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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Community and Quality of Life: Data Needs for Informed Decision Making. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10262.
×

Index

A

Accessibility

assessment factors, 110-111

measurement, 92-96

ACS. See American Community Survey

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 109

American Community Survey (ACS), 138-139, 155

American FactFinder, 146, 155

Areal interpolation, 90

Areal weighting, 90

Attachment to place, 65

Aurora Partnership, 108

Authority constraints, 61-62

Autocorrelation, spatial, 91

Availability, of data, 48

B

BEA. See Bureau of Economic Analysis

BLM. See Bureau of Land Management

BLS. See Bureau of Labor Statistics

Bruntland Commission, 23

BTS. See Bureau of Transportation Statistics

Built environments, structure, institutions, and agency in, 64-65

Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), 138, 156

Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), 138, 157

Bureau of Land Management (BLM), 78, 80, 144, 149, 164

Bureau of the Census, 82, 138, 153-155, 164

American Community Survey, 138-139, 155

decennial Census, 138, 141, 154

Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates, 163

Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), 1, 138, 157-158

C

Cadastral data, 139, 164

California, Smart Investment plan in, 24

Capability constraints, 18, 61

Capacity constraints, 18

Census 2000, 146.

See also Bureau of the Census

Chicago, Illinois, early transportation studies in, 104

City of Richmond, British Columbia, Pedestrian Friendly Streets, 39

Community

as three integrated spheres, 34

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Community and Quality of Life: Data Needs for Informed Decision Making. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10262.
×

as three interconnected spheres, 33

as three separate spheres, 33

as a web of relations among spheres, 35

community demonstration projects, NSDI, 164-165

objectives and associated indicators, 43

Competitive connections, economic trade and, 72

Complementary connections, economic trade and, 72

Connectedness, 55-74

between places, 71-74

Constraints, 18

authority, 61

capability, 61

coupling, 61

Control zones, 91

Cost, of state and local government data, 143

Coupling constraints, 18, 61

Cross-organization decision making, 14

Crosscutting measures of livability

ecological footprint, 27

mutual interdependence of livability dimensions, 6

D

Data

access to data and analytical tools, 146-148

analysis tools, 131-150

availability, 137-148

cadastral data, 139, 164

collected by communities and smaller-level governments, 146

data needed by communities, 1-5

data sharing among federal agencies, 8-9

federal data for local decision making, 133

federal government data, 138-143

private data, 145-146

reliability constraints, 48

state and local government data, 143-146

Decision-support process, 103-127

changes in the transportation planning process, 107-112

current transportation planning process, 106

decision process framework, 112-113

decisions resolving conflicting ideas, 113-114

information needs of decision makers, 122-125

long-range planning, 106-107

project planning, 107

promoting cross-organizational planning, 14

regional basis for decision making, 114-119

role of public involvement in decision process, 119-120

Decision-support tools, 120-122

basic information handling support, 121

decision analysis support, 121

designing for the diverse stakeholders, 8

group reasoning support, 121

micro, decision strategy phases, 122

Dependence

spatial, 91

temporal, 91

Design Center for American Urban Landscape, 134-135

Livable Community tool, 136

Detroit, Michigan, early transportation studies in, 104

Digital Aerial Images, 135

Digital Line Graph (DLG) hydrography data , 165

Digital Orthophotos, 135

Disenfranchisement, 51

DLG. See Digital Line Graph hydrography data

DOC. See U.S. Department of Commerce

Dodge-Polk, 145

DOI. See U.S. Department of the Interior

DOL. See U.S. Department of Labor

DOT. See U.S. Department of Transportation

E

Eastern Planning Initiative (EPI), 40-42

Ecological fallacy, 88

Ecological footprint, 27

Ecological framework methodology, 116-118

Economic trade

and competitive connections, 72

and complementary connections, 72

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Community and Quality of Life: Data Needs for Informed Decision Making. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10262.
×

