Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
References Academy for Health Services Research and Health Policy. 2000. âGlossary of Terms Commonly Used In Health Care.â Web page, accessed February 4, 2002. Available at www.academyhealth. org/publications.glossary. Adler, Nancy E., W. Thomas Boyce, Margaret A. Chesney, S. Cohen, et al. 1994. Socioeconomic Status and Health: The Challenge of the Gradient. American Psychology 49(1):15â24. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR). 1993. Depression in Primary Care: Treatment of Major Depression. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, MD. American College of PhysiciansâAmerican Society of Internal Medicine. 1999. No Health Insurance? Itâs Enough to Make You Sick. Philadelphia, PA: American College of PhysiciansâAmerican Society of Internal Medicine. American Diabetes Association. 2000. Standards of Medical Care for Patients with Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care 23(Suppl. 1):S32âS42. American Heart Association. 2001. 2002 Heart and Stroke Statistical Update. American Heart Associa- tion, Dallas, TX. Andersen, Ronald, and Pamela Davidson. 2001. Improving Access to Care in America: Individual and Contextual Indictators. In: Ronald Andersen, Thomas Rice, and Gerald Kominski (eds.) Chang- ing the U.S. Health Care System: Key Issues in Health Services, Policy and Management. San Fran- cisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Pp. 3â30. Andersen, Ronald, Samuel Bozzette, Martin Shapiro, Patricia St. Clair, et al. 2000. Access of Vulner- able Groups to Antiretroviral Therapy Among Persons in Care for HIV Disease in the United States. Health Services Research 35(2):389â416. Apter, Andrea J., Susan T. Reisine, Glenn Affleck, Erik B.A. Barrows, et al. 1999. The Influence of Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors on Health-Related Quality of Life in Asthma. Journal of Allergy & Clinical Immunology 103(1, Pt. 1):72â78. Ayanian, John Z., Betsy A. Kohler, Toshi Abe, and Arnold M. Epstein. 1993. The Relation Between Health Insurance Coverage and Clinical Outcomes Among Women with Breast Cancer. New England Journal of Medicine 329(5):326â331. Ayanian, John Z., Joel S. Weissman, Eric C. Schneider, Jack A. Ginsburg, et al.. 2000. Unmet Health Needs of Uninsured Adults in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association 284(16):2061â2069. 177
178 CARE WITHOUT COVERAGE: TOO LITTLE, TOO LATE Baker, David W., Martin F. Shapiro, and Claudia L. Schur. 2000. Health Insurance and Access to Care for Symptomatic Conditions. Archives of Internal Medicine 160(9):1269â1274. Baker, David W., Joseph J. Sudano, Jeffrey M. Albert, Elaine A. Borawski, et al. 2001. Lack of Health Insurance and Decline in Overall Health in Late Middle Age. New England Journal of Medicine 345(15):1106â1112. Baker, Richard S., Neil L. Watkins, Roy Wilson, M. Bazargan, et al. 1998. Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Diabetes Presenting to an Urban Public Hospital Oph- thalmology Clinic. Ophthalmology 105(8):1373â1379. Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law/Milbank Memorial Fund. 2000. Effective Public Management of Mental Health Care: Views from States. New York, NY: Milbank Memorial Fund. Becker, Gary. 2001. Effects of Being Uninsured on Ethnic Minoritiesâ Management of Chronic Illness. Western Journal of Medicine 175(1):19â23. Beckles, Gloria L. A., Michael M. Engelgau, K. M. Venkat Narayan, William H. Herman, et al. 1998. Population-Based Assessment of the Level of Care Among Adults with Diabetes in the U.S. Diabetes Care 21(9):1432â1438. Behera, S. K., Marilyn A. Winkleby, and R. Collins. 2000. Low Awareness of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Among Low-Income African-American Women. American Journal of Health Promotion 14(5):301â305, iii. Bennett, Charles L., Ronnie D. Horner, Robert A. Weinstein, Gordon Dickinson, et al. 1995. Racial Differences in Care Among Hospitalized Patients With Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia in Chi- cago, New York, Los Angeles, Miami, and Raleigh-Durham. Archives of Internal Medicine 155(8):1586â1592. Berg, John W., Ronald Ross, and Howard B. Latourette. 1977. Economic Status and Survival of Cancer Patients. Cancer 39(2):467â477. Berk, Marc L., and Claudia L. Schur. 1998. Access to Care: How Much Difference Does Medicaid Make? Health Affairs 17(3):169â180. Bindman, Andrew B., Kevid Grumbach, Dennis Osmand, Miriam Komaromy, et al. 1995. Prevent- able Hospitalizations and Access to Care. Journal of the American Medical Association 274(4):305â 311. Bindman, Andrew B., Kevin Grumbach, Dennis Osmond, Karen Vranizan, et al. 1996. Primary Care and Receipt of Preventive Services. Journal of General Internal Medicine 11(5):269â276. Bing, Eric G., Amy M. Kilbourne, Ronald A. Brooks, Ellen F. Lazarus, et al. 1999. Protease Inhibitor Use Among a Community Sample of People With HIV Disease. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome 20(5):474â480. Blustein, Jan, Raymond R. Arons, and Steven Shea. 1995. Sequential Events Contributing to Varia- tions in Cardiac Revascularization Rates. Medical Care 33(8):864â880. Blustein, Jan, Karla Hanson, and Steven Shea. 1998. Preventable Hospitalizations and Socioeconomic Status. Health Affairs 17(2):177-189. Bonnie, Richard J., Carolyn E. Fulco, and Catheryn T. Liverman (eds.) 1999. Reducing the Burden of Injury. Advancing Prevention and Treatment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Bozzette, Samuel A., Sandra H. Berry, Naihua Duan, Martin R. Frankel, et al. 1998. The Care of HIV-Infected Adults in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine 339(26):1897â1904. Bozzette, Samuel A., Geoffrey Joyce, Daniel F. McCaffrey, Arleen A. Leibowitz, et al. 2001. Expen- ditures for the Care of HIV-Infected Patients in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. New England Journal of Medicine 344(11):817â823. Braveman, Paula, Mylo Schaaf, Susan Egerter, Trude Bennett, et al. 1994. Insurance-Related Differ- ences in the Risk of Ruptured Appendix. New England Journal of Medicine 331(7):444â449. Breen, Nancy, Diane Wagener, Martin L. Brown, William Davis, et al. 2001. Progress in Cancer Screening Over a Decade. Results of Cancer Screening from the 1987, 1992 and 1998 National Health Interview Surveys. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 93(22):1704â1713.
