime the visual store. Propositional theory: Another approach to the mental representation of objects, this argues that memories are stored as neither a visual nor a verbal code, but in an abstract propositional form. Split-brain studies: Refers to research on the effects of disconnected hemispheres on memory, as well as on linguistic and visuospatial abilities. Split-brain patients appear to suffer a general impairment of memory functions after commissurotomy (a surgical procedure that separates the hemispheres). These findings suggest that the commissures play a role in both encoding and retrieval of memories by providing links between the hemispheres. IMAGERY AND REHEARSAL Attention-arousal set: An explanation for the enhancing effects of rehearsal on performance: rehearsal helps performers to set preten- sion levels and maintain their attention on task-relevant cues. Concentrix: A training procedure used to acquire, improve, and sustain skills in concentrating on a specific target at the current time, for the correct length of time. Marketed by the Allen Corporation of America (Alexandria, Va.), Concentrix is considered to be useful for such tasks as marksmanship training. Future- or past-oriented imagery: A distinction between projecting performance into the future, or an upcoming task, versus thinking about past performances and how these were done. Meta-analysis: A way of statistically analyzing the findings of many individual analyses. It is especially appropriate for integrating a group of studies related by a common conceptual hypothesis or common operational definitions of independent and dependent variables. One area that lends itself to this approach is the work on mental practice.
APPENDIX D 257 Another is the subarea of parapsychology known as Ganzfeld psi experiments. Outcome imagery: Imagining the outcome of a task that may be either positive or negative; for example, '`imagine the ball rolling, rolling, right into the cup'' or "rolling, rolling, toward the cup, but at the last second narrowly missing." Performance imagery: Rehearsing the acts involved in performing a task; instructions to subjects usually consist of asking them to imagine a performance (e.g., putting) and to go through the steps in their minds without imaging an outcome (sinking or missing the putt). Preferred cognitive style: Distinctions along a dimension of amount of imagery (imagers, nonimagers, occasional imagers) and types of imagery as visual or kinesthetic; combining these distinctions results in strong and weak visual or kinesthetic imagers. Symbolic learning: An explanation for the enhancing effects of rehearsal on performance: mental practice gives the performer the opportunity to rehearse the sequence of movements as symbolic components of the task. Type of rehearsal: A distinction is made between physical and mental rehearsal. The former consists ot actually going turougn fine motions, while the latter consists of performance imagery. Type of task: Distinctions are made among cognitive, motor, and strength tasks along a dimension of amount of symbolic content; a distinction is also made between self-paced (closed skill) and reactive (opened skill) tasks, for example, foul shooting versus playing a game of basketball. NEUROLINGUISTIC PROGRAMMING Anchors: A term used by NLP practitioners referring to the tactics involved in pinning down an internal response as auditory, visual, kinesthetic, or olfactory. Congruity: The extent to which there is a correspondence between nonverbal behavior (voice tone, body movements) and language; for example, "You're a great athlete" said with a smirk or a look of disgust. Dimensions for matching: The part of speech or language, nonverbal communication channel, or other aspects of interaction (topics discussed) used for matching by one or both participants. Eye movements: According to NLP theory, preferred representational
258 APPENDIX D systems (PRS) are indicated by the direction of eye movements: for example, eyes up and to the right indicates visual-constructed images, eyes down and to the right indicates kinesthetic feelings. Mutual accommodation or convergence: Responding by participants in like manner, an observed phenomenon that highlights the dyadic nature of influence. (Compare with tracking, which emphasizes one party's influence over another.) Predicate matching: The process of matching those verbs, adverbs, and adjectives that correspond to a client's PRS; words or phrases used by a client are categorized as visual, auditory, or kinesthetic. Preferred representational system (PRS): One of three sensory modal- ities, visual, auditory, or kinesthetic, in which most cognitive events associated with day-to-day experiences are principally encoded. Reframing: A technique used to identify the positive intention behind observed behavior; the NLP practitioner attempts to build a system inside a person, using the person's internal dialogue to communicate with his or her "unconscious" parts. Response mode measures: The three categories of response mode are usually match, mismatch, and nonmatch. A match occurs when the first speaker uses a specific representational system (RS) and the second speaker uses one or more of the same systems; a match is also defined as a joint nonuse of specific systems. A mismatch occurs when the first speaker uses a specific RS and the second speaker uses a different RS. A nonmatch occurs when the first speaker uses a specific RS and the responder fails to use one or more of the same systems. Tracking: Refers to the process of monitoring certain aspects of a speaker's language; it is used both to assess a PRS (frequencies of sensory modalities represented) and to match or mismatch predicates. This process implies a one-sided perspective, distinguishing between the influencer and the influencer. Transactional perspective Acknowledges the two-way nature of social influence, emphasizing mutual convergence or accommodation rather than distinguishing between an influencer and an influencer, as in the tracking process. Two-step process: Procedure used to identify RS predicates; first, predicates are identified by part of speech (verbs, adverbs, etc.) and, second, the predicates are classified by RS (visual, auditory, etc).
