Carus WS. 2001. The Illicit Use of Biological Agents since 1990. Working Paper: Bioterrorism and Biocrimes. Center for Counterproliferation Research. Washington, DC: National Defense University.
Christopher GW, Cieslak TJ, Pavlin JA, Eitzen EM Jr. 1997. Biological warfare. A historical perspective. JAMA 278(5):412–417. Available at: http://jama.ama-assn.org/issues/v278n5/ffull/jsc7044.html.
Fauci AS. 2001. Infectious diseases: Considerations for the 21st century. Clinical Infectious Diseases 32(5):675–685. Available at: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/CID/journal/contents/v32n5.html.
Franz DR, Zajtchuk R. 2000. Biological terrorism: Understanding the threat, preparation, and medical response. Disease-a-Month 46(2):125–190.
Hamburg MA. 2000. Bioterrorism: A challenge to public health and medicine. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 6(4):38–44.
Hawley RJ, Eitzen EM. 2001. Biological weapons: A primer for microbiologists. Annual Review of Microbiology 55:235–253. Available at: http://micro.annualreviews.org/cgi/content/full/55/1/235.
Henderson DA. Bioterrorism. International Journal of Clinical Practice Supplement 115:32–36.
Kortepeter MG, Cieslak TJ, Eitzen EM. 2001. Bioterrorism. Journal of Environmental Health 63(6):21–24.
Lane HC, Fauci AS. 2001. Bioterrorism on the home front: A new challenge for American medicine. JAMA 286(20):2595–2597. Available at: http://jama.ama-assn.org/issues/v286n20/fpdf/jed10079.pdf.
Bradley KA, Mogridge J, Mourez M, Collier RJ, Young JA. 2001. Identification of the cellular receptor for anthrax toxin. Nature 414(6860):225–229. Available at: http://www.nature.com/nature/anthrax/.
Inglesby TV, Henderson DA, Bartlett JG, Ascher MS, Eitzen E, Friedlander AM, Hauer J, McDade J, Osterholm MT, O’Toole T, Parker G, Perl TM, Russell PK, Tonat K. Working Group on Civilian Biodefense. 1999. Anthrax as a biological weapon: Medical and public health management. JAMA 281(18):1735–1745. Available at: http://jama.amaassn.org/issues/v281n18/ffull/jst80027.html.
Pannifer AD, Wong TY, Schwarzenbacher R, Renatus M, Petosa C, Bienkowska J, Lacy DB, Collier RJ, Park S, Leppla SH, Hanna P, Liddington RC. 2001. Crystal structure of the anthrax lethal factor. Nature 414(6860):229–233. Available at: http://www.nature.com/nature/anthrax/.
Pearson, H. October 24, 2001. Anthrax action shapes up. Nature. Online. Available at: www.nature.com/nsu/011025/011025-9.html. Accessed October 26, 2001.
Cohen J. 2001. Bioterrorism. Smallpox vaccinations: How much protection remains? Science 294(5544):985. Available at: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/294/5544/985.
Henderson DA, Inglesby TV, Bartlett JG, Ascher MS, Eitzen E, Jahrling PB, Hauer J, Layton M, McDade J, Osterholm MT, O’Toole T, Parker G, Perl T, Russell PK, Tonat K. Working Group on Civilian Biodefense. 1999. Smallpox as a biological weapon: Medical and public health management. JAMA 281(22):2127–2137. Available at: http://jama.amaassn.org/issues/v281n22/ffull/jst90000.html.
Other Dangerous Pathogens
Arnon SS, Schechter R, Inglesby TV, Henderson DA, Bartlett JG, Ascher MS, Eitzen E, Fine AD, Hauer J, Layton M, Lillibridge S, Osterholm MT, O’Toole T, Parker G, Perl TM, Russell PK, Swerdlow DL, Tonat K. Working Group on Civilian Biodefense. 2001. Botulinum toxin as a biological weapon: Medical and public health management. JAMA 285(8):1059–1070. Available at: http://jama.amaassn.org/issues/v285n8/ffull/jst00017.html.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2001. National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/dls/report/PDF/CompleteReport.pdf.