REFERENCES 179 Broaddus, Matthew, and Leighton, Ku. 2000. Nearly 95 Percent of Low-Income Uninsured Children Now Are Eligible for Medicaid or SCHIP. Web page, Accessed May 7, 2001. Available at http://www.cbpp.org. Broman, Clifford L. 1996. The Health Consequences of Racial Discrimination: A Study of African Americans. Ethnicity and Disease 6(1â2):148â153. Brook, Robert H., John E. Ware, William H. Rogers, Emmett B. Keeler, et al. 1983. Does Free Care Improve Adultsâ Health? Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial. New England Journal of Medicine 309(23):1427â1434. Brooks, John M., Mark McClellan, and Herbert S. Wong. 2000. The Marginal Benefits of Invasive Treatments for Acute Myocardial Infarction: Does Insurance Coverage Matter? Inquiry 37(1):75â 90. Brown, Margaret E., Andrew B. Bindman, and Nicole Lurie. 1998. Monitoring the Consequences of Uninsurance: A Review of the Methodologies. Medical Care Research and Review 55(2):177â210. Burack, Robert C., Phyllis A. Gimotty, William Stengle, L. Warbase, et al. 1993. Patterns of Use of Mammography Among Inner-City Detroit Women: Contrasts Between a Health Department, HMO, and Private Hospital. Medical Care 31(4):322â334. Burstin, Helen R., Stuart R. Lipsitz, and Troyen A. Brennan. 1992. Socioeconomic Status and Risk for Substandard Medical Care. Journal of the American Medical Association 268(17):2383â2387. Burstin, Helen R., Katherine Swartz, Anne C. OâNeill, E. John Orav, et al. 1998. The Effect of Change of Health Insurance on Access to Care. Inquiry 35:389â397. Burt, Vicki L., Paul Whelton, Edward J. Roccella, Clarice Brown, et al. 1995. Prevalence of Hy- pertension in the U.S. Adult Population: Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Exam Survey, 1988-1991. Hypertension 25(3):303â313. Bush, Ruth A., and Robert D. Langer. 1998. The Effects of Insurance Coverage and Ethnicity on Mammography Utilization in a Postmenopausal Population. Western Journal of Medicine 168(4): 236â240. Canto, John G., William J. Rogers, Yuan Zhang, Jeffrey M. Roseman, et al. 1999. The Association Between the On-Site Availability of Cardiac Procedures and the Utilization of Those Services for Acute Myocardial Infarction by Payer Group. Clinical Cardiology 22(8):519â524. Canto, John G., William J. Rogers, William J. French, Joel M. Gore, et al. 2000. Payer Status and the Utilization of Hospital Resources in Acute Myocardial Infarction. Archives of Internal Medicine 160(6):817â823. Carlisle, David M., Barbara D. Leake, and Martin F. Shapiro. 1997. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Use of Cardiovascular Procedures: Associations with Type of Health Insurance. American Journal of Public Health 87(2):263â267. Carlisle, David M., and Barbara D. Leake. 1998. Differences in the Effect of Patientsâ Socioeconomic Status on the Use of Invasive Cardiovascular Procedures Across Health Insurance Categories. American Journal of Public Health 88(7):1089â1092. Carpenter, Charles C. J., Margaret A. Fischl, Scott M. Hammer, Martin S. Hirsch, et al. 1998. Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection in 1998: Updated Recommendations of the Interna- tional AIDS Society-USA Panel. Journal of the American Medical Association 280(1):78â86. âââ. 1996. Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection in 1996. Journal of the American Medical Association 276, (2):146â154. Carrasquillo, Olveen, David U. Himmelstein, Steffie Woolhandler, and David H. Bor. 1998. Can Medicaid Mangaged Care Provide Continuity of Care to New Medicaid Enrollees? An Analysis of Tenure on Medicaid. American Journal of Public Health 88(3):464â466. Carrasquillo, Olveen, Angeles I. Carrasquillo, and Steven Shea. 2000. Health Insurance Coverage of Immigrants Living in the United States. American Journal of Public Health 90(6):917â923. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 1999a. âChronic Disease Prevention: Chronic Diseases and Conditions, Diabetes.â Web page, Accessed March 5, 2001. Available at http:// www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/diabetes.htm.
180 CARE WITHOUT COVERAGE: TOO LITTLE, TOO LATE âââ. 1999b. Chronic Diseases and Their Risk Factors: The Nationâs Leading Causes of Death. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC. âââ. 2000a. âChronic Disease Prevention: Heart Disease and Health Promotion.â Web page, accessed 26 November 26, 2001. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/od/perfplan/2000 viiheart.htm. âââ. 2000b. Deaths: Final Data for 1998. National Vital Statistics Reports 48(11):1â106. âââ. 2001a. âHIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, 2000â. Web page, accessed October 25, 2001. Available at HtmlResAnchor http://www.cdc.gov/hiv. âââ. 2001b. Mortality from Coronary Heart Disease and Acute Myocardial InfarctionâUnited States, 1998. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 50(6):90â93. âââ. 2002. Socioeconomic Status of Women With DiabetesâUnited States, 2000. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 51(7):147â148, 159. Cetjin, Helen E., Eugene Komaroff, L. Stewart Massad, Abner Korn, et al. 1999. Adherence to Colposcopy Among Women With HIV Infection. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome 22(3):247â252. Chao, Ann, Michael J. Thun, Eric J. Jacobs, S. Jane Henley, et al. 2000. Cigarette Smoking and Colorectal Cancer Mortality in the Cancer Prevention Study II. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 92(23):1888â1896. Chin, Marhsall H., Steven B. Auerback, Sandy Cook, James F. Harrison, et al. 2000. Quality of Diabetes Care in Community Health Centers. American Journal of Public Health 90(3):431â434. Clark, Rodney, Norman B. Anderson, Vernessa R. Clark, and David R. Williams. 1999. Racism as a Stressor for African Americans: A Biopsychosocial Model. American Psychologist 54(10):805â816. Coffield, Ashley B., Michael V. Maciosek, J. Michael McGinnis, Jeffrey R. Harris, et al. 2001. Priorities Among Recommended Clinical Preventive Services. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 21(1):1â9. Cohen, S., David A. Tyrrell, and Andrew P. Smith. 1991. Psychological Stress and Susceptibility to the Common Cold. New England Journal of Medicine 325(9):606â612. Collins, Karen Scott, Allyson G. Hall, and Charlotte Neuhaus. 1999. U.S. Minority Health: A Chartbook. New York: The Commonwealth Fund. Cooper-Patrick, Lisa, Rosa M. Crum, Laura A. Pratt, William W. Eaton, et al. 1999. The Psychiatric Profile of Patients with Chronic Disease Who Do Not Receive Regular Medical Care. Interna- tional Journal of Psychiatry 29(2):165â180. Cummings, Doyle M., Lauren Whetstone, Amy Shende, and David Weismiller. 2000. Predictors of Screenings Mammography: Implications for Office Practice. Archives of Family Medicine 9(9):870â 875. Cunningham, Peter J., and Heidi Whitmore. 1998. How Well Do Communities Perform on Access? Washington, DC: Center for Studying Health System Change. Cunningham, Peter J., Jerome M. Grossman, Robert F. St. Peter, and Cara S. Lesser. 1999. Managed Care and Physiciansâ Provision of Charity Care. Journal of the American Medical Association 281(12):1087â1092. Cunningham, William E., Ron D. Hays, Kevin W. Williams, Keith C. Beck, et al. 1995. Access to Medical Care and Health-Related Quality of Life for Low-Income Persons with Symptomatic Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Medical Care 33(7):739â754. Cunningham, William E., David M. Mosen, Ron D. Hays, Ronald M. Andersen, et al. 1996. Access to Community-Based Medical Services and Number of Hospitalizations Among Patients with HIV Disease: Are They Related? Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and Human Retrovirology 13(4):327â335. Cunningham, William E., Ronald M. Andersen, Mitchell H. Katz, Michael D. Stein, et al. 1999. The Impact of Competing Subsistence Needs and Barriers on Access to Medical Care for Persons with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Receiving Care in the United States. Medical Care 37(12): 1270â1281.