APPENDIX D 259 PARAPSYCHOLOGY Agent: The "sender" in tests for telepathy, the person whose mental states are to be apprehended by the percipient. In ESP tests, the person who looks at the target object. Clairvoyance: Extrasensory perception of objects or objective events. Effective error rate: The actual rate of success, taking into account ambiguities and inconsistencies in the definition of independent studies as well as reporting biases. Einstein-Podolsk:y-Rosen paradox: Suggests that quantum mechanics does not so much describe the state of the physical system as describe our knowledge of the state of that system. ESP (extrasensory perceptions: Experience of, or response to, a target object, state, event, or influence without sensory contact. File drawer problem: Unreported studies tend to be those with lower effect sizes; this problem serves to reduce the success rate calculated on the basis of published data. Majority vote technique: In ESP tests, a scoring method whereby the most frequent call, from a number of calls made for the same target, is defined as a single response to that target. In PK tests, an analogous technique, whereby the most frequently occurring target event, from a number of attempts on the same target, is defined as~a single outcome for that target. Percipient: The person experiencing ESP; also, one who is tested for ESP ability. PK (psychokinesisJ: The extramotor aspect of psi; a direct (i.e., mental but nonmuscular) influence exerted by the subject on an external physical process, condition, or object. Precognition: Prediction of random future events, the occurrence of which cannot be inferred from present knowledge. Preferential matching: A method of scoring responses to free material. A judge ranks the stimulus objects (usually pictures in sets of four) with respect to their similarity to, or association with, each response; or ranks the responses with respect to their similarity to, or association with, each stimulus object; or both. Psi: A general term to identify a person's extrasensorimotor commu- nication with the environment. Psi includes ESP and PK. Random event generator (REGJ: Devices that consist of four compo- nents: an electronic noise source; a sampling system; a system that
260 APPENDIX D analyzes the pulse train and prepares output for a feedback system, and the feedback display. Used widely for experimentation with low- level PK. Singles test: A PK technique in which the aim of the subject is to try to influence dice to fall with a specified face up. STM (screened touch matchings: An ESP card-testing technique in which the subject indicates on each trial (by pointing to one of five key positions) what he or she thinks the top card is in the inverted pack held by the experimenter behind a screen. The card is then laid opposite that position. Target: In ESP tests, the objective or mental events to which the subject is attempting to respond; in PK tests, the objective process or object which the subject tries to influence (e.g., as the face or location of a die). Telepathy: Extrasensory perception of the mental state or activity of another person. Trial: In ESP tests, a single attempt to identify a target object; in PK tests, a single unit of effect to be measured in the evaluation of results. SLEEP LEARNING Hypnopedia: A term used particularly by Soviet researchers to refer to sleep education; it emphasizes stimulus properties, suggestibility, set, and training. Sleep-assisted instruction ¢SAI): Situations in which the learning of verbal material takes place or is enhanced through its presentation to a sleeping person. Sleep stages: Defined by EEG activity as follows: Stage W (waking state) shows alpha or a low-voltage mixed-frequency EEG, or both; stage I is a low-voltage mixed-frequency EEG with much 2 to 7 hertz activity; stage II shows high-voltage negative-positive spikes and the absence of generalized high-amplitude waves; stage III is 20 to 50 percent with high-amplitude delta waves; stage IV is characterized by delta waves in more than 50 percent of the epoch; and stage REM is characterized by the concomitance of low-voltage mixed-frequency EEG activity and episodic rapid eye movement. A night's sleep shows four or five cycles of EEG activity with possible consecutive stages consisting of W. I, II, III, IV, II, REM, II, III, IV, III, II, REM.
APPENDIX D 261 SUGGESTIVE ACCELERATED LEARNING TECHNIQUES Meta strategies: Groupings of types of methods used to improve teaching and learning, usually arranged into a taxonomy with such categories as methods to improve the learner, to improve the teacher, to improve the context or setting within which learning occurs, and to improve the content of learning. Mind calming: Physical exercises designed to enhance concentration by decreasing external pressure and increasing an awareness of self. Passive music session: Providing a background of classical music such as Vivaldi, Teleman, Bach, and Handel. Pleasant experience imaging: Images evoked by background sounds and pictures of scenes that the teacher can remember well. Pleasant learning restimulation: Recalling an early pleasant learning experience where the student was eager to learn and before his or her memory skills were stymied. The student is encouraged to return to that situation once again and "try to learn and enjoy today in the same way." Suggestive accelerative learning and teaching techniques (SALTT): A combination of methods geared primarily toward classroom learning and cognitive tasks. Relaxation, guided imagery, concentration, and suggestive principles are woven into a package designed to enhance learning. Suggestopedia: A method of intensive teaching developed in the mid- 1960s by G. Lozanov of Bulgaria. It was designed originally to provide a short course in language learning for adults leaving the country. This method is often cited as a basis for a wide range of accelerated teaching techniques.