Eisenhower Interstate Highway System, 104

Elevation, 139, 164

Employee Statistics 202 (ES202 ), 143-144, 149

EnviroMapper, 160

Environmental accidents, 49

Environmental quality of life, 6

with changes in the transportation planning process, 111

Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), 135

Envision Utah, 28-30

EPA. See U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

EPI. See Eastern Planning Initiative

Errors, in measurement, 47

ESRI. See Environmental Systems Research Institute

European Sustainability Index Project, 32

Expectation-maximation algorithm, 90

Exurban expansion, 25

F

Fannie Mae Location Efficient Mortgage, 38

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), 135

Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC), 78, 141, 153, 164

Federal government data, 7, 138-143

lack of appreciation for sources of, 133

limited availability of, 141

missing, 142

obtaining reliable, 133

organization of federal statistical system, 133

paradox of state and local government data, 144-145

provision programs, 153-165

restricted access to, 142

scales of, 140

timeliness of, 141-142

uncoordinated, 142-143

understanding, 133

using for local decision making, 133

Federal Highways Administration (FHWA), 107, 109, 111, 116, 118, 142

Federal Railroads Administration, 142

Federal statistical system, organization of, 133

Federal Transit Administration (FTA), 107, 111

FedStat Task Force, 138, 163

MapStats, 163

Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates, 163

FEMA. See Federal Emergency Management Agency

FGDC. See Federal Geographic Data Committee

FHWA. See Federal Highways Administration

FirstGov, 164

Fort Collins, Colorado, geographic units in, 82-83

Freedom of Information Act, 142

“Freeway revolts,” 5

FTA. See Federal Transit Administration

FWS. See U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

G

GASB. See Government Accounting Standards Board

Gateway to Global Change Information, 163

GDP. See Gross Domestic Product

Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI), 36

GeoData Alliance, 7, 141

Geodetic control, 139, 164

Geographic boundaries, arbitrary, 82-83

Geographic Information System (GIS) data, 8, 12-13, 51, 62, 78, 80-81, 88-89, 107, 125, 135-136

Maps Overlay and Statistical System, 80

Geographic units, arbitrary, 83-92

ecological fallacy, 88

incompatible data units, 90-91

multiple areal unit problem, 84-88

Geography Network, 146-147

GIS. See Geographic Information System

Global Change Information, 163

Globalization, 64

“Golden triad,” 32-34

Government Accounting Standards Board (GASB), 124-125

Government roles in transportation planning, 8-9

Governmental units, 139, 164

GPI. See Genuine Progress Indicator

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Community and Quality of Life: Data Needs for Informed Decision Making. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10262.
×

Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, 78-81

Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 6, 35, 49

Group reasoning support, 121

H

Heterogeneity, spatial, 91-92

History and place, 17, 57

Home, importance in identifying place, 60

Horizontal characteristics of place, 56

HUD. See U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development

Hydrography, 139, 164

I

Incompatible data units, 90-91

Indicators of livability, 3-4, 34-52

appropriate scale of analysis, 44-46

associated with community objectives, 43

data availability and reliability

constraints, 48

historical lessons about selecting, 45-46

in practice, 43-52

interpretation of, 48-50

new-generation, 37

politics of use, 51-52

single sphere versus crosscutting measures, 47-48

selection, 45-46

social, economic, and environmental, 49

statistical measurement errors, 47

traditional place-based, 36

weighted, 50-51

Individualistic fallacy, 88

Inferential statistics, spatial-temporal data and, 91-92

Information handling, 121

Information needs of decision makers, 122-125

Institutions, in natural, built, and social environments, 64-65

Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), 160

Interagency sources

Federal Geographic Data Committee, 78, 141, 153, 164

FedStat Task Force, 138, 163

National Hydrography Dataset, 162, 165

National Spatial Data Infrastructure, 78, 139, 141, 164

U.S. Interagency Working Group on Sustainable Development Indicators, 165

Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), 105, 109, 116

Intermodal Transportation Database (ITDB), 157-158

Transportation Data Links option, 158

Internet, 12, 78, 146

communication via, 18

Interpolation, areal, 90

Interstate Highway System, 5, 104

IRIS. See Integrated Risk Information System

ISTEA. See Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act

ITDB. See Intermodal Transportation Database

L

Lackawanna Watershed, Pennsylvania, flood mitigation and environmental management in, 165