Dennis DT, Inglesby TV, Henderson DA, Bartlett JG, Ascher MS, Eitzen E, Fine AD, Friedlander AM, Hauer J, Layton M, Lillibridge SR, McDade JE, Osterholm MT, O’Toole T, Parker G, Perl TM, Russell PK, Tonat K. Working Group on Civilian Biodefense. 2001. Tularemia as a biological weapon: Medical and public health management. JAMA 285(21):2763–2773. Available at: http://jama.amaassn.org/issues/v285n21/ffull/jst10001.html.
Inglesby TV, Dennis DT, Henderson DA, Bartlett JG, Ascher MS, Eitzen E, Fine AD, Friedlander AM, Hauer J, Koerner JF, Layton M, McDade J, Osterholm MT, O’Toole T, Parker G, Perl TM, Russell PK, Schoch-Spana M, Tonat K. Working Group on Civilian Biodefense. 2000. Plague as a biological weapon: Medical and public health management. JAMA 283(17):2281–2290. Available at: http://jama.amaassn.org/issues/v283n17/ffull/jst90013.html.
Cohen J, Marshall E. 2001. Bioterrorism: Vaccines for biodefense: A system in distress. Science 294(5542):498–501. Available at: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/294/5542/498.
National Vaccine Advisory Committee. 1997. United States vaccine research: A delicate fabric of public and private collaboration. Pediatrics 100(6):1015–1020. Available at: http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/100/6/1015.
Russell PK. 1999. Vaccines in civilian defense against bioterrorism. Emerging Infectious Diseases 5(4):531–533. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol5no4/russell.htm.
U.S. Department of Defense. July 2001. Report on Biological Warfare Defense Vaccine Research and Development Programs. Available at: http://www.defenselink.mil/pubs/ReportonBiologicalWarfareDefenseVaccineRDPrgras-July2001.pdf.
Vandersmissen W. 1992. Availability of quality vaccines: The industrial point of view. Vaccine 10(13):955–957.
Widdus R. 2001. Public-private partnerships for health: Their main targets, their diversity, and their future directions. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 79(8):713–720. Available at: http://www.who.int/bulletin/pdf/2001/issue8/vol79.no.8.713-720.pdf.
Barrett, A. November 5, 2001. How to get pharma’s big guns aimed at microbes. Business Week, pp. 40–41.
Cassell GH, Mekalanos J. 2001. Development of antimicrobial agents in the era of new and reemerging infectious diseases and increasing antibiotic resistance. JAMA 285(5):601–605. Available at: http://jama.amaassn.org/issues/v285n5/ffull/jsc00411.html.
Wheeler C, Berkley S. 2001. Initial lessons from public-private partnerships in drug and vaccine development. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 79(8):728–734. Available at: http://www.who.int/bulletin/pdf/2001/issue8/vol79.no.8.728-734.pdf.
Emerging Discovery and Technologies
Dubensky TW Jr, Liu MA, Ulmer JB. 2000. Delivery systems for gene-based vaccines. Molecular Medicine 6(9):723–732.
Gu ML, Leppla SH, Klinman DM. 1999. Protection against anthrax toxin by vaccination with a DNA plasmid encoding anthrax protective antigen. Vaccine 17(4):340–344.
Klinman DM, Verthelyi D, Takeshita F, Ishii KJ. 1999. Immune recognition of foreign DNA: A cure for bioterrorism? Immunity 11(2):123–129.
Liu MA, McClements W, Ulmer JB, Shiver J, Donnelly J. 1997. Immunization of non-human primates with DNA vaccines. Vaccine 15(8):909–912.
