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Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence (2003)

Chapter: Appendix B: Biographical Sketches

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches." National Research Council. 2003. Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10370.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches." National Research Council. 2003. Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10370.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches." National Research Council. 2003. Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10370.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches." National Research Council. 2003. Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10370.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches." National Research Council. 2003. Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10370.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches." National Research Council. 2003. Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10370.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches." National Research Council. 2003. Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10370.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches." National Research Council. 2003. Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10370.
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364 COMMITTEE MEMBERS MARK H. MOORE (Chair) is the Daniel and Florence Guggenheim pro- fessor of criminal justice policy and management at the Kennedy School of Government and Director of the Hauser Center for Nonprofit Institutions at Harvard University and founding chair of the Kennedy School’s Com- mittee on Executive Programs. He is the faculty chair of the school’s Pro- gram in Criminal Justice Policy and Management. Professor Moore also was chair of the National Research Council’s Panel on Alcohol Policy, and has served on several other committees of the National Research Council. His research interests include public management and leadership, criminal justice policy and management, and the intersection of the two. He is the author of numerous books, including most recently: Creating Public Value: Strategic Management in Government; Buy and Bust: The Effective Regulation of an Illicit Market in Heroin; Dangerous Offenders: The Elusive Targets of Justice; and (with others) From Children to Citizens: The Mandate for Juvenile Justice; and Beyond 911: A New Era for Policing. PHILIP J. COOK is the ITT/Sanford professor of public policy at Duke University. An economist, criminologist, and public health researcher, Professor Cook has been a member of the Duke University faculty since 1973. He has twice served as director of the Sanford Institute of Public Policy, from 1985–89, and again from 1997–99. Professor Cook is a fellow Appendix B Biographical Sketches

365BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES of the American Society of Criminology, and has been a research associate with the National Bureau of Economic Research since 1996. He has served on a total of five different expert panels and committees at the National Academies. He is author of several books, including: Gun Violence: The Real Costs with Jens Ludwig; The Winner-Take-All Society with Robert H. Frank; and Selling Hope: State Lotteries in America with Charles T. Clotfelter. THOMAS A. DISHION is a research scientist and associate professor in the Department of Counseling Psychology at the University of Oregon. His research focus falls within the broad area of developmental psycho- pathology. He is interested in understanding how children’s social inter- actions with parents, peers and siblings influence stability and change in developmental trajectories. More recently he has studied the role of dis- course topic in organizing the affective exchanges among children and their peers with respect to the development and escalation of antisocial behavior and drug use. He is also interested in applying knowledge of developmental processes to the design of preventive and clinical inter- ventions that reduce conflict and distress in families. He is currently principal investigator of a prevention trial targeting multiethnic families in an urban setting, with the goal of promoting successful adaptation during the adolescent transition as well as reducing problem behavior such as violence and drug abuse. He co-authored the volume Antisocial Boys, and his most recent book for parents is Preventive Parenting with Love, Encouragement and Limits, co-authored with Scott Patterson. DENISE C. GOTTFREDSON is a professor of criminal justice at the Uni- versity of Maryland. She received a Ph.D. in social relations from the Johns Hopkins University, where she specialized in sociology of education. Dr. Gottfredson’s research interests include delinquency and delinquency pre- vention, and particularly the effects of school environments on youth be- havior. She has contributed to the literature of school-based crime preven- tion by testing specific strategies and more recently by summarizing the literature. Her earlier evaluations include Project PATHE, an environmen- tal approach to delinquency prevention; a three-year organization develop- ment intervention to reduce violence and related problem behaviors in two troubled Baltimore City junior high schools; and a three-year effort in eight Charleston, South Carolina, middle schools aimed at altering school and classroom environments to reduce student misbehavior. Her recent and current work includes a report to the U.S. Congress on what works, what doesn’t work, and what is promising in school-based crime prevention; a recent National Study of Delinquency Prevention in Schools; and a recent book on school-based delinquency prevention.