Large scale, 140

“Legibility,” 69-71

LEM. See Location Efficient Mortgage

Limited availability, of federal government data, 141

Linkages between places, 71

common experience of political places, 73

economic trade and competitive connections, 72

economic trade and complementary connections, 72

movement of capital, 72-73

personal travel, 72

Livability, 3, 23-52, 110-111

concept of, 23-27

the economy, 32-34

the environment, 32-34

environment and quality of life, 111

“golden triad,” 32-34

indicators of, 27-32, 34-52

key dimensions of, 5-6, 32-34

measurement and analysis of, 77-97

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Community and Quality of Life: Data Needs for Informed Decision Making. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10262.
×

mobility and access for people and goods, 110

new generation indicators, 37

social well-being, 32-34

system performance and preservation, 110-111

why livability matters, 23-32

Livability Communities Initiative, 24, 34

Livability planning and scale, 7

“Lived-in” territories, 70

Local government. See State and local government data

Location Efficient Mortgage (LEM), 38

Long-range planning, 106-107

M

Major investment study (MIS), 111

Maps Overlay and Statistical System, 80

MapStats, 163

MAUP. See Modifiable area unit problem

Measurement errors, 47

Measurement of accessibility, 92-96

space-time accessibility, 93-96

space-time prism, 94

Measurement of livability, 77-97

developing place-based indicators, 81-92

single sphere versus crosscutting, 47-48

Measurement, time of, 89-90

Metadata, 148

Metamodels, 148

MetroGIS, 135

Metropolitan planning organizations (MPO), 14, 107, 114, 132

Miami-Dade, Florida, 79th Street corridor revitalization in, 24

Minnesota’s North Metro I-35W Corridor Coalition, 134-137

Minority communities, 26

MIS. See Major investment study

Mississippi Delta, 116-118

Mobility in the transportation planning process, 110

Modifiable area unit problem (MAUP), 84-85

Moline, Illinois, Renew Moline, 27

Movement

authority constraints, 61-62

capability constraints, 61

coupling constraints, 61

in and out, 67-68

in time and space, 60-62

of capital, 72-73

through places, 19

space-time paths, 61

MPO. See Metropolitan planning organizations

Multiplicity of places and scales, 59

N

National Atlas, 161-162

National Cooperative Soil Survey Program (NRCS), 158-159

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), 14, 105, 107

National Geodetic Survey, 164

National Geographic, 147

National Hydrography Dataset (NHD), 162, 165, 176

National Partnership for Reinventing Government, 141, 164

National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), 78, 139, 141, 164

cadastral data, 139, 164

Community Demonstration Projects, 164-165

elevation, 139, 164

executive order, 142

geodetic control, 139, 164

governmental units, 139, 164

hydrography, 139, 164

ortho-imagery, 139, 164

transportation, 139, 164

National Water Information System (NWIS), 162

National Wetlands Inventory (NWI), 139, 161

“Natural Amenities” Index, 35

Natural environments

role of, 16-17

structure, institutions, and agency in, 64-65

Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), 141, 158-159, 164

Natural Resources Defense Council, 38

NCSS. See National Cooperative Soil Survey Program (NRCS)

NEPA. See National Environmental Policy Act

Networks, nodes in, 57-60

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Community and Quality of Life: Data Needs for Informed Decision Making. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10262.
×