Mourez M, Kane RS, Mogridge J, Metallo S, Deschatelets P, Sellman BR, Whitesides GM, Collier RJ. 2001. Designing a polyvalent inhibitor of anthrax toxin. Nature Biotechnology 19(10):958–961. Available at: http://www.nature.com/nature/anthrax/.
Safety and Regulatory Challenges
Kolata G. November 13, 2001. Bioterror drugs stall over rules and logistics. New York Times. Online. Available at: www.nytimes.com. Accessed November 15, 2001.
LEADER: When drugs can be too safe. November 7, 2001. Financial Times. Online. Available at: www.news.ft.com. Accessed November 15, 2001.
Michaels A, Dyer G. November 7, 2001. U.S. may tighten guidelines on drug approvals. Financial Times. Online. Available at: www.news.ft.com. Accessed November 8, 2001.
Pollack A. November 13, 2001. Antibiotics business is again popular. New York Times. Online. Available at: www.nytimes.com. Accessed November 15, 2001.
Smith HA, Klinman DM. 2001. The regulation of DNA vaccines. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 12(3):299–303.
Zoon KC. 1999. Vaccines, pharmaceutical products, and bioterrorism: Challenges for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Emerging Infectious Diseases 5(4):534–536. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol5no4/zoon.htm.
Proliferation of Dangerous Pathogens
Breithaupt H. 2000. Toxins for terrorists. Do scientists act illegally when sending out potentially dangerous material? European Molecular Biology Organization Reports 1(4):298–301. Available at: http://emboreports.oupjournals.org/cgi/content/full/1/4/298?.
Fraser CM, Dando MR. 2001. Genomics and future biological weapons: The need for preventive action by the biomedical community. Nature Genetics 29(3):253–256. Available at: http://www.nature.com/nature/anthrax/.
Malakoff D, Enserink M. 2001. Bioterrorism. New law may force labs to screen workers. Science 294(5544):971–973. Available at: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/294/5544/971.
Tansey B, McCormick E. November 12, 2001. 22,000 U.S. labs handle deadly germs: Feinstein backs bill for government tracking system. San Francisco Chronicle. Online. Available at: www.sfgate.com. Accessed November 14, 2001.
Zelicoff A. May 2001. Arms control today: An impractical protocol. Arms Control Association. Online. Available at: www.armscontrol.org. Accessed October 30, 2001.
Preparedness and Emergency Response
Benjamin GC. 2001. Public health infrastructure: Creating a solid foundation. Physician Executive 27(2):86–87.
Caruso JT. November 6, 2001. Bioterrorism. Statement of Deputy Assistant Director of the Counterterrorism Division of the Federal Bureau of Investigation to the Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on Technology, Terrorism and Government Information.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2001. The public health response to biological and chemical terrorism: Interim planning guidance for state public health officials. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available at: http://www.bt.cdc.gov/Documents/Planning/PlanningGuidance.PDF.
Fidler DP. 2001. The malevolent use of microbes and the rule of law: Legal challenges presented by bioterrorism. Clinical Infectious Diseases 33(5):686–689. Available at: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/CID/journal/contents/v33n5.html.
Fine A, Layton M. 2001. Lessons from the West Nile viral encephalitis outbreak in New York City, 1999: Implications for bioterrorism preparedness. Clinical Infectious Diseases 32(2):277–282. Available at: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/CID/journal/contents/v32n2.html.
Fraser MR, Fisher VS. 2001. Elements of effective bioterrorism preparedness: A planning primer for local public health agencies. Washington, DC: National Association of County and City Health Officials. Available at: http://www.naccho.org/files/documents/Final_Effective_Bioterrism.pdf.
Gallo RJ, Campbell D. 2000. Bioterrorism: Challenges and opportunities for local health departments. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 6(4):57–62.
Heymann, D. September 5, 2001. Strengthening global preparedness for defense against infectious disease threats. Statement for the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate. Hearing on the Threat of Bioterrorism and the Spread of Infectious Diseases. Available at: http://www.who.int/emc/pdfs/Senate_hearing.pdf.