REFERENCES 181 Cunningham, William E., Leona E. Markson, Ronald M. Andersen, Stephen Crystal, et al. 2000. Prevalence and Predictors of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Use in Patients with Infec- tion in the United States. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome 25(2):115â123. Curtis, J. Randall, Wylie Burke, Adam W. Kassner, and Moira L. Aitken. 1997. Absence of Health Insurance Is Associated With Decreased Life Expectancy in Patients With Cystic Fibrosis. Ameri- can Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine 155(6):1921â1924. Cutler, David, Mark McClellan, and Joseph Newhouse. 1998. The Costs and Benefits of Intensive Treatment for Cardiovascular Disease. NBER Working Paper Series. National Bureau of Eco- nomic Research, Cambridge, MA. Cutler, David M., E.L. Glaeser, and J.L. Vigdor. 1999. The Rise and Decline of the American Ghetto. Journal of Political Economy: 455. Daumit, Gail, Judith A. Hermann, Josef Coresh, and Neil R. Powe. 1999. Use of Cardiovascular Procedures Among Black Persons and White Persons: A 7-Year Nationwide Study in Patients with Renal Disease. Annals of Internal Medicine 130(3):173â182. Daumit, Gail L., Judith A. Hermann, and Neil R. Powe. 2000. Relation of Gender and Health Insurance to Cardiovascular Procedure Use in Persons with Progression of Chronic Renal Disease. Medical Care 38(4):354â365. Davidoff, Amy, Bowen Garrett, and Alshadye Yemane. 2001. Medicaid-Eligible Adults Who Are Not Enrolled: Who Are They and Do They Get the Care They Need? New Federalism: Issues and Options for States. Series A, No. A-48. The Urban Institute, Washington, DC. Davis, Ronald M., Edward G. Wagner, and Trish Groves. 2000. Advances in Managing Chronic Disease: Research, Performance, and Quality Improvement Are Key. British Medical Journal 320(7234):525â526. DeCorte, P., Jeannette Gunther, T. Harrison-Woodside., David Jewell, et al. 1995. Health Insurance: Impact on Hospitalization Rates for Asthma. Nursingconnections 8(3):33â42. Depression Guideline Panel. 1993. Depression in Primary Care: Treatment of Major Depression. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. Dixon, Lori Beth, Marilyn A. Winkleby, and K. L. Radimer. 2001. Dietary Intakes and Serum Nutrients Differ Between Adults From Food-Insufficient Families: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988â1994. Journal of Nutrition 131(4):1232â1246. Doescher, Mark P., Peter Franks, Jessica S. Banthin, and Carolyn M. Clancy. 2000. Supplemental Insurance and Mortality in Elderly Americans. Archives of Family Medicine 9:251â257. Doyle, Joseph J. 2001. Does Health Insurance Affect Treatment Decisions & Patient Outcomes? Using Automobile Accidents as Unexpected Health Shocks. Chicago: University of Chicago, unpublished MS. Druss, Benjamin G., and Robert A. Rosenheck. 1998. Mental Disorders and Access to Medical Care in the United States. American Journal of Psychiatry 155(12):1775â1777. Druss, Benjamin G., W. David Bradford, Robert A. Rosenheck, Martha J. Radford, et al. 2001. Quality of Medical Care and Excess Mortality in Older Patients With Mental Disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry 58(6):565â572. Eger, Renee R., and Jeffrey F. Peipert. 1996. Risk Factors for Noncompliance in a Colposcopy Clinic. The Journal of Reproductive Medicine 41(9):671â674. Eisenberg, John M. and Elaine J. Power. 2000. Transforming Insurance Coverage Into Quality Health Care. JAMA 284(16):2100â2107. Ell, Kathleen, Julian Haywood, Eugene Sobel, Maria deGuzman, et al. 1994. Acute Chest Pain in African Americans: Factors in the Delay in Seeking Emergency Care. American Journal of Public Health 84(6):965â970. Elo, Irma T. and Samuel H. Preston. 1996. Educational Differentials in Mortality: United States, 1979â1985. Social Science and Medicine 42(1):47â57.
182 CARE WITHOUT COVERAGE: TOO LITTLE, TOO LATE Evans, Jennifer L., Philip C. Nasca, Mark S. Baptiste, P.P. Lillquist, et al. 1998. Factors Associated With Repeat Mammography in a New York State Public Health Screening Program. Journal of Public Health and Management Practice 4(5):63â71. Fairbrother, Gerry, Heidi Park, and M. Gusmano. 2002. How Community Health Centers Are Coping With Their Uninsured Caseloads. National Association of Community Health Centers 27th Policy and Issues Forum. Washington, DC. Faulkner, Lisa A. and Helen Halpin Schauffler. 1997. The Effect of Health Insurance Coverage on the Appropriate Use of Recommended Clinical Preventive Services. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 13(6):453â458. Ferrante, Jeanne M., Eduardo Gonzalez, Richard G. Roetzheim, Naazneen Pal, et al. 2000. Clinical and Demographic Predictors of Late-Stage Cervical Cancer. Archives of Family Medicine 9(5):439â 445. Ferrer, Robert L. 2001. A Piece of My Mind: Within the System of No-System. Journal of the American Medical Association 286(20):2513â2514. Fishman, Eliot. 2001. Aging Out of Coverage: Young Adults With Special Health Needs. Health Affairs 20(6):254-267. Fish-Parcham, Cheryl. 2001. Getting Less Care: The Uninsured with Chronic Health Conditions. Wash- ington, DC: Families USA Foundation. Fleishman, John A., and Vincent Mor. 1993. Insurance Status Among People with AIDS: Relation- ships with Sociodemographic Characteristics and Service Use. Inquiry 30(2):180â188. Ford, Earl S., Robert K. Merritt, Gregory W. Heath, Kenneth E. Powell, et al. 1991. Physical Activity Behaviors in Lower and Higher Socioeconomic Status Populations. American Journal of Epidemiology 133(12):1246â1256. Ford, Earl S., Julie C. Will, Martine A. De Proost, and Ali H.Mokdad. 1998. Health Insurance Status and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Among 50-64-Year-Old U.S. Women: Findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Journal of Womenâs Health 7(8): 997â1006. Franks, Peter, Carolyn M. Clancy, and Marthe R. Gold. 1993a. Health Insurance and Mortality. Evidence from a National Cohort. Journal of the American Medical Association 270(6):737â741. Franks, Peter, Carolyn M. Clancy, Marthe R. Gold, Paul A. Nutting, et al. 1993b. Health Insurance and Subjective Health Status: Data from the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey. American Journal of Public Health 83(9):1295â1299. Freeman, Howard E., and Christopher R. Corey. 1993. Insurance Status and Access to Health Services Among Poor Persons. Health Services Research 28(5):531â541. Fronstin, Paul. 2000. Sources of Health Insurance and Characteristics of the Uninsured: Analysis of the March 2000 Current Population Survey. Employee Benefit Research Institute, Washington, DC. Fronstin, Paul. 2001a. Employment-Based Health Benefits: Trends and Outlook. Employee Benefit Re- search Institute, Washington, DC. Fronstin, Paul. 2001b. Sources of Health Insurance and Characteristics of the Uninsured: Analysis of the March 2001 Current Population Survey, Employee Benefit Research Institute, Washington, DC. Fronstin, Paul, and Virginia Reno. 2001. Recent Trends in Retiree Health Benefits and the Role of COBRA Coverage, National Academy of Social Insurance, Washington, DC. Fuentes-Afflick, Elena, Nancy A. Hessol, and Eliseo J. Perez-Stable. 1999. Testing the Epidemiologic Paradox of Low Birth Weight in Latinos. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 153(2):147â 153. Gabel, Jon. 1999. Job-Based Health Insurance, 1977â1998: The Accidental System Under Scrutiny. Health Affairs 18(6):62â74. Garrett, Bowen, and John Holahan. 2000. Health Insurance Coverage After Welfare. Health Affairs 19(1):175â184. Gaskin, Darrell J., and Catherine Hoffman. 2000. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Preventable Hospitalizations Across 10 States. Medical Care Research and Review 57(Suppl. 1):85â107.
REFERENCES 183 Goldman, Dana P., Jayanta Bhattcharya, Daniel F. McCaffrey, Naihua Duan, et al. 2001. Effect of Insurance on Mortality in an HIV-Positive Population in Care. Journal of the American Statistical Association 96(455): 883â894. Gordis, Leon. 1996. Epidemiology. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders and Co. Gordon, Nancy P., Thomas G. Rundall, and Laurence Parker. 1998. Type of Health Care Coverage and the Likelihood of Being Screened for Cancer. Medical Care 36(5):636â645. Gorey, Kevin M., Eric Holowaty, Gordon Fehringer, Ethan Laukkanen, et al. 1997. An International Comparison of Cancer Survival: Metropolitan Toronto, Ontario and Honolulu, Hawaii. Ameri- can Journal of Public Health 90(12):1866â1872. Greenberg, E. Robert, Christopher G. Chute, Therese A. Stukel, John A. Baron, et al. 1988. Social and Economic Factors in the Choice of Lung Cancer Treatment. New England Journal of Medicine 318(10):612â617. Gu, Ken, Catherine C. Cowie, and Maureen I. Harris. 1998. Mortality in Adults With and Without Diabetes in a National Cohort of the U.S. Population, 1971â1993. Diabetes Care 21(7):1138â 1145. Guralnik, Jack M., Kenneth C. Land, Dan Blazer, and Gerda G. Fillenbaum. 1993. Educational Status and Active Life Expectancy Among Older Blacks and Whites. New England Journal of Medicine 329(2):110â116. Haan, Mary, Gary A. Kaplan, and Teresa Camacho. 1987. Poverty and Health. Prospective Evidence from the Alameda County Study. American Journal of Epidemiology 125(6):989â998. Haas, Jennifer S., and Lee Goldman. 1994. Acutely Injured Patients with Trauma in Massachusetts: Differences in Care and Mortality by Insurance Status. American Journal of Public Health 84(10):1605â1608. Haas, Jennifer S., Paul D. Cleary, Edward Guadagnoli, Christopher Fanta, et al. 1994. The Impact of Socioeconomic Status on the Intensity of Ambulatory Treatment and Health Outcomes After Hospital Discharge for Adults with Asthma. Journal of General Internal Medicine 9(3):121â126. Haas, Jennifer S., and Nancy E. Adler. 2001. The Causes of Vulnerability: Disentangling the Effects of Race, Socioeconomic Status and Insurance Coverage on Health. Background paper prepared for the Committee on the Consequences of Uninsurance. Hadley, Jack, Earl P. Steinberg, and Judith Feder. 1991. Comparison of Uninsured and Privately Insured Hospital Patients. Journal of the American Medical Association 265(3):374â379. Haffner, Steven M. 2000. Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine 342(14):1040â1042. Hafner-Eaton, Chris. 1993. Physician Utilization Disparities Between the Uninsured and Insured. Comparisons of the Chronically Ill, Acutely Ill, and Well Nonelderly Populations. Journal of the American Medical Association 269(6):787â792. Hahn, Beth, and Ann Barry Flood. 1995. No Insurance, Public Insurance, and Private Insurance: Do These Options Contribute to Differences in General Health? Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 6(1):41â59. Haley, Jennifer M., and Stephen Zuckerman. 2000. Health Insurance, Access, and Use: United States. Tabulations from the 1997 National Survey of Americaâs Families. The Urban Institute, Washington, DC. Hamilton, Barton, Vivian Ho, and H. Paarsch. 1997. The Distribution of Outpatient Services in Canada and the U.S.: An Empirical Model of Physician Visits. Olin School of Business, St. Louis, MO. Harris, Maureen I. 1999. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Health Insurance Coverage for Adults with Diabetes. Diabetes Care 22(10):1679â1682. Hayward, Rodney A., Martin F. Shapiro, Howard E. Freeman, and Christopher R. Corey. 1988. Who Gets Screened for Cervical and Breast Cancer? Archives of Internal Medicine 148(5):1177â 1181.
