National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2002. The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10378.
×

THE ONGOING CHALLENGE OF MANAGING CARBON MONOXIDE POLLUTION IN FAIRBANKS, ALASKA

Interim Report

Committee on Carbon Monoxide Episodes in Meteorological and Topographical Problem Areas

Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology

Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate

Division on Earth and Life Studies

Transportation Research Board

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2002. The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10378.
×

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This project was supported by Cooperative Agreement X 82880601-0, between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project.

International Standard Book Number: 0-309-08484-9

Additional copies of this report are available from:
National Academy Press
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Copyright 2002 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2002. The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10378.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

National Academy of Sciences

National Academy of Engineering

Institute of Medicine

National Research Council

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm.A.Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V.Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts and Dr. Wm.A.Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2002. The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10378.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2002. The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10378.
×

COMMITTEE ON CARBON MONOXIDE EPISODES IN METEOROLOGICAL AND TOPOGRAPHICAL PROBLEM AREAS

Members

ARMISTEAD G.RUSSELL (Chair),

Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

ROGER ATKINSON,

University of California, Riverside

SUE ANN BOWLING,

University of Alaska (Retired), Fairbanks

STEVEN D.COLOME,

University of California, Los Angeles

NAIHUA DUAN,

University of California, Los Angeles

GERALD GALLAGHER,

J Gallagher and Associates, Inc., Englewood, Colorado

RANDALL L.GUENSLER,

Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

SUSAN L.HANDY,

University of Texas, Austin

SIMONE HOCHGREB,

Exponent, Natick, Massachusetts

SANDRA N.MOHR, Consultant,

Gillette, New Jersey

ROGER A.PIELKE SR.,

Colorado State University, Fort Collins

KARL J.SPRINGER,

Southwest Research Institute (Retired), San Antonio, Texas

ROGER WAYSON,

University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida

Project Staff

K.JOHN HOLMES, Senior Staff Officer

RAYMOND WASSEL, Senior Program Director

NANCY HUMPHREY, Senior Staff Officer

CHAD TOLMAN, Staff Officer

LAURIE GELLER, Staff Officer

AMANDA STAUDT, Postdoctoral Research Associate

NORMAN GROSSBLATT, Editor

KELLY CLARK, Editorial Assistant

RAMYA CHARI, Project Assistant

Sponsor

U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2002. The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10378.
×

BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY

Members

GORDON ORIANS (Chair),

University of Washington, Seattle

JOHN DOULL (Vice Chair),

University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City

DAVID ALLEN,

University of Texas, Austin

INGRID C.BURKE,

Colorado State University, Fort Collins

THOMAS BURKE,

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

WILLIAM L.CHAMEIDES,

Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

CHRISTOPHER B.FIELD,

Carnegie Institute of Washington, Stanford, California

J.PAUL GILMAN,

Celera Genomics, Rockville, Maryland

DANIEL S.GREENBAUM,

Health Effects Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts

BRUCE D.HAMMOCK,

University of California, Davis

ROGENE HENDERSON,

Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico

CAROL HENRY,

American Chemistry Council, Arlington, Virginia

ROBERT HUGGETT,

Michigan State University, East Lansing

JAMES H.JOHNSON,

Howard University, Washington, D.C.

JAMES F.KITCHELL,

University of Wisconsin, Madison

DANIEL KREWSKI,

University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario

JAMES A.MACMAHON,

Utah State University, Logan

WILLEM F.PASSCHIER,

Health Council of The Netherlands, The Hague

ANN POWERS,

Pace University School of Law, White Plains, New York

LOUISE M.RYAN,

Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts

KIRK SMITH,

University of California, Berkeley

LISA SPEER,

Natural Resources Defense Council, New York

Senior Staff

JAMES J.REISA, Director

DAVID J.POLICANSKY, Associate Director and Senior Program Director for Applied Ecology

RAYMOND A.WASSEL, Senior Program Director for Environmental Sciences and Engineering

KULBIR BAKSHI, Program Director for the Committee on Toxicology

ROBERTA M.WEDGE, Program Director for Risk Analysis

K.JOHN HOLMES, Senior Staff Officer

SUSAN N.J.MARTEL, Senior Staff Officer

SUZANNE VAN DRUNICK, Senior Staff Officer

RUTH E.CROSSGROVE, Managing Editor

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2002. The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10378.
×