Hughes J. April 20, 1999. Statement of Director, National Center for Infectious Diseases to the Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on Technology, Terrorism and Government Information. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/biojud.htm.
Illinois Department of Public Health. 2001. Surviving Disasters: A Citizen’s Emergency Handbook. Available at: http://www.idph.state.il.us/pdf/SurvivingDisasters.pdf.
Inglesby T, Grossman R, O’Toole T. 2001. A plague on your city: Observations from TOPOFF. Clinical Infectious Diseases 32(3):436–445. Available at: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/CID/journal/contents/v32n3.html.
Inglesby TV, O’Toole T, Henderson DA. 2000. Preventing the use of biological weapons: Improving response should prevention fail. Clinical Infectious Diseases 30(6):926–929. Available at: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/CID/journal/contents/v30n6.html.
Keim M, Kaufmann AF. 1999. Principles for emergency response to bioterrorism. Annals of Emergency Medicine 34(2):177–182.
Khan AS, Ashford DA. 2001. Ready or not—Preparedness for bioterrorism. New England Journal of Medicine 345(4):287–289. Available at: http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/345/4/287.
Moser R Jr, White GL, Lewis-Younger CR, Garrett LC. 2001. Preparing for expected bioterrorism attacks. Military Medicine 166(5):369–374.
O’Toole T, Inglesby T. June 2001. Shining light on Dark Winter. Online. Available at: www.hopkins-biodefense.org. Accessed October 30, 2001.
Rotz LD, Koo D, O’Carroll PW, Kellogg RB, Sage MJ, Lillibridge SR. 2000. Bioterrorism preparedness: Planning for the future. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 6(4):45–49.
Schoch-Spana M. 2000. Implications of pandemic influenza for bioterrorism response. Clinical Infectious Diseases 31(6):1409–1413. Available at: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/CID/journal/contents/v31n6.html.
Teeter DS, Koenig KL. 2000. VA’s role in bioterrorism preparations. American Journal of Infection Control 28(4):321.
Terriff CM, Tee AM. 2001. Citywide pharmaceutical preparation for bioterrorism. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacists 58(3):233–237.
World Health Organization. 2001. Public health response to biological and chemical weapons: WHO Guidance. Second edition. Geneva: World Health Organization. Available at: http://www.who.int/emc/pdfs/BIOWEAPONS_exec_sum2.pdf.
Monitoring and Surveillance Tools
ESSENCE: Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-Based Epidemics. Information available at: www.geis.ha.osd.mil.
Morse SS, Rosenberg BH, Woodall J. 1996. ProMED global monitoring of emerging diseases: Design for a demonstration program. Health Policy 38(3):135–153.
Detection and Diagnostic Capabilities
Krenzelok EP. 2001. The critical role of the Poison Center in the recognition, mitigation and management of biological and chemical terrorism. (Abstract only) Przegl Lek 58(4):177–181.
Morse SS. 1996. Importance of molecular diagnostics in the identification and control of emerging infections. Molecular Diagnostics 1(3):201–206.
Gilchrist MJ. 2000. A national laboratory network for bioterrorism: Evolution from a prototype network of laboratories performing routine surveillance. Military Medicine 165(7 Supplement 2):28–31.
Peterson LR, Hamilton JD, Baron EJ, Tompkins LS, Miller JM, Wilfert CM, Tenover FC, Thomson Jr RB. 2001. Role of clinical microbiology laboratories in the management and control of infectious diseases and the delivery of health care. Clinical Infectious Diseases 32(4):605–611. Available at: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/CID/journal/contents/v32n4.html.
American Public Health Association. 2001. Effective public health assessment, prevention, response, and training for emerging and re-emerging infectious
diseases, including bioterrorism. American Journal of Public Health 91(3):500–501. Available at: http://www.ajph.org/content/vol91/issue3/.