184 CARE WITHOUT COVERAGE: TOO LITTLE, TOO LATE Ho, Vivian, Barton H. Hamilton, and Leslie L. Roos. 2000. Multiple Approaches to Assessing the Effects of Delays for Hip Fracture Patients in the United States and Canada. Health Services Research 34(7):1499â1518. Hoffman, Catherine, and Mary Pohl. 2000. Health Insurance Coverage in America. 1999 Data Update. Washington, DC: Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured. Hoffman, Catherine, Cathy Schoen, Diane Rowland, and Karen Davis. 2001. Gaps in Health Cover- age Among Working-Age Americans and the Consequences. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 12(3):273â289 Holahan, John, and Brenda Spillman. 2002. Health Care Access for Uninsured Adults: A Strong Safety Net is Not the Same as Insurance. New Federalism: National Survey of Americaâs Families, Series B, No. B-42. The Urban Institute, Washington, DC. Holcombe, Randall F., and Jason Griffin. 1993. Effect of Insurance Status on Pain Medication Pre- scriptions in a Hematology/Oncology Practice. Southern Medical Journal 86(2):151â156. Hsia, Judith, Elizabeth Kemper, Catarina Kiefe, Jane Zapka, et al. 2000. The Importance of Health Insurance as a Determinant of Cancer Screening: Evidence from the Womenâs Health Initiative. Preventive Medicine 31:261â270. Huttin, Christine, John F. Moeller, and Randall S. Stafford. 2000. Patterns and Costs for Hyperten- sion Treatment in the United States. Clinical Drug Investigation 20(3):181â195. Hyman, David J., and Valory N. Pavlik. 2001. Characteristics of Patients with Uncontrolled Hyper- tension in the United States. The New England Journal of Medicine 345(7):479â486. Idler, Ellen L., Stanislav V. Kasl, and Jon H. Lemke. 1990. Self-Evaluated Health and Mortality Among the Elderly in New Haven, Connecticut, and Iowa and Washington Counties. American Journal of Epidemiology 131(1):91â103. Institute of Medicine (IOM). 2000a. Americaâs Health Care Safety Net. Intact but Endangered. Washing- ton, DC: National Academy Press. âââ. 2000b. Promoting Health: Intervention Strategies from Social and Behavioral Research. Brian D. Smedley, and S. Leonard Syme (eds.). Washington, DC: National Academy Press. âââ. 2001a. Coverage Matters: Insurance and Health Care. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. âââ. 2001b. Crossing the Quality Chasm; A Health System for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. âââ.2002. Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Brian D. Smedley, Adrienne Y. Stith, and Alan R. Nelson (eds.). Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Jennings-Dozier, Kathleen, and Deirdre Lawrence. 2000. Sociodemographic Predictors of Adherence to Annual Cervical Cancer Screening in Minority Women. Cancer Nursing 23(5):350â356. Jeste, Dilip V., and Jurgen Unuetzer. 2001. Improving the Delivery of Care to the Seriously Mentally Ill. Medical Care 39(9):907â909. Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pres- sure. 1997. The Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Archives of Internal Medicine 157(21):2413â 2446. Joyce, Geoffrey F., Dana P. Goldman, Arleen Leibowitz, David Carlisle, et al. 1999. Variation in Inpatient Resource Use in the Treatment of HIV: Do the Privately Insured Receive Better Care? Medical Care 37(3):220â227. The Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured. 2000. In Their Own Words: The Uninsured Talk About Living Without Health Insurance, The Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Unin- sured, Washington, DC. Kaiser Family FoundationâHealth Research and Educational Trust (HRET). 2000. Employer Health Benefits, 2000. Annual Survey. Washington, DC.
REFERENCES 185 Karlson, Elizabeth W., Lawrence H. Daltroy, Robert A. Lew, Elizabeth A. Wright, et al. 1995. The Independence and Stability of Socioeconomic Predictors of Morbidity in Systemic Lupus Erythe- matosus. Arthritis & Rheumatism 38(2):267-273. Kasper, Judith D., Terence A. Giovannini, and Catherine Hoffman. 2000. Gaining and Losing Health Insurance: Strengthening the Evidence for Effects of Access to Care and Health Outcomes. Medical Care Research and Review 57(3):298â318. Katz, Mitchell H., Andrew B. Bindman, Dennis Keane, and Allen K. Chan. 1992. CD4 Lymphocyte Count as an Indicator of Delay in Seeking Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Related Treat- ment. Archives of Internal Medicine 152:1501â1504. Katz, Mitchell H., Sophia W. Chang, Susan P. Buchbinder, Nancy A. Hessol, et al. 1995. Health Insurance and Use of Medical Services by Men Infected with HIV. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and Human Retrovirology 8(1):59â63. Kausz, Annamaria T., Gregorio T. Obrador, Pradeep Arora, Robin Ruthazer, et al. 2000. Late Initiation of Dialysis Among Women and Ethnic Minorities in the United States. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 11(12):2351â2357. Keeler, Emmett B., Robert H. Brook, George A. Goldberg, Caren J. Kamberg, et al. 1985. How Free Care Reduced Hypertension in the Health Insurance Experiment. Journal of the American Medical Association 254(14):1926â1931. Kerr, Eve A., and Albert L. Siu. 1993. Follow-Up After Hospital Discharge: Does Insurance Make a Difference? Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 4(3):133â142. Kessler, Ronald C., Katherine A. McGonagle, Shanyang Zhao, Christopher B. Nelson, et al. 1994. Lifetime and 12-Month Prevalence of DSM-III-R Psychiatric Disorders in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry 51(1):8â19. Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K., Gayle G. Page, Phillip T. Marucha, Robert C. MacCallum, et al. 1998. Psychological Influences on Surgical Recovery: Perspectives from Psychoneuroimmunology. American Psychologist 53(11):1209â1218. Kilker, Kristen. 2000. Hypertension: A Common Condition for Older Americans. Washington, DC: National Academy on an Aging Society. Kington, Raynard S., and James P. Smith. 1997. Socioeconomic Status and Racial and Ethnic Differ- ences in Functional Status Associated with Chronic Diseases. American Journal of Public Health 87(5):805â810. Kinsella, Kevin, and Victoria A.Velkoff. 2001. An Aging World: 2001, U.S. Census Bureau, Series P95/01-1. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Kirkman-Liff, Bradford, and Jennie Jacobs Kronenfeld. 1992. Access to Cancer Screening Services for Women. American Journal of Public Health 82(5):733â735. Kollef, Marin H. 1996. Private Attending Physician Status and the Withdrawal of Life-Sustaining Interventions in a Medical Intensive Care Unit Population. Critical Care Medicine 24(6):968â975. Kollef, Marin H., and Suzanne Ward. 1999. The Influence of Access to a Private Attending Physician on the Withdrawal of Life-Sustaining Therapies in the Intensive Care Unit. Critical Care Medi- cine 27(10):2125â2132. Komaromy, Miriam, Kevin Grumbach, Michael Drake, et al. 1996. The Role of Black and Hispanic Physicians in Providing Health Care for Underserved Populations. New England Journal of Medi- cine 334(20):1305â1310. Kozak, Lola Jean, Margaret J. Hall, and Maria F. Owings. 2001. Trends in Avoidable Hospitalizations, 1980â1998. Health Affairs 20(2):225â232. KPMG. 1998. Health Benefits in 1998. Arlington, VA: KPMG Peat Marwick. Kreindel, Sylvia, Ronald Rosetti, Robert Goldberg, Judith Savageau, et al. 1997. Health Insurance Coverage and Outcome Following Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Community-Wide Perspec- tive. Archives of Internal Medicine 157(7):758â762. Krieger, Nancy. 1999. Embodying Inequality: A Review of Concepts, Measures, and Methods for Studying Health Consequences of Discrimination. International Journal of Health Services 29(2): 295â352.