366 APPENDIX B PHILIP B. HEYMANN is the James Barr Ames professor of law at Harvard Law School, and director of the Harvard Law School Center for Criminal Justice. He studied philosophy at the Sorbonne under a Fulbright scholarship, and served as law clerk to Justice Harlan, United States Supreme Court, October Term, 1960. He has held government policy-level positions within the Department of State, as deputy assistant secretary for the Bureau of International Organizations, and executive as- sistant to the Under-secretary of State; and within the Department of Jus- tice, where his most recent appointment was as deputy attorney general. His research interests include international law, especially prosecution and court procedures, investigations, violence, and terrorism. He cur- rently serves on the National Research Council’s Committee on Law and Justice. Professor Heymann received his law degree in 1960 from Harvard University. JAMES F. SHORT, JR., is professor emeritus, Washington State Univer- sity. He was director of research (with Marvin Wolfgang) of the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence (1968–69), and a member of the National Research Council Committee on Law and Justice, and that committee’s Panel on the Understanding and Control of Violent Behavior. He served as editor of the American Sociological Review and as president of the American Sociological Association, the Pacific Socio- logical Society, and the American Society of Criminology. His most re- cent book is Poverty, Ethnicity, and Violent Crime. Currently he is a mem- ber of the U.S. Academic Advisory Council of the National Campaign Against Youth Violence, and advisory committees for the National Con- sortium on Violence Research, and the National Youth Gang Center. His honors include the Edwin H. Sutherland Award of the American Society of Criminology, the Bruce Smith Award from the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, the Paul W. Tappan Award from the Western Society of Criminology, and the Guardsmark Wolfgang Award for Distinguished Achievement in Criminology. He is the namesake for the James F. Short, Jr., Best Article Award, created by the American Sociological Association Section on Crime, Law, and Deviance. STEPHEN A. SMALL is a professor of human development and family studies at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and Human Develop- ment and family relations specialist for the University of Wisconsin-Ex- tension. He received a Ph.D. in developmental psychology from the De- partment of Human Development and Family Studies at Cornell University in 1985. Professor Small’s work is primarily focused on ado- lescent development, parenting, program development and evaluation, and action-oriented research methods. His research in Wisconsin has

367BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES addressed a range of issues, including adolescent risk-taking, youth vio- lence, positive youth development, mental health, sexuality, drug use, parent-child relations, and building organizational and community ca- pacity. He is currently completing a book entitled Bridging the Gap Be- tween Research and Action, which is aimed at helping social science schol- ars make their work more relevant to policy and practice. Professor Small has served as a member of the Wisconsin State Legislature’s Special Com- mittee on Teen Pregnancy Prevention and the National Research Council’s Forum on Adolescence. He has testified on federal drug policy for the U.S. Senate and on youth issues for the Wisconsin legislature. LEWIS H. SPENCE served as deputy chancellor for operations for the New York City Board of Education, the nation’s largest school system. He oversaw the school system’s budget and financial operations, infor- mation systems, human resources, school facilities, student safety, and food and transportation. He also served as special advisor to the presi- dent of the College Board, developing middle and high school integrated instructional programs. Mr. Spence currently holds the office of commis- sioner, Department of Social Services, Boston, Massachusetts. LINDA A. TEPLIN is professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Northwestern University Medical School, with joint appointments in the Institute for Policy Research, Sociology Department, and School of Education and Public Policy. She is currently conducting the first large- scale longitudinal study of mental health needs and outcomes of juve- nile detainees, funded by a consortium of federal agencies and private foundations. Professor Teplin serves as a member of the National Policy Committee, American Society of Criminology, and the Children and the Law Committee, American Judicature Society. She has been commis- sioner on the American Bar Association Commission on Mental and Physical Disability Law and their Commission on Lawyer Assistance Programs. She also serves on the Children’s Mental Health and Juvenile Justice Initiative of the National Mental Health Association. She has received numerous awards, most recently the 2001 Bernard P. Harrison Award of Merit from the National Commission on Correctional Health Care. CASE AUTHORS, CONSULTANTS, AND STAFF GINA ARIAS is a Columbia University graduate with a dual master’s degree in international affairs and public health. She has worked in Af- rica in the field of public health and is currently working with Alianza Dominicana, a community-based organization serving the predominantly