BOARD ON ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES AND CLIMATE

Members

ERIC J.BARRON (Chair),

Pennsylvania State University, University Park

SUSAN K.AVERY,

University of Colorado, Boulder

RAYMOND J.BAN,

The Weather Channel, Inc., Atlanta, Georgia

HOWARD B.BLUESTEIN,

University of Oklahoma, Norman

STEVEN F.CLIFFORD,

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, Colorado

GEORGE L.FREDERICK,

Vaisala Meteorological Systems, Inc., Boulder, Colorado

JUDITH L.LEAN,

Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC

MARGARET A.LEMONE,

National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado

MARIO J.MOLINA,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

ROGER A.PIELKE, JR.,

University of Colorado, Boulder

MICHAEL J.PRATHER,

University of California, Irvine

WILLIAM J.RANDEL,

National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado

ROBERT T.RYAN,

WRC-TV, Washington, DC

THOMAS F.TASCIONE,

Sterling Software, Inc., Bellevue, Nebraska

ROBERT A.WELLER,

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts

ERIC F.WOOD,

Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2002. The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10378.
×

TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2000 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE

Members

JOHN M.SAMUELS (Chair),

Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, Virginia

THOMAS R.WARNE (Vice Chair),

Utah Department of Transportation, Salt Lake City

ROBERT E.SKINNER, JR. (Executive Director),

National Research Council, Washington, D.C.

WILLIAM D.ANKNER,

Rhode Island Dept. of Transportation, Providence

THOMAS F.BARRY, JR.,

Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee

JACK E.BUFFINGTON,

University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

SARAH C.CAMPBELL,

TransManagement, Inc., Washington, D.C.

E.DEAN CARLSON,

Kansas Department of Transportation, Topeka

JOANNE CASEY,

Intermodal Association of North America, Greenbelt, Maryland

JAMES C.CODELL III,

Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Frankfort

JOHN L.CRAIG,

Nebraska Department of Roads, Lincoln

ROBERT A.FROSCH,

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts

GORMAN GILBERT,

Oklahoma State University, Stillwater

GENEVIEVE GIULIANO,

University of Southern California, Los Angeles

LESTER A.HOEL,

University of Virginia, Charlottesville

H.THOMAS KORNEGAY,

Port of Houston Authority, Houston, Texas

BRADLEY L.MALLORY,

Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, Harrisburg

MICHAEL D.MEYER,

Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

JEFF P.MORALES,

California Department of Transportation, Sacramento

JEFFREY R.MORELAND,

Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway, Fort Worth, Texas

JOHN P.POORMAN,

Capital District Transportation Committee, Albany, New York

CATHERINE L.ROSS,

Georgia Regional Transportation Agency, Atlanta

WAYNE SHACKELFORD,

Gresham Smith & Partners, Alpharetta, Georgia

PAUL P.SKOUTELAS,

Port Authority of Allegheny County, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

MICHAEL S.TOWNES,

Transportation District Commission of Hampton Roads, Hampton, Virginia

MARTIN WACHS,

University of California, Berkeley

MICHAEL W.WICKHAM,

Roadway Express, Inc., Akron, Ohio

JAMES A.WILDING,

Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority, Washington, D.C.

M.GORDON WOLMAN,

The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2002. The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10378.
×

OTHER REPORTS OF THE BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY

The Airliner Cabin Environment and Health of Passengers and Crew (2002)

Arsenic in Drinking Water: 2001 Update (2001)

Evaluating Vehicle Emissions Inspection and Maintenance Programs (2001)

Compensating for Wetland Losses Under the Clean Water Act (2001)

A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments (2001)

Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury (2000)

Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Research-Management and Peer-Review Practices (2000)

Scientific Frontiers in Developmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment (2000) Copper in Drinking Water (2000)

Ecological Indicators for the Nation (2000)

Waste Incineration and Public Health (1999)

Hormonally Active Agents in the Environment (1999)

Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter (3 reports, 1998–2001)

Ozone-Forming Potential of Reformulated Gasoline (1999)

Arsenic in Drinking Water (1999)

Brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Area (1998)

The National Research Council’s Committee on Toxicology: The First 50 Years (1997)

Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet (1996)

Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest (1996)

Science and the Endangered Species Act (1995)

Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries (1995)

Biologic Markers (5 reports, 1989–1995)

Review of EPA’s Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (3 reports, 1994–1995)

Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment (1994)

Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993)

Protecting Visibility in National Parks and Wilderness Areas (1993)

Dolphins and the Tuna Industry (1992)

Science and the National Parks (1992)

Assessment of the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Studies Program, Volumes I–IV (1991–1993)

Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants (1991)

Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution (1991)

Decline of the Sea Turtles (1990)

Copies of these reports may be ordered from the National Academy Press

(800) 624–6242 or (202) 334–3313

www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2002. The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10378.
×
This page in the original is blank.
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2002. The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10378.
×

Acknowledgment of Review Participants

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

John C.Bailar III, University of Chicago

Lenora Bohren, Colorado State University

Gregory J.Dana, Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers

Robert Dulla, Sierra Research, Inc.

Robert Gibbons, University of Illinois, Chicago

Judith A.Graham, American Chemistry Council

Arthur Hussey, Northern Alaska Environmental Center

Robert F.Klausmeier, de la Torre Klausmeier Consulting, Inc.