186 CARE WITHOUT COVERAGE: TOO LITTLE, TOO LATE Krieger, Nancy, Diane L. Rowley, Allen A. Herman, Brian Avery, et al. 1993. Racism, Sexism, and Social Class: Implications for Studies of Health, Disease, and Well-Being. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 9(6 Suppl.):82â122. Krieger, Nancy, J. T. Chen, and Joseph V. Selby. 2001. Class Inequalities in Womenâs Health: Combined Impact of Childhood and Adult Social ClassâA Study of 630 U.S. Women. Public Health 115(3):175â185. Krop, Julie S., Josef Coresh, Lloyd E. Chambless, Eyal Shahar, et al. 1999. A Community-Based Study of Explanatory Factors for the Excess Risk for Early Renal Function Decline in Blacks vs Whites with Diabetes. Archives of Internal Medicine 159(15):1777â1783. Kunst, Anton E., and Johan P. Mackenbach. 1994. The Size of Mortality Differences Associated With Educationl Level in Nine Industrialized Countries. American Journal of Public Health 84(6):932â 937. Kuykendall, David H., Michael L. Johnson, and Jane M. Geraci. 1995. Expected Source of Payment and Use of Hospital Services for Coronary Atherosclerosis. Medical Care 33(7):715â728. Leape, Lucian L., Lee H. Hilborne, Robert Bell, Caren Kamberg, et al. 1999. Underuse of Cardiac Procedures: Do Women, Ethnic Minorities, and the Uninsured Fail to Received Needed Revascularization? Annals of Internal Medicine 130(3):183â192. Lee-Feldstein, Anna, Paul J. Feldstein, Thomas Buchmuller, and Gale Katterhagen. 2000. The Rela- tionship of HMOs, Health Insurance, and Delivery Systems to Breast Cancer Outcomes. Medical Care 38(7):705â718. Lehman, Anthony F. 1999. Quality of Care in Mental Health: The Case of Schizophrenia. Health Affairs 18(5):52â65. Lurie, Nicole, N. B. Ward, Martin F. Shapiro, and Robert H. Brook. 1984. Termination from Medi- Cal: Does It Affect Health? New England Journal of Medicine 311(7):480â484. Lurie, Nicole, N. B. Ward, Martin F. Shapiro, Carmen F. Gallego, et al. 1986. Termination of Medi- Cal Benefits: A Followup Study One Year Later. New England Journal of Medicine 314(19):1266â 1268. Lynch, John W., George A. Kaplan, Richard D. Cohen, Jussi Kauhanen, et al. 1994. Childhood and Adult Socioeconomic Status as Predictors of Mortality in Finland. Lancet 343(8896):524â527. Lynch, John W., George A. Kaplan, and Sarah J. Shema. 1997. Cumulative Impact of Sustained Economic Hardship on Physical, Cognitive, Psychological, and Social Functioning. New En- gland Journal of Medicine 337(26):1889â1895. MacKenzie, Ellen J., Michael J. Bosse, James F. Kellam, Andrew R. Burgess, et al. 2000. Character- ization of Patients With High-Energy Lower Extremity Trauma. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 14(7):455â466. Mancini, Mary C., E. M. Penny, M.S. Cush, Kenneth Sweatman, et al. 2001. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: Are Outcomes Influenced by Demographics or Ability to Pay? Annals of Surgery 233(5):617â622. Mandelblatt, Jeanne S., Karen Gold, Ann S. OâMalley, Kathryn Taylor, et al. 1999. Breast and Cervix Cancer Screening Among Multiethnic Women: Role of Age, Health, and Source of Care. Preventive Medicine 28:418â425. Marmot, Michael G., George D. Smith, Stephen A. Stansfeld, Chandra Patel, et al. 1991. Health Inequalities Among British Civil Servants: The Whitehall II Study. Lancet 337(8754):1387â 1393. Marquis, M. Susan, and Stephen H. Long. 1995. The Uninsured Access Gap: Narrowing the Esti- mates. Inquiry 31(4):405â414. Massey, D. S., and Nancy A. Denton. 1989. Hypersegregation in U.S. Metropolitan Areas: Black and Hispanic Segregation Along Five Dimensions. Demography 26(3):373â391. Maynard, Charles, Lloyd D. Fisher, Eugene R. Passamani, and T. Pullum. 1986. Blacks in the Coronary Artery Surgery Study (CASS): Race and Clinical Decision Making. American Journal of Public Health 76(12):1446â1448.
REFERENCES 187 McAlpine, Donna D., and David Mechanic. 2000. Utilization of Specialty Mental Health Care Among Persons with Severe Mental Illness: The Roles of Demographics, Need, Insurance, and Risk. Health Services Research 35(1):277â282. McBride, Timothy D. 1997. Uninsured Spells of the Poor. Prevalence and Duration. Health Care Financing Review 19(1):145â160. McCaig, Linda F., and Catherine W. Burt. 2001. National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Sur- vey: 1999 Emergency Department Summary. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics, No. 320. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Meyer, Madonna Harrington, and Eliza K. Pavalko. 1996. Family, Work, and Access to Health Insurance Among Mature Women. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 37(4):311â325. Millman, Michael (ed.) 1993. Access to Health Care in America. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Mills, Robert J. 2000. Health Insurance Coverage: 1999. Current Population Reports. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. âââ. 2001. Health Insurance Coverage: 2000. Current Population Reports. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Monheit, Alan C., and Jessica Primoff Vistnes. 2000. Race/Ethnicity and Health Insurance Status: 1987 and 1996. Medical Care Research and Review 57(Suppl. 1):11â35. Monheit, Alan C., Jessica Primoff Vistnes, and John M. Eisenberg. 2001. Moving to Medicare: Trends in the Health Insurance Status of Near-Elderly Workers, 1987â1996. Health Affairs 20(2):204â213. Mor, Vincent, John Fleishman, Marguerite Dresser, and John Piette. 1992. Variations in Health Service Use Among HIV-Infected Patients. Medical Care 30(1):17â29. Moran, William P., Stuart J. Cohen, John S. Preisser, James L. Wofford, et al. 2000. Factors Influenc- ing Use of the Prostate-Specific Antigen Screening Test in Primary Care. American Journal of Managed Care 6(3):315â324. Mort, Elizabeth A., Jennifer N. Edwards, David W. Emmons, Karen Convery, et al. 1996. Physician Response to Patient Insurance Status in Ambulatory Care Clinical Decision-Making. Medical Care 34(8):783â797. Mosen, David M., Neil S. Wenger, Martin F. Shapiro, Ronald M. Andersen, et al. 1998. Is Access to Medical Care Associated with Receipt of HIV Testing and Counseling? AIDS Care 10(5):617â 628. Mossey, Jana M., and Ellen Shapiro. 1982. Self-Rated Health: A Predictor of Mortality Among the Elderly. American Journal of Public Health 72(8):800â808. Murray, Christopher J. L., and Alan D. Lopez (eds). 1996. The Global Burden of Disease: A Comprehen- sive Assessment of Mortality and Disability from Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors in 1990 and Projected. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Mutchler, Jan E., and Jeffrey A. Burr. 1991. Racial Differences in Health and Health Care Service Utilization in Later Life: The Effect of Socioeconomic Status. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 32(4):342â356. Narrow, William E., Darrel A. Regier, Grayson Norquist, Donald S. Rae, et al. 2000. Mental Health Service Use by Americans with Severe Mental Illnesses. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiol- ogy 35(4):147â155. Narrow, William E., Donald S. Rae, Lee N. Robins, and Darrel A. Regier. 2002. Revised Preva- lence Estimates of Mental Disorders in the United States. Archives of General Psychiatry 59(2):115â 123. Nathens, Avery B., Ronald V. Maier, Michael K. Copass, and Gregory J. Jurkovich. 2001. Payer Status: The Unspoken Triage Criterion. Journal of Trauma 50(5):776â783. National Academy on an Aging Society (NAAS). 1999. Challenges for the 21st Century: Chronic and Disabling Conditions. Chronic Conditions: A Challenge for the 21st Century. Washington, DC.