368 APPENDIX B low-income Latino population in Washington Heights, New York City. In her spare time she is active in various progressive social justice organi- zation. ANTHONY A. BRAGA is a senior research associate in the Program in Criminal Justice Policy and Management of the Malcolm Wiener Center for Social Policy at Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Gov- ernment, and a visiting fellow at the National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice. His research focuses on developing problem-ori- ented policing strategies to control violent crime hot spots, disrupt drug markets, and reduce firearms violence. He has served as a consultant on these issues to the Rand Corporation; the National Academies; U.S. De- partment of Justice; U.S. Department of the Treasury; Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms; Boston Police Department; and the New York Police Department. He holds a master’s degree in public administration from Harvard University and a Ph.D. in criminal justice from Rutgers University. WILLIAM H. DEJONG is a professor of social and behavioral sciences at the Boston University School of Public Health. Professor DeJong also serves as director of the U.S. Department of Education’s Higher Educa- tion Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention at Education Devel- opment Center, Inc., in Newton, Massachusetts. Trained as a social psy- chologist with a Ph.D. from Stanford University, Dr. DeJong is the author of nearly 300 professional publications in the diverse fields of mass com- munications and health promotion, criminal justice, and social psychol- ogy. His major area of interest is the development and testing of health communications in the areas of alcohol and tobacco control, drunk driv- ing prevention, and STD/HIV prevention. JOEL C. EPSTEIN is a senior associate at Education Development Center, Inc. in Newton, Massachusetts. He is the author of A Parent’s Guide to Sex, Drugs, and Flunking Out: Answers to the Questions Your College Student Doesn’t Want You to Ask, as well as numerous monographs and articles on crime control. Mr. Epstein is a consultant to colleges, schools, and attor- neys on campus safety and liability. CYBELLE FOX is a Ph.D. candidate in sociology and social policy at Har- vard University and a doctoral fellow in the Harvard Multi-Disciplinary Program on Inequality and Social Policy. Previously a policy analyst for the Urban Justice Center and a research associate for the Institute for Chil- dren and Poverty, her other research interests center on race, immigration

369BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES and the politics of redistribution. Her graduate work is supported by a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship. MINDY THOMPSON FULLILOVE is professor of clinical psychiatry and public health at Columbia University, a research psychiatrist with New York State Psychiatric Institute, and co-director of the Commu- nity Research Group. She holds a master’s degree in nutrition and an M.D. degree from Columbia University. Fullilove’s research focuses on the intersection of disease and setting, with a particular emphasis on the psychology of place. She has completed a longitudinal study of housing resettlement in Central Harlem, involving the experiences of 10 families, and an interview study of over 100 men and women to understand their experiences of the violence epidemic in their neigh- borhood. She serves on the National Task Force on Community Pre- ventive Services, a nonfederal task force preparing evidence-based guides to public health practice. She has received grants from the United Hospital Fund, the Centers for Disease Control, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. She is a current member of the National Research Council’s Board on Children, Youth, and Families. ROBERT E. FULLILOVE III is the associate dean for community and minority affairs and associate professor of clinical public health in socio- medical sciences at the Joseph L. Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University. He currently co-directs the Community Research Group at the New York State Psychiatric Institute and Columbia Uni- versity. His research is focused on the impact of drug treatment pro- grams on the lives of men and women addicted to crack cocaine and other drugs. He has authored numerous articles on HIV/AIDS, minor- ity health, substance abuse, and mathematics and science education. Dr. Fullilove has served on the Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention at the Institute of Medicine since 1995 and in 1998 was ap- pointed to the Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention at the Centers for Disease Control; in the summer of 2000 he became the chair of this committee. He also serves on the editorial board of the journal Sexually Transmitted Disease as well on the editorial board of the Journal of Public Health Policy. ROB T. GUERETTE is a doctoral student at Rutgers University-Newark in the School of Criminal Justice and is a fellow at the Eagleton Institute of Politics, Rutgers University-New Brunswick. He has worked on projects in collaboration with the National Research Council, U.S. Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), British Home Office Research Directorate, and the New Jersey Department of

370 APPENDIX B Probation and Parole. His research interests include crime and public policy, juvenile violence, problem oriented policing, situational crime analysis and prevention, and crime offending patterns. JOHN HAGAN is John D. MacArthur professor of sociology and law at Northwestern and senior research fellow at the American Bar Founda- tion. He is co-author with Holly Foster of “Youth Violence and the End of Adolescence.” His most recent book is Northern Passage: American Viet- nam War Resisters in Canada. He is the co-editor with Karen Cook of the Annual Review of Sociology and the criminology editor of the Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. Professor Hagan’s principal research and teaching interests encompass crime, law and the life course. His book, Mean Streets: Youth Crime and Homelessness with Bill McCarthy received the 1998 C. Wright Mills Award from the Society for the Study of Social Problems and in 1997 he received the Ed-win H. Sutherland Award from the American Society of Criminology. DAVID J. HARDING is a Ph.D. candidate in sociology and social policy at Harvard University, a doctoral fellow in the Harvard Multi-Disciplin- ary Program on Inequality and Social Policy, and a recipient of a National Science Foundation graduate fellowship. His research interests include urban sociology, urban policy, stratification, and qualitative and quanti- tative methodology. THOMAS E. HART is a master patrolman with the Portsmouth, New Hampshire Police Department. He has 20 years of law enforcement expe- rience, including work as a police academy instructor and department training officer. In addition, Mr. Hart is the owner and principal consult- ant for Emerald Griffin, LLC, a small security company that specializes in emergency response planning for schools, business security, and women’s self-defense. PAUL HIRSCHFIELD is a graduate student in Northwestern University’s sociology department. He has participated in evaluations of the Comer School Development Program, and residential mobility programs, and in studies of racial disparities in drug enforcement and the impact of felony disenfranchisement laws. He has also worked and consulted for several research and policy organizations, including the National Network for Youth, the Sentencing Project, the Urban Institute, the Children and Fam- ily Justice Center, and Human Rights Watch. His dissertation research focuses on how involvement in the juvenile justice system impacts school performance.

371BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES PETER L. McFARLANE is currently the principal of the Hugo Newman College Preparatory School located at 370 West 120th Street in Harlem, New York. He received his advanced degree from Teachers College, Columbia University, with a focus on school restructuring and its im- pact on urban schools. During his tenure at the Hugo Newman College Preparatory School he has successfully led this school’s removal as a School Under Registration Review (SURR) and facilitated an increase in academic achievement for four consecutive years. He is currently a member of Kappa Delta Pi International Honor Society, the Council of Supervisor and Administration, the National Association of Elementary School Principals, the National Association of Supervision and Curri- culum Development, the Dramatist Guild and The Authors League of America Inc. Dr. McFarlane was recently honored by the New York City Board of Education as an outstanding educator representing his school district as Principal of the Year. Dr. McFarlane continues his scholarly work on school reform models and the complexities of the principalship. MICHELLE AUCOIN MCGUIRE is on the staff with the Division of Behavior and Social Sciences and Education in the National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences. Her research contributions in- clude publications in Creole and theoretical linguistics. She has a B.A. in English literature and an M.A. in applied linguistics both from the Uni- versity of South Florida. She received her Ph.D. in linguistics from the University of Chicago in 2002. BRENDA McLAUGHLIN is a research assistant with the Committee on Law and Justice at the National Research Council. She has previously worked on projects on juvenile crime, policing, and improving data and research for drug policy. Ms. McLaughlin received a B.A. in sociology and Spanish from Juniata College in 1997, and an M.A. in sociology from American University in 1999. JAL MEHTA is a Ph.D. candidate in sociology and social policy at Harvard University, and a doctoral fellow in the Harvard Multi-Disci- plinary Program on Inequality and Social Policy. A National Science Foundation graduate fellow, Mehta’s previous work focused on the role of social-psychological mechanisms in perpetuating social stratification and sponsoring social mobility, and on racial differences in achievement. His research interests include combining normative political theory on justice with empirical research on poverty and inequality.

372 APPENDIX B KATHERINE S. NEWMAN is the Malcolm Wiener professor of urban studies at Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Government and the dean of social science at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. She is the author of several books on middle-class economic inse- curity, including Falling From Grace in 1988 and Declining Fortunes in 1993. Her 1999 book, No Shame in My Game: The Working Poor in the Inner-City, focused on the job search strategies, work experiences, and family lives of African American and Latino youth and adults in Harlem. The book won the Sidney Hillman Book Prize and the Robert F. Kennedy Book Award for the year 2000. Newman’s next book, A Different Shade of Gray: Mid-Life and Beyond in the Inner City, will be published in January of 2003. MOISES NUNEZ is a research associate of the Community Research Group at the New York State Psychiatric Institute and Columbia Univer- sity, and is a 2001 graduate of Hampshire College. CAROL PETRIE, study director, serves as staff director of the Committee on Law and Justice, National Research Council, a position she has held since 1997. Prior to her work there, she was the director of planning and management at the National Institute of Justice, responsible for policy development and administration. In 1994, she served as the acting direc- tor of the National Institute of Justice during the transition between the Bush and Clinton administrations. Throughout a 30-year career she has worked in the area of criminal justice research, statistics, and public policy, serving as a project officer and in administration at the National Institute of Justice and at the Bureau of Justice Statistics. She has conducted re- search on violence, and managed numerous research projects on the de- velopment of criminal behavior, policy on illegal drugs, domestic vio- lence, child abuse and neglect, transnational crime, and improving the operations of the criminal justice system. ERICKA PHILLIPS is a research associate of the Community Research Group and is currently enrolled in the School of General Studies at Co- lumbia University, where she is planning to major in sociology. LECIA QUARLES was a project assistant with the Committee on Law and Justice from December 2000 to March 2002. Prior to that, she served with the Office of Administration, National Research Council. She has attended Bethune-Cookman College, Daytona Beach, Florida, and Park College-Barstow, California. She is pursuing a bachelor’s degree in social psychology.

373BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES WENDY D. ROTH received her master’s degree in sociology from Ox- ford University and was formerly a researcher at the National Centre for Social Research in London, where her work involved youth offending and welfare-to-work policy evaluations. She is currently a Ph.D. candi- date in sociology and social policy at Harvard University and a fellow of the Multidisciplinary Program in Inequality and Social Policy. Her re- search includes studies on the racial and ethnic identities of Latino immi- grants and the socialization of multiracial children. CARLA SHEDD is a doctoral student in the Sociology Department at Northwestern University. She earned her bachelor’s degree from Smith College in economics and African-American studies in May 2000. Carla is primarily interested in urban sociology, with specific research interests in crime, community, race, and poverty. She is currently a fellow for the Joint Center for Poverty Research. She will also serve as a summer fellow for the National Consortium on Violence Research and the Law and So- cial Science Program with Northwestern Law School and the American Bar Foundation in 2002–2003. She is currently working on research projects with John Hagan, Mary Pattillo, and Dan Lewis. MERCER L. SULLIVAN is an urban anthropologist and associate pro- fessor in the School of Criminal Justice at Rutgers University. He has written extensively about delinquency and youth crime, the male role in teenage pregnancy and parenting, and community development ef- forts in inner-city neighborhoods. Professor Sullivan has conducted many studies with inner-city adolescents, using comparative ethno- graphic data analysis to explore the role of neighborhood and other social context features in adolescent development. He has also worked with other social scientists in interdisciplinary projects integrating qualitative and quantitative approaches to the study of these prob- lems. Professor Sullivan was a member of the 1998 National Research Council Panel on Juvenile Crime Prevention, Treatment, and Control. He is a member of the National Consortium on Violence Research and the Selection Committee for Faculty Scholars Program of the Wil- liam T. Grant Foundation. He is the editor of the Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, and the author of the book, Getting Paid: Youth Crime and Work in the Inner City. He holds a Ph.D. in anthropology from Columbia University.

374 APPENDIX B RODRICK WALLACE is a research scientist in the Department of Mental Health Epidemiology at the New York State Psychiatric Institute. He received his PhD in physics from Columbia University in 1977. His re- search has focused on the ecological effects of civic neglect of cities. He is co-author, with Deborah Wallace, of A Plague on Your Houses: How New York Was Burned Down and National Public Health Crumbled, published in 1999. He was the recipient of a Robert Wood Johnson Health Policy Investigator Award.

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The shooting at Columbine High School riveted national attention on violence in the nation’s schools. This dramatic example signaled an implicit and growing fear that these events would continue to occur—and even escalate in scale and severity.

How do we make sense of the tragedy of a school shooting or even draw objective conclusions from these incidents? Deadly Lessons is the outcome of the National Research Council’s unique effort to glean lessons from six case studies of lethal student violence. These are powerful stories of parents and teachers and troubled youths, presenting the tragic complexity of the young shooter’s social and personal circumstances in rich detail.

The cases point to possible causes of violence and suggest where interventions may be most effective. Readers will come away with a better understanding of the potential threat, how violence might be prevented, and how healing might be promoted in affected communities.

For each case study, Deadly Lessons relates events leading up to the violence, provides quotes from personal interviews about the incident, and explores the impact on the community. The case studies center on:

  • Two separate incidents in East New York in which three students were killed and a teacher was seriously wounded.
  • A shooting on the south side of Chicago in which one youth was killed and two wounded.
  • A shooting into a prayer group at a Kentucky high school in which three students were killed.
  • The killing of four students and a teacher and the wounding of 10 others at an Arkansas middle school.
  • The shooting of a popular science teacher by a teenager in Edinboro, Pennsylvania.
  • A suspected copycat of Columbine in which six students were wounded in Georgia

For everyone who puzzles over these terrible incidents, Deadly Lessons offers a fresh perspective on the most fundamental of questions: Why?

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