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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2003. Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10370.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2003. Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10370.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2003. Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10370.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2003. Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10370.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2003. Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10370.
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Page 347
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2003. Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10370.
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Page 348
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2003. Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10370.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2003. Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10370.
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343 Note: This reference list covers the report of the panel. References for the case studies appear within the respective chapters. Anderson, E. 1994 The code of the streets. Atlantic Monthly (May):81–94. Anderson, M., J. Kaufman, T.R. Simon, L. Barrios, L. Paulozzi, G. Ryan, R. Hammond, W. Modzeleski, T. Feucht, and L. Potter 2001 School-associated violent deaths in the United States, 1994–1999. Journal of the American Medical Association 286(21):2695–2702. Baird, A.A., S.A. Gruber, D.A. Fein, L.C. Mass, R.J. Steingard, P.F. Renshaw, B.M. Cohen, and D.A. Yurgelun-Todd 1999 Functional magnetic resonance imaging of facial affect recognition in children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 38(2):195–199. Baron, J.N., and P.C. Reiss 1985 Same time, next year: Aggregate analyses of the mass media and violent behav- ior. American Sociological Review 50:347–363. Barron, O. 2000 Why workplace bullying and violence are different: Protecting employees from both. Security Journal 13:63–72. Bennett, W.J., J.J. DiIulio, and J.P. Walters 1996 Body Count: Moral Poverty and How to Win America’s War Against Crime and Drugs. New York: Simon and Schuster. Berkowitz, L. 1984 Some effects of thoughts on anti- and pro-social influences of media events: A cognitive-neoassociation analysis. Psychological Bulletin 95:410–417. Blumstein, A. 1995 Youth violence, guns and the illicit-drug industry. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 86(1):10–36. References

344 DEADLY LESSONS: UNDERSTANDING LETHAL SCHOOL VIOLENCE Blumstein, A., and R. Rosenfeld 1998 Explaining recent trends in U.S. homicide rates. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 88(4):1175–1216. Bollen, K A., and D. Phillips 1982 Imitative suicide: A national study of the effects of television news stories. Ameri- can Sociological Review 47:802–809. Bunch, J.G., B. Barraclough, B. Nelson, and P. Sainsbury 1971 Suicide following bereavement of parents. Social Psychiatry 6:193–199. Bureau of Labor Statistics 1997 Fatal Workplace Injuries: A Collection of Data and Analysis. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor. 1999 Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, Summary. Press release. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor. Cain, A.C., and I. Fast 1972 The legacy of suicide: Observations on the pathogenic impact of suicide on mari- tal partners. In Survivors of Suicide, A.C. Cain, ed. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. Clarke, R.V., and D. Lester 1989 Suicide: Closing the Exits. New York: Springer-Verlag. Comstock, G. 1980 New emphases in research on the effects of television and film violence. In Chil- dren and the Faces of Television: Teaching, Violence, Selling, E.L. Palmer and A. Dorr, eds. New York: Academic Press. Cook, P.J,. and J.H. Laub 1998 The unprecedented epidemic in youth violence. Pp. 27–64 in Youth Violence, Crime and Justice, vol. 24, M. Tonry and M.H. Moore, eds. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Davidson, L., and M.S. Gould 1989 Contagion as a risk factor for youth suicide. In Report of the Secretary’s Task Force on Youth Suicide: Risk Factors for Youth Suicide, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, ed. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. DiIulio, J.J., Jr. 1995 Why violent crime rates have dropped. The Wall Street Journal (September 6):A19. Dodge, K.A., G. Pettit, C. McClaskey, and M. Brown 1986 Social competence. Monograph of the Society for Research in Child Development 58:213–251. Donnerstein, E., and D. Linz 1995 The media. In Crime, J.Q. Wilson and J. Petersilia, eds. San Francisco: ICS Press. Elliott, D.S., B.A. Hamburg, and K.R. Williams 1998 Violence in American schools: An overview. Pp. 3–28 in Violence in American Schools: A New Perspective, D.S. Elliott, B.A. Hamburg, and K.R. Williams, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fagan, J. and D.L. Wilkinson 1998 Guns, youth violence, and social identity in inner cities. Pp. 105–188 in Crime and Justice, vol. 24. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Farrington, D. 1993 Understanding and preventing bullying. In Crime and Justice: A Review of Re- search, vol. 17, M. Tonry, ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