188 CARE WITHOUT COVERAGE: TOO LITTLE, TOO LATE National Cancer InstituteâSurveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (NCIâSEER). 2001. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1973â1998, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, http:// seer.cancer.gov/Publications/CSR1973_1998/. National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). 2001. Urban and Rural Health Chartbook: Health, United States, 2001. National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD. National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP). 1993. Summary of the Second Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel II). Journal of the American Medical Association 269(23):3015â3023. National Kidney Foundation (NKF). 2001. âKidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative Clinical Practice Guidelines.â Web page, accessed April 29, 2002. Available at http://www.kidney.org/ professionals/doqi/guidelines/doqi_upex.html. Nauenberg, Eric, and Kisalaya Basu. 1999. Effect of Insurance Coverage on the Relationship Be- tween Asthma Hospitalizations and Exposure to Air Pollution. Public Health Reports 114(2):135â 148. Nelson, David E., Betsy Thompson, Shayne D. Bland, and Richard Rubinson. 1999. Trends in Perceived Cost as a Barrier to Medical Care, 1991â1996. American Journal of Public Health 89(9):1410â1412. Newacheck, Paul W., Michelle Pearl, Dana C. Hughes, and Neal Halfon. 1998a. The Role of Medicaid in Ensuring Childrenâs Access to Care. Journal of the American Medical Association 280(20):1789â1793. Newacheck, Paul W., Jeffery J. Stoddard, and Dana C. Hughes. 1998b. Health Insurance and Access to Primary Care for Children. New England Journal of Medicine 338(8):513â518. Newhouse, Joseph P., and The Insurance Experiment Group. 1993. Free for All? Lessons from the RAND Health Insurance Experiment. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Niemcryk, Steve J., Ani Bedros, Katherine M. Marconi, and Joseph F. OâNeill. 1998. Consistency in Maintaing Contact with HIV-Related Service Providers: An Analysis of the AIDS Cost and Services Utilization Study (ACSUS). Journal of Community Health 23(2):137â152. Obrador, Gregorio T., Robin Ruthazer, Arora Pradeep, Annamaria T. Kausz, et al. 1999. Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Suboptimal Care Before Initiation of Dialysis in the United States. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 10(8):1793â1800. OâConnor, Patrick J., Jay Desai, William A. Rush, Linda Cherney, et al. 1998. Is Having a Regular Provider of Diabetes Care Related to Intensity of Care and Glycemic Control? Journal of Family Practice 47(4):290â297. OâMalley, Ann S., Jeanne Mandelblatt, Karen Gold, Kathleen A. Cagney, et al. 1997. Continuity of Care and the Use of Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Services in a Multiethnic Commu- nity. Archives of Internal Medicine 157(13):1462â1470. OâMalley, Michael S., Jo Anne L. Earp, Sarah T. Hawley, Michael J. Schell, et al. 2001. The Association of Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, and Physician Recommendation for Mammography: Who Gets the Message About Breast Cancer Screening? American Journal of Public Health 9(1):49â54. Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). 1992. Does Health Insurance Make a Difference? Background Paper. Pub. No. OTA-BP-H-99. Washington, DC: U.S Government Printing Office. Olfson, Mark, Steven C. Marcus, Benjamin Druss, Lynn Elinson, et al. 2002. National Trends in the Outpatient Treatment of Depression. Journal of the American Medical Association 287(2):203â209. Ostrove, Joan M., Nancy E. Adler, Miriam Kuppermann, and Eugene E. Washington. 2000. Objec- tive and Subjective Assessments of Socioeconomic Status and Their Relationship to Self-Rated Health in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Pregnant Women. Health Psychology 19(6):613â618. Otten, M. W., Jr., Steven M. Teutsch, David F. Williamson, and James S. Marks. 1990. The Effect of Known Risk Factors on the Excess Mortality of Black Adults in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association 263(6):845â850.
REFERENCES 189 Palacio, Herminia, Caroline H. Shiboski, Edward H. Yelin, Nancy A. Hessol, et al. 1999. Access to and Utilization of Primary Care Services Among HIV-Infected Women. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 21(4):293â300. Palta, Mari, Tamara LeCaire, Kathleen Daniels, Guanghong Shen, et al. 1997. Risk Factors for Hospitalization in a Cohort with Type 1 Diabetes. American Journal of Epidemiology 146(8):627â 636. Pamuk, Elsie, Diane Makuc, Katherine E. Heck, Cynthia Reuben, et al. 1998. Socioeconomic Status and Health Chartbook. Health, United States, 1998, National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD. Pappas, Gregory, Susan Queen, Wilbur Hadden, and Gail Fisher. 1993. The Increasing Disparity in Mortality Between Socioeconomic Groups in the United States, 1960 and 1986. New England Journal of Medicine 329(2):103â109. Pappas, Gregory, Wilbur C. Hadden, Lola Jean Kozak, Gail F. Fisher. 1997. Potentially Avoidable Hospitalizations: Inequities in Rates Between US Socioeconomic Groups. American Journal of Public Health 87(5):811â816. Penson, David F., Marcia L. Stoddard, David J. Pasta, Deborah P. Lubeck, et al. 2001. The Associa- tion Between Socioeconomic Status, Health Insurance Coverage, and Quality of Life in Men With Prostate Cancer. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 54(4):350â358. Perez, Norvin, and Harry H. Tsou. 1995. Prostate Cancer Screening Practices: Differences Between Clinic and Private Patients. Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine 62(4):316â321. Perkins, Carin, William E. Wright, Mark Allen, Steven J. Samuels, et al. 2001. Breast Cancer Stage at Diagnosis in Relation to Duration of Medicaid Enrollment. Medical Care 39(11):1224â1233. Philis-Tsimikas, Athena, and Chris Walker. 2001. Improved Care for Diabetes in Underserved Popu- lations. Journal of Ambulatory Care Management 24(1):39â43. Piette, John D. 2000. Perceived Access Problems Among Patients with Diabetes in Two Public Systems of Care. Journal of General Internal Medicine 15(11):797â804. Pincus, Theodore, Leigh F. Callahan, and R.V. Burkhauser. 1987. Most Chronic Diseases Are Re- ported More Frequently by Individuals with Fewer Than 12 Years of Formal Education in the Age 18-64 United States Population. Journal of Chronic Disease 40(9):865â874. Pollack, Harold, and Karl Kronebusch. 2001. Health Insurance and Vulnerable Populations. Prepared for University of Michigan conference, Research Initiative on Health Insurance, July 8â10. Pollitz, Karen. 2001. Extending Health Insurance Coverage for Older Workers and Early Retirees. Pp. 233â254 in Ensuring Health and Income Security for an Aging Workforce. Peter P. Budetti, Richard V. Burkhauser, Janice M. Gregory, and H. Allan Hunt (eds.). Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research. Potosky, Arnold L., Nancy Breen, Barry I. Graubard, and P. Ellen Parsons. 1998. The Association Between Health Care Coverage and the Use of Cancer Screening Tests. Medical Care 36(3):257â 270. Powe, Neil R., Bernard Jaar, Susan L. Furth, Judith Hermann, et al. 1999. Septicemia in Dialysis Patients: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Prognosis. Kidney International 55(3):1081â1090. Powell-Griner, Eve, Julie Bolen, and Shayne Bland. 1999. Health Care Coverage and Use of Preven- tive Services Among the Near Elderly in the United States. American Journal of Public Health 89(6):882â886. Preston, Samuel H., and Irma T. Elo. 1995. Are Education Differentials in Adult Mortality Increasing in the United States? Journal of Aging and Health 7(4):476â496. Rabinowitz, Jonathan, Evelyn Bromet, Janet Lavelle, Kimberly Severance, et al. 1998. Relationship Between Type of Insurance and Care During Early Course of Psychosis. American Journal of Psychiatry 155(10):1392â1397. Rabinowitz, Jonathan, Evelyn J. Bromet, Janet Lavelle, Kimberly J. Hornak, et al. 2001. Changes in Insurance Coverage and Extent of Care During the Two Years After First Hospitalization for a Psychotic Disorder. Psychiatric Services 52(1):87â91.