Franz DR, Jahrling PB, Friedlander AM, McClain DJ, Hoover DL, Bryne WR, Pavlin JA, Christopher GW, Eitzen EM Jr. 1997. Clinical recognition and management of patients exposed to biological warfare agents. JAMA 278(5):399–411. Available at: http://jama.amaassn.org/issues/v278n5/ffull/jsc71014.html.
Pesik N, Keim M, Sampson TR. 1999. Do U.S. emergency medicine residency programs provide adequate training for bioterrorism? Annals of Emerging Medicine 34(2):173–176.
Waeckerle JF, Seamans S, Whiteside M, Pons PT, White S, Burstein JL, Murray R, Task Force of Health Care and Emergency Services Professionals on Preparedness for Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Incidents . 2001. Executive summary: Developing objectives, content, and competencies for the training of emergency medical technicians, emergency physicians, and emergency nurses to care for casualties resulting from nuclear, biological, or chemical incidents. Annals of Emerging Medicine 37(6):587–601.
Wetter DC, Daniell WE, Treser CD. 2001. Hospital preparedness for victims of chemical or biological terrorism. American Journal of Public Health 91(5):710–716. Available at: http://www.ajph.org/content/vol91/issue5/.
Protecting Food and Water Supplies
Kaferstein FK, Motarjemi Y, Bettcher DW. 1997. Foodborne disease control: A transnational challenge. Emerging Infectious Diseases 3(4):503–510. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol3no4/kaferste.htm.
Khan AS, Swerdlow DL, Juranek DD. 2001. Precautions against biological and chemical terrorism directed at food and water supplies. Public Health Reports 116(1):3–14.
Logan-Henfrey L. 2000. Mitigation of bioterrorist threats in the 21st century. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 916:121–133.
Nara PL. 1999. The status and role of vaccines in the U.S. food animal industry. Implications for biological terrorism. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 894:206–217.
Neher NJ. 1999. The need for a coordinated response to food terrorism. The Wisconsin experience. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 894:181–183.
Pellerin C. 2000. The next target of bioterrorism: Your food. Environmental Health Perspectives 108(3):A126–129. Available at: http://ehpnet1.niehs.nih.gov/members/2000/108-3/spheres.html.
Sequeira R. 1999. Safeguarding production agriculture and natural ecosystems against biological terrorism. A U.S. Department of Agriculture emergency response framework. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 894:48–67.
Torok TJ, Tauxe RV, Wise RP, Livengood JR, Sokolow R, Mauvais S, Birkness KA, Skeels MR, Horan JM, Foster LR. 1997. A large community outbreak of salmonellosis caused by intentional contamination of restaurant salad
bars. JAMA 278(5):389–395. Available at: http://jama.amaassn.org/issues/v278n5/ffull/joc71206.html.
Williams JL, Sheesley D. 2000. Response to bio-terrorism directed against animals. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 916:117–120.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:
Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response: http://www.bt.cdc.gov
Centers for Public Health Preparedness: http://www.phppo.cdc.gov/owpp/centersforPHP.asp
Health Alert Network: http://www.phppo.cdc.gov/han
Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Core Capacity Project 2001 Draft Report: http://www.bt.cdc.gov/RegionalMeetings/2001/2001RMSummary.asp
Facts about Anthrax: http://www.bt.cdc.gov/DocumentsAPP/facts_about.pdf
Use of Anthrax Vaccine in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR. Dec.15, 2000;49:RR-15: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/rr/rr4915.pdf
Anthrax Vaccine: What You Need to Know: http://www.cdc.gov/nip/publications/VIS/vis-anthrax.pdf
Biological and Chemical Terrorism: Strategic Plan for Preparedness and Response. MMWR. April 21, 2000;49:(RR04);1–14. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr4904a1.htm
Bioterrorism Alleging Use of Anthrax—and Interim Guidelines for Management—United States 1998. MMWR. Feb. 5, 1999;48(4):69–74. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/wk/mm4804.pdf