Paul W.Ludden, University of Wisconsin, Madison

Jeffery S.Tilley, University of Alaska, Fairbanks

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its re-

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2002. The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10378.
×

lease. The review of this report was overseen by F.Sherwood Rowland, University of California, Irvine. Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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×

Preface

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic air pollutant produced largely from vehicle emissions. Breathing CO at high concentrations leads to reduced oxygen transport by hemoglobin, which has health effects that include impaired reaction timing, headaches, lightheadedness, nausea, vomiting, weakness, clouding of consciousness, coma, and, at high enough concentrations and long enough exposure, death. In recognition of those health effects, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as directed by the Clean Air Act, established the health-based National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for CO in 1971.

Most areas that were previously designated as “nonattainment” areas have come into compliance with the NAAQS for CO, but some locations still have difficulty in attaining the CO standards. Those locations tend to have topographical or meteorological characteristics that exacerbate pollution. In view of the challenges posed for some areas to attain compliance with the NAAQS for CO, congress asked the National Research Council to investigate the problem of CO in areas with meteorological and topographical problems. This interim report deals specifically with Fairbanks, Alaska. Fairbanks was chosen as a case study because its meteorological and topographical characteristics make it susceptible to severe winter inversions that trap CO and other pollutants at ground level.

In preparing this report, the committee gathered information and conducted analyses of existing data but did not make any new measurements. The committee met in Fairbanks in August 2001 and again in December 2001,

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2002. The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10378.
×

when they were able to observe first-hand the meteorological conditions and emissions patterns that could cause a CO episode. During their second trip to Fairbanks, a public hearing was held to assist the committee in issue identification. Members of the community were invited to share their perspectives and concerns with the committee at that time. The committee would like to acknowledge those who took the time to participate in that hearing.

Many people assisted the committee by providing information related to issues addressed in this report. I gratefully acknowledge William Boycott, Williams Alaska Petroleum Inc.; John Cabaniss, Association of International Automobile Manufacturers; Gregory Dana, Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers; Robert Dulla, Sierra Research; Laurence Elmore, EPA; Mary Ellen Gordian, University of Alaska, Anchorage; Gerald Guay, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation; Nadine Hargesheimer, Fairbanks North Star Borough; Gregory Henderson, Tesoro Alaska; Ronald King, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation; Max Lyon, Fairbanks North Star Borough; John Middaugh, Alaska Department of Health and Public Services; Steven Morris, municipality of Anchorage; William Neff, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Paul Prusak, Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities; Paul Rossow, Fairbanks North Star Borough; Leonard Verrelli, state of Alaska; and Jimmie Williams, Ceramics, Environmental Technologies Development, Corning, Inc.; Aaron Owens, DuPont Central Research and Development, Wilmington, Delaware; and Susan Alber, University of California, Los Angeles.

I am also grateful for the assistance of the National Research Council staff in the preparation of this report. The committee was ably assisted by K.John Holmes in his role as project director. The committee also acknowledges Raymond A.Wassel, senior program director for environmental sciences and engineering in the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology (BEST). We thank the other staff members who contributed to this report, including Warren Muir, executive director of the Division on Earth and Life Studies; James J.Reisa, director of BEST; Nancy Humphrey, senior staff officer with the Transportation Research Board; Chad Tolman, staff officer with BEST; Amanda Staudt, post-doctoral research associate with BEST; Norman Grossblatt, editor; Mirsada Karalic-Loncarevic, information specialist with BEST; and Ramya Chari, Jennifer Saunders, and Emily Smail, project assistants with BEST.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2002. The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10378.
×

Finally, I would like to thank all the members of the committee for their expertise and dedicated effort throughout the study.

Armistead Russell, Ph.D.

Chair, Committee on Carbon

Monoxide Episodes in Meteorological and Topographical Problem Areas

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2002. The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10378.
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×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2002. The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10378.
×

The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2002. The Ongoing Challenge of Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Fairbanks, Alaska: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10378.
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Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic air pollutant produced largely from vehicle emissions. Breathing CO at high concentrations leads to reduced oxygen transport by hemoglobin, which has health effects that include impaired reaction timing, headaches, lightheadedness, nausea, vomiting, weakness, clouding of consciousness, coma, and, at high enough concentrations and long enough exposure, death. In recognition of those health effects, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as directed by the Clean Air Act, established the health-based National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for CO in 1971.

Most areas that were previously designated as "nonattainment" areas have come into compliance with the NAAQS for CO, but some locations still have difficulty in attaining the CO standards. Those locations tend to have topographical or meteorological characteristics that exacerbate pollution. In view of the challenges posed for some areas to attain compliance with the NAAQS for CO, congress asked the National Research Council to investigate the problem of CO in areas with meteorological and topographical problems. This interim report deals specifically with Fairbanks, Alaska. Fairbanks was chosen as a case study because its meteorological and topographical characteristics make it susceptible to severe winter inversions that trap CO and other pollutants at ground level.

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