190 CARE WITHOUT COVERAGE: TOO LITTLE, TOO LATE Regier, Darrel A., William E. Narrow, Donald S. Rae, Ronald W. Manderscheid, et al. 1993. The De Facto US Mental and Addictive Diorders Service System: Epidemiologic Catchment Area Prospective 1-Year Prevalence Rates of Disorders and Services. Archives of General Psychiatry 50(2):85â94. Reisch, Lisa M., Mary B. Barton, Suzanne W. Fletcher, William Kreuter, et al. 2000. Breast Cancer Screening Use by African Americans and Whites in an HMO. Journal of General Internal Medicine 15(4):229â234. Rhee, Peter M., David Grossman, Frederick Rivara, Charles Mock, et al. 1997. The Effect of Payer Status on Utilization of Hospital Resources in Trauma Care. Archives of Surgery 132(4):399â404. Roetzheim, Richard G., Naazneen Pal, Colleen Tennant, Lydia Voti, et al. 1999. Effects of Health Insurance and Race on Early Detection of Cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 91(16):1409â1415. Roetzheim, Richard G., Eduardo C. Gonzalez, Jeanne M. Ferrante, Naazneen Pal, et al. 2000a. Effects of Health Insurance and Race on Breast Carcinoma Treatments and Outcomes. Cancer 89(11):2202â2213. Roetzheim, Richard G., Naazneen Pal, Eduardo C. Gonzalez, Jeanne M. Ferrante, et al. 2000b. Effects of Health Insurance and Race on Colorectal Cancer Treatments and Outcomes. Ameri- can Journal of Public Health 90(11):1746â1754. Ross, Catherine E., and John Mirowsky. 2000. Does Medical Insurance Contribute to Socioeco- nomic Differentials in Health? Milbank Quarterly 78(2):291â321. Ruberman, William, E. Weinblatt, James D. Goldberg, and B.S. Chaudhary. 1991. Psychosocial Influences on Mortality After Myocardial Infarction. New England Journal of Medicine 325(9):552â 559. Rucker, Donald W., Troyen A. Brennan, and Helen R. Burstin. 2001. Delay in Seeking Emergency Care. Academic Emergency Medicine 8(2):163â169. Ruggiero, Laurie, Russell E. Glasgow, Janet M. Dryfoos, Joseph S. Rossi, et al. 1997. Diabetes Self- Management. Diabetes Care 20(4):568â576. Sada, Mark J., William J. French, David M. Carlisle, Nisha C. Chandra, et al. 1998. Influence of Payor on Use of Invasive Cardiac Procedures and Patient Outcome After Myocardial Infarction in the United States. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 31(7):1474â1480. Saha, Somnath, Miriam Komaromy, Thomas Koepsell, and Andrew B. Bindman. 1999. Patient- Physician Racial Concordance and the Perceived Quality and Use of Health Care. Archives of Internal Medicine 159(9):997â1004. Samet, Jonathan M., Francesca Dominici, Frank C. Curriero, Ivan Coursac, et al. 2000. Fine Particu- lar Air Pollution and Mortality in 20 U.S. Cities, 1987â1994. New England Journal of Medicine 343(24):1742â1749. Schoen, Cathy, and Catherine DesRoches. 2000. Uninsured and Unstably Insured: The Importance of Continuous Insurance Coverage. Health Services Research 35(1):187â206. Schiff, Robert L., David Ansell, David Goldberg, Stuart Dick, et al. 1998. Access to Primary Care for Patients With Diabetes at an Urban Public Hospital Walk-In Clinic. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 9(2):170â183. Schnitzler, Mark A., Dennis L. Lambert, Linda M. Mundy, and Robert S. Woodward. 1998. Varia- tions in Healthcare Measures by Insurance Status for Patients Receiving Ventilator Support. Clinical Performance of Quality Health Care 6(1):17â22. Schulberg, Herbert C., Wayne Katon, Gregory E. Simon, and A. John Rush. 1998. Treating Major Depression in Primary Care Practice: An Update of the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research Practice Guidelines. Archives of General Psychiatry 55(12):1121â1127. Schulman, Kevin A., Jesse A. Berlin, William Harless, Jon F. Kerner, et al. 1999. The Effect of Race and Sex on Physiciansâ Recommendations for Cardiac Catheterization. New England Journal of Medicine 340(8):618â626. Selden, Thomas M., Jessica S. Banthin, and Joel W. Cohen. 1999. Waiting in the Wings: Eligibility and Enrollment in the State Childrenâs Health Insurance Program. Health Affairs 18(2):126â133.
REFERENCES 191 Shapiro, Martin F., Sally C. Morton, Daniel F. McCaffrey, J. Walton Senterfitt, et al. 1999. Variations in the Care of HIV-Infected Adults in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Associa- tion 281(24):2305â2315. Shea, Steven, Dawn Misra, Martin Ehrlich, Lesley S. Field, et al. 1992a. Correlates of Nonadherence to Hypertension Treatment in an Inner-City Minority Population. American Journal of Public Health 82(12):1607â1612. Shea, Steven, Dawn Misra, Martin H. Ehrlich, Lesley S. Field, et al. 1992b. Predisposing Factors for Severe, Uncontrolled Hypertension in an Inner-City Minority Population. New England Journal of Medicine 327(11):776â781. Shi, Leiyu. 2000. Type of Health Insurance and Quality of Primary Care Experience. American Journal of Public Health 90(12):1848â1855. Shi, Leiyu. 2001. The Convergence of Vulnerable Characteristics and Health Insurance in the US. Social Science and Medicine 53(4):519â529. Short, Pamela Farley, and Tamra J. Lair. 1994â1995. Health Insurance and Health Status: Implications for Financing Health Care Reform. Inquiry 31:425â437. Short, Pamela Farley, and Vicki A. Freedman. 1998. Single Women and the Dynamics of Medicaid. Health Services Research 33(5):1309â1336. Solis, Julia M., Gary Marks, Melinda Garcia, and David Shelton. 1990. Acculturation, Access to Care, and Use of Preventive Services by Hispanics: Findings from HHANES 1982â1984. American Journal of Public Health 80(Suppl.):11â19. Sorlie, Paul D., Norman J. Johnson, Eric Backlund, and Douglas D. Bradham. 1994. Mortality in the Uninsured Compared with That in Persons with Public and Private Health Insurance. Archives of Internal Medicine 154(21):2409â2416. Sorvillo, Frank, Peter Kerndt, Sylvia Odem, M. Castillon, et al. 1999. Use of Protease Inhibitors Among Persons with AIDS in Los Angeles County. AIDS Care 11(2):147â155. Starfield, Barbara. 1992. Effects of Poverty on Health Status. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 68(1):17â24. âââ. 1995. AccessâPerceived or Real, and to What? Journal of the American Medical Association 274(4):346â347. âââ. 1998. Primary Care Visits and Health Policy. Canadian Medical Association Journal 159(7):795â 796. Sturm, Roland, and Kenneth B. Wells. 1995. How Can Care for Depression Become More Cost- Effective? Journal of the American Medical Association 273(1):51â58. âââ. 2000. Health Insurance May Be Improvingâ But Not for Individuals with Mental Illness. Health Services Research 35(1Pt. II):253â262. Svenson, James E., and Carl W. Spurlock. 2001. Insurance Status and Admission to Hospital for Head Injuries: Are We Part of a Two-Tiered Medical System? American Journal of Emergency Medicine 19(1):19â24. Swartz, Katherine, and Betsey Stevenson. 2001. Health Insurance Coverage of People in the Ten Years Before Medicare Eligibility. Pp. 13â40 in Ensuring Health and Income Security for an Aging Workforce. Peter P. Budetti, Richard V. Burkhauser, Janice M. Gergory, and H. Allan Hunt (eds.). Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research. Tin, Jan, and Charita Castro. 2001. Dynamics of Economic Well-Being: Program Participation, 1993 to 1995. Who Gets Assistance? Current Population Reports. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bu- reau. Turner, Barbara J., William E. Cunningham, Naihua Duan, Ronald M. Andersen, et al. 2000. Delayed Medical Care After Diagnosis in a US National Probability Sample of Persons Infected With Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Archives of Internal Medicine 160(17):2614â2622. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS). 1998. Self Reported Use of Mammgraphy and Insurance Status Among Women Aged >40 Years-1991-1992 and 1996-1997. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports.
