NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.
This study by the Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design was conducted under grant no. DAAE30-99-1-0100 from the U.S. Army. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.
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Institute of Medicine
National Research Council
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COMMITTEE TO EVALUATE TRANSFER OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE U.S. ARMY
SHEILA F. KIA,
General Motors Manufacturing Engineering, Warren, Michigan,
EARL W. BRIESCH, Consultant,
GEOFFREY DEARNALEY, Consultant,
San Antonio, Texas
JOHN L. GARDON,
Akzo Nobel Coatings (retired), Bloomfield Hills, Michigan
FRANK N. JONES,
Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, Michigan
JOSEPH H. OSBORNE,
Boeing Phantom Works, Seattle, Washington
ROSE A. RYNTZ,
Visteon Automotive Systems, Dearborn, Michigan
DAVID A. SUMMERS,
University of Missouri-Rolla
MICHAEL R. VAN DE MARK,
University of Missouri-Rolla
Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design Staff
BONNIE A. SCARBOROUGH, Program Officer (through November 1999)
PATRICK J. DOYLE, Program Officer (from November 1999)
BOARD ON MANUFACTURING AND ENGINEERING DESIGN
JOSEPH G. WIRTH,
Raychem Corporation, Mt. Shasta, California (retired), Chair
F. PETER BOER,
Tiger Scientific, Inc., Boynton Beach, Florida
JOHN G. BOLLINGER,
University of Wisconsin, Madison
HARRY E. COOK,
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
PAMELA A. DREW,
The Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington
Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico
EDITH M. FLANIGEN,
UOP Corporation, White Plains, New York (retired)
JOHN W. GILLESPIE, JR.,
University of Delaware, Newark
JAMIE C. HSU,
General Motors Corporation, Warren, Michigan
RICHARD L. KEGG,
Milacron, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio (retired)
United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, Connecticut
Universal Technology Corporation, Dayton, Ohio
CAROLYN W. MEYERS,
North Carolina AT&T University, Greensboro
JOE H. MIZE,
Oklahoma State University, Stillwater (retired)
FRIEDRICH B. PRINZ,
Stanford University, Palo Alto, California
JAMES B. RICE, JR.,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge
DALIBOR F. VRSALOVIC,
AT&T Labs, Menlo Park, California
JOEL SAMUEL YUDKEN,
AFL-CIO, Washington, D.C.
TONI MARECHAUX, Director
In July 1999, in response to a request by the U.S. Army, the National Research Council (NRC) established the Committee to Evaluate Transfer of Pollution Prevention Technology for the U.S. Army under the direction of its Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design. The specific organizations to be evaluated were the Industrial Ecology Center (IEC) and especially the National Defense Center for Environmental Excellence (NDCEE), Johnstown, Pennsylvania, for which the IEC had oversight responsibility from 1993 until 2000. The NDCEE was established by an act of Congress in 1990 for the purpose of demonstrating, applying, and disseminating advanced environmental technologies to the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), as well as industry and other government agencies.
The overall objective of this study was to identify major barriers to, and approaches for, improving the transfer of pollution prevention technologies from the IEC to the U.S. Army, to other sectors of the Department of Defense, and to private industry, primarily defense contractors. After the initial scope of the project was defined and the committee was briefed on the overall IEC program, the sponsors and the committee realized both that the charge was very broad and that examination of representative projects as case studies would yield useful insights about major IEC and DOD-wide industrial pollution prevention programs. It was thought that the analysis of several technologies at the NDCEE would reflect a snapshot of barriers to technology transfer and implementation. Four such cases were identified, and the committee and sponsors agreed that recommendations based on what was learned in these cases could have a major impact on future technology transfer issues facing the Department of Defense. This report presents the results of the committee’s consensus recommendations in response to the charge given.
This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report:
Col. James A. Ball, retired, Strategic Defense Initiative Organization, Washington, D.C.,
Carl Handsy, Tank-automotive and Armaments Command - Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center, Department of the Army, Warren, Michigan,
James Holiday, Corpus Christi Depot, Department of the Army, Corpus Christi, Texas,
Mark W. Ingle, Corrosion Control Division, Naval Sea Systems Command, Department of the Navy, Washington D.C.,
Terry M. Levinson, TML Consulting Group, Silver Spring, Maryland,
John F. Rasmussen, Axsun Technologies, Billerica, Massachusetts,
Jerry Rogers, General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, Michigan,
Donald Sekits, Boeing Defense and Space Group, Seattle, Washington, and
William Sharpe, Tank-automotive and Armaments Command - Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center, Department of the Army, Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey.
Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Richard A. Conway, retired, Union
Carbide Corporation. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
The chair also thanks the committee members for their participation in committee meetings and their effort and dedication in the preparation of this report; the sponsor, especially Robert Scola of the U.S. Army Industrial Ecology Center, speakers, and participants; and the staff of the Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design, especially Patrick Doyle, who coordinated the meetings and provided substantial assistance in the preparation and publication of this report.
Sheila Kia, Chair
Committee to Evaluate Transfer of Pollution Prevention Technology for the U.S. Army
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES
Department of Defense environmental technology programs
Schematic of electrodeposition process
Annual cost of powder coating or electrocoating at various production volumes
Calculated cost per square foot for electrocoat at various production volumes
Program funding for NDCEE's waterjet effort
Market Share of Coating Sales in the United States in 2000