Updated Recommendations for Handling Suspicious Packages or Envelopes (An Official CDC Health Advisory) http://www.bt.cdc.gov/DocumentsApp/Anthrax/10272001AM/han47.asp
What Every Physician Should Know About Anthrax, Part I http://www.sph.unc.edu/about/webcasts/bioter_10-18_stream1.htm
What Every Physician Should Know About Anthrax, Part II http://www.phf.org/anthrax2HTML.htm
PulseNet--Foodborne Disease Surveillance http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/pulsenet/pulsenet.htm
Central Intelligence Agency: http://www.cia.gov/terrorism/index.html
Department of Defense: http://www.anthrax.osd.mil/
Department of Health and Human Services: http://www.hhs.gov/hottopics/healing/biological.html
Department of Justice: http://www.usdoj.gov/
Department of Veterans Affairs: http://www.va.gov/emshg
Federal Bureau of Investigation: http://www.fbi.gov/pressrel/attack/attacks.htm
Federal Emergency Management Agency: http://www.fema.gov/
Food and Drug Administration: http://www.fda.gov/cber/faq/cntrbfaq.htm
National Library of Medicine: MEDLINEplus Health Information Anthrax: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/anthrax.html Biological and Chemical Weapons: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/biologicalandchemicalweapons.ht ml
Office of Homeland Security: http://www.whitehouse.gov/homeland/
Sandia National Laboratories: http://www.sandia.gov/NERA/extdocs.htm
Surgeon General: http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/sgoffice.htm Anthrax/Bioterrorism: http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/topics/bioterrorism.htm
U.S. Department of Agriculture: http://www.usda.gov/special/biosecurity/safeguard.htm
U.S. Postal Service: http://www.usps.com/news/2001/press/serviceupdates.htm
State and Local Governments
District of Columbia: http://dchealth.dc.gov/news_room/health_alert.asp?id=6&mon=200110
Georgia: http://www.ph.dhr.state.ga.us/programs/emerprep/bioterrorism.shtml DeKalb County Board of Health Bioterrorism Response Plan prepared by the Center for Public Health Preparedness. Information available at: www.dekalbhealth.net.
New Jersey: http://www.state.nj.us./health/er/biofs.htm
New York: http://www.health.state.ny.us/nysdoh/bt/bt.htm New York City: http://www.ci.nyc.ny.us/html/doh/html/cd/wtc8.html
Other state and local health departments: http://www.cdc.gov/other.htm
Educational and Research Institutions
Center for Nonproliferation Studies: http://cns.miis.edu/research/cbw/
Columbia University: Center for Public Health Preparedness: http://cpmcnet.columbia.edu/dept/sph/CPHP/index.html
Harvard University John F. Kennedy School of Government: Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs: http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/bcsia/
Humanitarian Resource Institute: http://www.humanitarian.net/biodefense
Johns Hopkins University: Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies: http://www.hopkins-biodefense.org/
Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Center for International Studies: http://web.mit.edu/cis/
National Academy of Sciences: http://www.nap.edu/terror/
University of Maryland: Center for International and Security Studies at Maryland: http://www.puaf.umd.edu/CISSM
University of Minnesota: Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy: http://www.cidrap.umn.edu
Domestic and International NGOs
CBACI Report: Bioterrorism in the United States: Threat, Preparedness, and Response: http://www.cbaci.org/CDCSectionLinksMain.htm
Center for Strategic and International Studies: http://www.csis.org/homeland/index.html
Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute (CBACI): http://www.cbaci.org
Chemical and Biological Weapons Nonproliferation Project: http://www.stimson.org/cwc/index.html
Henry L. Stimson Center: http://stimson.org
Institute for Homeland Security: http://www.homelandsecurity.org/index.cfm
RAND Corporation: http://www.rand.org/hot/newslinks.html#terror
TrainingFinder.org: www.TrainingFinder.org. Provides information on over 30 distance learning courses for public health professionals on bioterrorism and emergency preparedness.