192 CARE WITHOUT COVERAGE: TOO LITTLE, TOO LATE âââ. 1999. âThe 1999 HHS Poverty Guidelines.â Web page, accessed 24 January 2001. Available at http://aspe.hhs.gov/poverty/99poverty.htm. âââ. 2000. Tracking Healthy People 2010. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. âââ. 2001a. Health, United States, 2001, With Urban and Rural Health Chartbook. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. âââ. 2001b. Mental Health: Culture, Race, and Ethnicity-A Supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Services. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. 1993. Clinical Guidelines for Major Depressive Disorder. Washing- ton, DC: Veterans Health Administration. U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO). 1998. Private Health Insurance. Declining Employer Coverage May Affect Access for 55- to 64-Year-Olds. GAO/HEHE-98-133. Washington, DC. âââ. 2001a. Employer-Sponsored Benefits May Be Vulnerable to Further Erosion. GAO-01-374. Wash- ington, DC. âââ. 2001b. Gaps in Coverage and Availability. GAO-02-178T. Washington, DC. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. 1996. Appendix A Task Force Ratings. Guide to Clinical Preventa- tive Services. Washington, DC. U.S. Renal Data System (USRDS). 2001. USRDS 2001 Annual Data Report: Atlas of End-Stage Renal Disease in the United States. National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD. U.S. Surgeon General. 1999. Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institutes of Mental Health, Rockville, MD. van Rossum, Caroline T. M., Martin J. Shipley, Hendrike van de Mheen, Diederick E. Grobbee, et al. 2000. Employment Grade Differences in Cause Specific Mortality. A 25 Year Follow Up of Civil Servants From the First Whitehall Study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 54(3):178â184. Vega, William A., and H. Amaro. 1994. Latino Outlook: Good Health, Uncertain Prognosis. Annual Review of Public Health 15:39â67. Wagner, Edward H., Brian T. Austin, and Michael Von Korff. 1996. Organizing Care for Patients with Chronic Illness. Milbank Quarterly 74(4):511â543. Wagner, Todd H., and Sylvia Guendelman. 2000. Healthcare Utilization Among Hispanics: Findings from the 1994 Minority Health Survey. American Journal of Managed Care 6(3):355â364. Waidmann, Timothy A., and Shruti Rajan. 2000. Race and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care Access and Utilization: An Examination of State Variation. Medical Care Research and Review 57(Suppl. 1):55â84. Wang, Philip S., Patricia Berglund, and Ronald C. Kessler. 2000. Recent Care of Common Mental Disorders in the United States. Journal of General Internal Medicine 15:284â292. Wang, Thomas J., and Randall S. Stafford. 1998. National Patterns and Predictors of beta-Blocker Use in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease. Archives of Internal Medicine 158(17):1901â1906. Warner, Margaret, Patricia M. Barnes, and Lois A. Fingerhut. 2000. Injury and Poisoning Episodes and Conditions; National Health Interview Survey, 1997. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Weiner, Saul. 2001. âI Canât Afford That!â Dilemmas in the Care of the Uninsured and Underinsured. Journal of General Internal Medicine 16(6):412â418. Weinick, Robin M., Samuel H. Zuvekas, and Susan K. Drilea. 1997. Access to Health CareâSources and Barriers: 1996. MEPS Research Findings No. 3. AHCPR Pub. No. 98-0001. Rockville, MD: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. Previously presented at the International Confer- ence on Health Policy Research, Crystal City, VA, December 5â7.
REFERENCES 193 Weinick, Robin M., Samuel H. Zuvekas, and Joel W. Cohen. 2000. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Access to and Use of Health Care Services, 1977 to 1996. Medical Care Research and Review 57(Suppl. 1):36â54. Weissman, Joel and Arnold M. Epstein. 1989. Case Mix and Resource Utilization by Uninsured Hospital Patients in the Boston Metropolitan Area. Journal of the American Medical Association 261(24): 3572â3576. Weissman, Joel S., and Arnold M. Epstein. 1994. Falling Through the Safety Net: Insurance Status and Access to Health Care. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. Weissman, Joel S., Constantine Gatsonis, and Arnold M. Epstein. 1992. Rates of Avoidable Hospital- ization by Insurance Status in Massachusetts and Maryland. Journal of the American Medical Associa- tion 268(17):2388â2394. Weissman, Joel S., Robert Stern, Stephen L. Fielding, and Arnold M. Epstein. 1991. Delayed Access to Health Care: Risk Factors, Reasons, and Consequences. Annals of Internal Medicine 114(4):325â 331. Weissman, Joel S., Robert S. Stern, and Arnold M. Epstein. 1994. The Impact of Patient Socioeco- nomic Status and Other Social Factors on Readmission: A Prospective Study in Four Massachu- setts Hospitals. Inquiry 31(2):163â172. Whittle, Jeff, Joseph Conigliaro, Chester B. Good, and Monica Joswiak. 1997. Do Patient Preferences Contribute to Racial Differences in Cardiovascular Procedure Use? Journal of General Internal Medicine 12(5):267â273. Williams, David R., and Harold Neighbors. 2001. Racism, Discrimination and Hypertension: Evi- dence and Needed Research. Ethnicity and Disease 11(4):800â816. Winawer, Sidney J., Robert H. Fletcher, L. Miller, Fiona Godlee, et al. 1997. Colorectal Cancer Screening: Clinical Guidelines and Rationale. Gastroenterology 112(2):594â642. Winkleby, Marilyn A., Darius E. Jatulis, Edmund Frank, and Stephen P. Fortmann. 1992. Socioeco- nomic Status and Health: How Education, Income, and Occupation Contribute to Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease. American Journal of Public Health 82(6):816â820. Woolhandler, Steffie, and David U. Himmelstein. 1988. Reverse Targeting of Preventive Care Due to Lack of Health Insurance. Journal of the American Medical Association 259(19):2872â2874. Yelin, Edward H., Jane S. Kramer, and Wallace V. Epstein. 1983. Is Health Care Use Equivalent Across Social Groups? A Diagnosis-Based Study. American Journal of Public Health 73(5):563â571. Yergan, John, Ann Barry Flood, Paula Diehr, and James P. LoGerfo. 1988. Relationship Between Patient Source of Payment and the Intensity of Hospital Services. Medical Care 26(11):1111â 1114. Young, Alexander, Ruth Klap, Cathy Sherbourne, and Kenneth B. Wells. 2001. The Quality of Care for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders in the United States. Archives of General Psychiatry 58(1):55â 61. Young, Gary J., and Bruce B. Cohen. 1991. Inequities in Hospital Care, the Massachusetts Experi- ence. Inquiry 28: 255â262. Zambrana, Ruth E., Nancy Breen, Sarah A. Fox, and Mary Lou Gutierrez-Mohamed. 1999. Use of Cancer Screening Services by Hispanic Women: Analyses by Subgroup. Preventive Medicine 29:466â477. Zuvekas, Samuel H., and Robin M. Weinick. 1999. Changes in Access to Care, 1977-1996: The Role of Health Insurance. Health Services Research 34(1):271â279. Zweifel, P. J., and Willard G. Manning. 2000. Consumer Incentives in Health Care. Handbook of Health Economics. Anthony J. Culyer and Joseph P. Newhouse (eds.). Amsterdam: Elsevier.