345REFERENCES Farrington, D.P., and R. Loeber 1999 Transatlantic replicability of risk factors in the development of delinquency. Pp. 299-329 in Historical and Geographical Influences on Psychopathology, P. Cohen, C. Slomkowski, and L.N. Robins, eds. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Federal Bureau of Investigation 2000 The School Shooter: A Threat Assessment Perspective. Quantico, VA: U.S. Depart- ment of Justice. Felthous, A., and A. Hempel 1995 Combined homicide-suicides: A review. Journal of Forensic Sciences 40:846–857. Foote, W. 1995 Victim-precipitated homicide. In Lethal Violence 2000: A Sourcebook on Domestic, Acquaintance, and Stranger Aggression, H.V. Hall, ed. Kamuela, HI: Pacific Institu- tion of Conflict. Fox, J. A. 2001 Uniform Crime Reports [United States]: Supplementary Homicide Reports, 1976–1999 [Computer file]. ICPSR version. Boston, MA: Northeastern University, College of Criminal Justice [producer], 2001. Ann Arbor: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2001. 1996 Trends in Juvenile Violence: A Report to the United States Attorney General on Current and Future Rates of Juvenile Offending, March. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics. Fox, J.A., and J. Levin 1998 Multiple homicide: Patterns of serial and mass murder. In Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, vol. 23, M. Tonry, ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Garofalo, J. 1982 Crime and the mass media: A selected review of research. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 18:319–350. Gilligan, J. 1996 Violence: Reflections of a National Epidemic. New York: Vintage Books. Gillespie, M., V. Hearn, and R. Silverman 1998 Suicide following homicide in Canada. Homicide Studies 2:46–63. Gottfredson, D.C. 2001 Schools and Delinquency. New York: Cambridge University Press. Gould, M.S. 1990 Suicide clusters and media exposure. In Suicide Over the Life Cycle: Risk Factors, Assessment, and Treatment of Suicidal Patients, S. Blumenthal and D. Kupfer, eds. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press. Gould, M.S., S. Wallenstein, and M. Kleinman 1990a Time-space clustering of teenage suicide. American Journal of Epidemiology 131:71– 78. Gould, M.S., S. Wallenstein, M. Kleinman, P.O’Carroll, and J. Mercy 1990b Suicide clusters: An examination of age-specific effects. American Journal of Pub- lic Health 80:211–212. Graham, H.D., and T.R. Gurr 1969 Violence in America: Historical and Comparative Perspectives. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Gurr, T. 1989 Historical trends in violent crime: Europe and the United States. In Violence in America: Volume I, T. Gurr, ed. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

346 DEADLY LESSONS: UNDERSTANDING LETHAL SCHOOL VIOLENCE Hagin, A.D. 1986 Understanding suicide. In Suicide Prevention and Caregiving, S. Daniels and D. Pass, eds. Milwaukee, WI: National Funeral Directors Association. Hamblin, R.J., R.B. Jacobsen, and J.L. Miller 1973 A Mathematical Theory of Social Change. New York: Wiley-Interscience. Holden, R. 1986 The contagiousness of aircraft hijacking. American Journal of Sociology 91:874–904. Homant, R., and D. Kennedy 2000 Suicide by police: A proposed typology of law enforcement officer-assisted sui- cide. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management 23:339– 355. Homant, R., D. Kennedy, and R.T. Hupp 2000 Real and perceived danger in police officer assisted suicide. Journal of Criminal Justice 28:43–52. Huesmann, L.R. 1982 Television violence and aggressive behavior. In Television and Behavior, Vol. 2. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Washington, DC: U.S. Govern- ment Printing Office. Hutson, H.R., D. Anglin, J. Yarbrough, K. Hardaway, M. Russell, J. Strote, M. Canter, and B. Blum. 1998 Suicide by cop. Annals of Emergency Medicine 32(6):665–669. Jobes, D., A. Berman, P. O’Carroll, S. Eastergard, and S. Knickmeyer 1996 The Kurt Cobain suicide crisis: Perspectives from research, public health, and the news media. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 26:260–264. Kaufman, P., X. Chen, S.P. Choy, S.A. Ruddy, A.K., Miller, K.A. Chandla, C.D. Chapman, M. R. Rand, and P. Klaus 1999 Indicators of School Crime and Safety. U.S. Departments of Education and Jus- tice. NCES 1999 - 057/NCJ – 178906. Washington, DC. Kessler, R.C., and H. Stipp 1984 The impact of fictional television suicide stories on U.S. fatalities: A replication. American Journal of Sociology 90:151–167. Kessler, R.C., L. Downey, J.R. Milavsky, and H. Stipp 1988 Clustering of teenage suicides after television news stories about suicides. Jour- nal of Psychiatry 145:1379–1383. Klein, M. 2002 Street gangs: A cross national perspective. In Gangs in America, 3rd edition, C. R. Huff, ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Levin, J., and J.A. Fox 1996 A psycho-social analysis of mass murder. In Serial and Mass Murder: Theory, Research, and Policy, T. O’Reilly-Fleming, ed. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press. Li, R.P., and W.R. Thompson 1975 The ‘Coup Contagion’ hypothesis. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 19:63–88. Livingstone, N. 1982 The War Against Terrorism. Washington, DC: Heath. Lizotte, A., and D. Sheppard 2001 Gun use by male juveniles: Research and prevention. Juvenile Justice Bulletin, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Loeber, R., and D.P. Farrington, eds. 1998 Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders: Risk Factors and Successful Interventions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