Nodes, in place networks, 59-60

North Metro I-35W Corridor Coalition, 134-137

NSDI. See National Spatial Data Infrastructure

O

Occupancy at different scales, 18

Office of Management and Budget, 133

“OneDOT” program, 142

Ortho-imagery, 139, 164

P

Pace of place change, 17

“Paralysis by analysis,” 51

Partnerships with state and local governments, 8-9

Path dependence, 17

Pedestrian Friendly Streets, 39

People and place, 55-67

interactions between, 18-19

moving through places, 19

natural, built, and social environments, 63-65

place and community, 18-19, 66-67

place as territory and place as people, 55-57

places as groups of nodes in networks, 57-60

political places, 62-63

reading and using places, 18

rural places, 65-66

sense of place, 18

occupancy at different scales, 18

time geography and movement in time and space, 60-62

time-geography and place-scale definition, 18

Place, 16-18, 55-74

attachment to, 65

and boundaries, 17-18

and community, 18-19, 66-67

connections between places, 71-74

defining, 16

as groups of nodes in networks, 57-60

horizontal and vertical characteristics of, 56

kinds of linkages between, 71

and livability at multiple scales, 19

pace of change in, 17

reading and using, 18

role of history in, 17, 57

role of structure, institutions, and agency in, 17

role of the natural environment in, 16-17

and scale, 16

and space connections between places, 71-74

spatial dependence, 16

as territory, 55-57

and time, 67-71

Place-based indicators, 81-92

arbitrary geographic boundaries, 82-83

arbitrary geographic units, 83-92

Political jurisdictions, 62-63

common experience of, 73

Population

choice, 69

movement, 67-68

Position-aware technologies, 89

Potential path area, 94

Potential path space, 94

Potential path tree, 95

Private data, 145-146

Project planning, 107

Public data, useful for decision making, 8

Public involvement in decision process,

role of, 119-120

Q

Quality, of state and local government data, 144

Quality Growth Efficiency Tools (QGET), 29

Quality Growth Strategy, 29-30

“Quality of life,” 23-24

Query Mapper, 160

QuickFacts, 155

R

“Reading” places, 18

Refusal, of state and local government data, 143-144

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Community and Quality of Life: Data Needs for Informed Decision Making. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10262.
×

Regional decision making, 84, 114-119

actors in transportation decision making, 115-119

ecological framework methodology, 116-118

the Mississippi Delta, 116-118

Regional Economic Information System (REIS), 156

Regional identity, 73-74

Reliability

of data, 48

of federal data, 133

Remediation, 36

Remote sensing, 91

Restricted access, to federal government data, 142

Rio Earth Summit, 31

Rural places, 65-66

S

Santa Monica, California, “sustainable cities” program, 27

Scales

of analysis, 44-46

of federal government data, 140

of livability assessment, 4-5

Seattle, Washington, Sustainable Seattle, 39

Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates, 163

Small scale, 140

Smart Growth, 24, 165

“Social capital,” 18

Social Indicators Movement, 23

Social well-being, 11, 32-34

Soil Survey Geographic database (NRCS), 159

Space connections between places, 71-74

kinds of linkages between places, 71

regional identity, 73-74

Space-time

accessibility, 93-96

paths, 61

prism, 94

Spatial autocorrelation, 91

Spatial dependence, 16, 91

Spatial heterogeneity, 91-92

Spatial-temporal data, and inferential statistics, 91-92

Species endangerment, 31

Standards, for state and local government data, 144

State and local government data, 143-145

cost, 143

federal paradox, 144-145

inability, 144

lack of standards, 144

no data, 144

quality, 144

refusal, 143-144

standards, 144

State Departments of Transportation, 14

Statistics

inferential, spatial-temporal data and, 91-92

and measurement errors, 47

Structures and institutions, 64-65

Suburban expansion, 25

Sustainability, 23

local agenda 21 projects, 31

measures of, 24

System performance and preservation to assess livability impacts, 110-111

T

TEA-21. See Transportation and Equity Act for the Twenty-First Century

Technological developments, 12

Technologies, position-aware, 89

Temporal dependence, 91

time of measurement, 89-90

spatial-temporal data and inferential statistics, 91-92

Thomas Jefferson District Planning Council, 39

Thomas Jefferson Sustainability Council, 39

Eastern Planning Initiative

Tiebout Model, 114-115

Time and place, 67-71

changing populations changing minds over time, 69

changing populations moving in and out over time, 67-68

legal interactions between time and place, 69-71

Time geography

authority constraints, 61-62

capability constraints, 61

coupling constraints, 61

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Community and Quality of Life: Data Needs for Informed Decision Making. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10262.
×