347REFERENCES McFall, R. 1982 A review and reformulation of the concept of social skills. Behavior Assessment 4:1–33. McGee, J.P., and C.R. DeBernardo 1999 The classroom avenger: A behavioral profile of school based shootings. The Forensic Examiner 8(5)16–18. Mellor, A. 1990 Bullying in Scottish Secondary Schools. Edinburgh: Scottish Council for Research in Education. Meloy, J.R., A.G. Hempel, K. Mohandie, A.A. Shiva, and B.T. Gray 2001 Offender and offense characteristics of a nonrandom sample of adolescent mass murderers. Journal of the American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry 40(6):719– 728. Menninger, K. 1938 Man against Himself. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World. Midlarsky, M. 1970 Mathematical models of instability and a theory of diffusion. International Studies Quarterly 14:60–84. Moore, M. and M. Tonry, eds. 1998 Youth Violence. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Nansel, T., M. Overpeck, R. Pilla, W.J. Ruan, S. Simons-Morton, and S. Scheidt 2001 Bullying behaviors among US youth: Prevalence and association with psychoso- cial adjustment. Journal of the American Medical Association 285:2094–2131. National Institute of Mental Health 1982 Television and Behavior: Ten Years of Scientific Progress and Implications for the Eight- ies. Vol. 1, Summary Report. Rockville, MD: National Institute of Mental Health. National Research Council 1993 Understanding and Preventing Violence. Panel on the Understanding and Control of Violent Behavior. A.J. Reiss, Jr. and J.A. Roth, eds. Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National School Safety Center 2001 School Associated Violent Deaths. Westlake Village, CA: National School Safety Center. O’Carroll, P. 1990 Suicide prevention: Clusters and contagion. In Suicide Prevention: Case Consulta- tions, A. Berman, ed. New York: Springer. Olweus, D. 1978 Aggression in the Schools: Bullies and Whipping Boys. Washington, DC: Hemi- sphere Publishing Corporation. 1992 Bullying among schoolchildren: Intervention and prevention. In Aggression and Violence Throughout the Life Span, R. Peters, R. McMahon, and V. Quinsey, eds. London: Sage Publications. Pease, S., and C. Love 1984 The copy cat crime phenomenon. In Justice and the Media, R. Surette, ed. Spring- field, IL: Charles C. Thomas. Perry, D., L. Perry, and P. Rasmussen. 1986 Cognitive social learning mediators of aggression. Child Development 57:700–711. Philips, D. 1978 Airplane accident fatalities increase just after newspaper stories about murder and suicide. Science 201:748–750. 1980 Airplane accidents, murder, and the mass media: Evidence towards a theory of imitation and suggestion. Social Forces 58:1001–1024.

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Next: Appendix A: Case Study Methodology and the Study of Rare Events of Extreme Youth Violence: A Multilevel Framework for Discovery »
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The shooting at Columbine High School riveted national attention on violence in the nation’s schools. This dramatic example signaled an implicit and growing fear that these events would continue to occur—and even escalate in scale and severity.

How do we make sense of the tragedy of a school shooting or even draw objective conclusions from these incidents? Deadly Lessons is the outcome of the National Research Council’s unique effort to glean lessons from six case studies of lethal student violence. These are powerful stories of parents and teachers and troubled youths, presenting the tragic complexity of the young shooter’s social and personal circumstances in rich detail.

The cases point to possible causes of violence and suggest where interventions may be most effective. Readers will come away with a better understanding of the potential threat, how violence might be prevented, and how healing might be promoted in affected communities.

For each case study, Deadly Lessons relates events leading up to the violence, provides quotes from personal interviews about the incident, and explores the impact on the community. The case studies center on:

  • Two separate incidents in East New York in which three students were killed and a teacher was seriously wounded.
  • A shooting on the south side of Chicago in which one youth was killed and two wounded.
  • A shooting into a prayer group at a Kentucky high school in which three students were killed.
  • The killing of four students and a teacher and the wounding of 10 others at an Arkansas middle school.
  • The shooting of a popular science teacher by a teenager in Edinboro, Pennsylvania.
  • A suspected copycat of Columbine in which six students were wounded in Georgia

For everyone who puzzles over these terrible incidents, Deadly Lessons offers a fresh perspective on the most fundamental of questions: Why?

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