and movement in time and space, 60-62

and place-scale definition, 18

space-time paths, 61

Timeliness, of federal government data, 141-142

Trade-offs, 6, 11

Transportation and Equity Act for the

Twenty-First Century (TEA-21), 109, 118

Transportation planning, 139, 164

actors in decision making, 115-119

assessing impacts on livability, 110-111

changes in process, 107-112

current process employed, 106

environment and quality of life, 111

government roles in, 8-9

Travel, personal, 72

Tucson, Arizona, pedestrian-oriented,

mixed-use development in, 27

U

Uncoordinated data, 142-143

U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 35, 158-159

“Natural Amenities” Index, 35

Natural Resources Conservation Service, 141, 158-159,164

U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC), 154-156

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), 156-157

Research Maps, 156

Urban Research Monitor, 157

USER database, 157

U.S. Department of Labor (DOL), 157

U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), 161-162

U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), 1, 14, 118, 142, 149, 157-158, 164

Intermodal Transportation Database, 157-158

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 39, 116, 118, 159-160

Envirofacts database, 160

Information Resources Center, 159

Integrated Risk Information System, 160

Window to My Environment, 160

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), 161

National Wetlands Inventory (NWI), 139, 161

U.S. Forest Service (USFS), 176

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 141-142, 161-162

Digital Aerial Images, 135

Digital Line Graph hydrography data, 165

Hydrology Division, 162

National Atlas, 161-162

National Water Information System, 162

U.S. Global Charge Research Program (USGCRP), 163

U.S. Interagency Working Group on Sustainable Development Indicators (SDI Group), 165

U.S. White House Task Force on Livable Communities, 24, 27, 34

V

Vertical characteristics of place, 56

W

Weighted indicators, 50-51

Weighting, areal, 90

Western Governors’ Association, 144, 149

Wilderness Society, The, 80

Window to My Environment, 160

Z

Zoning, 5

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Community and Quality of Life: Data Needs for Informed Decision Making. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10262.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Community and Quality of Life: Data Needs for Informed Decision Making. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10262.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Community and Quality of Life: Data Needs for Informed Decision Making. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10262.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Community and Quality of Life: Data Needs for Informed Decision Making. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10262.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Community and Quality of Life: Data Needs for Informed Decision Making. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10262.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Community and Quality of Life: Data Needs for Informed Decision Making. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10262.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Community and Quality of Life: Data Needs for Informed Decision Making. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10262.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Community and Quality of Life: Data Needs for Informed Decision Making. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10262.
×
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Community and Quality of Life: Data Needs for Informed Decision Making Get This Book
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“Quality of life” . . . “livability” . . . “sense of place.” Communities across America are striving to define these terms and to bring them to life, as they make decisions about transportation systems and other aspects of planning and development.

Community and Quality of Life discusses important concepts that undergird community life and offers recommendations for collaborative planning across space and time. The book explores:

  • Livability as an ensemble concept, embracing notions such as quality of place and sustainability. It discusses how to measure the “three legs” of livability (social, economic, ecological) while accounting for politics and personal values. And the book examines how to translate broad ideas about livability into guidelines for policymaking
  • Place as more than location, including the natural, human-built, and social environments. The book discusses the impact of population changes over time, the links between regional and local identity, and other issues
  • Tools for decision making in transportation and community planning. It reviews a variety of decision models and tools such as geographic information systems (GIS)—as well as public and private sources of relevant data.

Including several case examples, this book will be important to planners, planning decision makers, planning educators and students, social scientists, community activists, and interested individuals.

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