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Suggested Citation:"Index." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2003. Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10388.
×

Index

A

Abandoned vessels, see Submerged and abandoned vessels

ADIOS2, 111, 112

Advection, 89, 90, 98, 99, 112-113, 116

Aerosols, 85, 86

see also Volatile organic compounds

Africa, 195, 200

Aircraft fuel, 32, 46, 48-49, 51, 52, 55, 57, 59, 69, 77, 86, 88, 215-217, 254

regulatory issues, 59, 88, 219-220

Air pollution, see Aircraft fuel;

Atmospheric deposition;

Volatile organic compounds (VOC)

Alaska, 48, 52-53, 59, 121, 134-136, 137-138, 198, 199

extraction spills, 3, 34, 36, 38

Exxon Valdez,1, 11, 14, 22, 23, 75, 100, 128, 130-131, 134, 139-140, 149

natural seeps, 33, 36, 59, 70

produced waters, 71, 200, 201

transportation spills, 1, 3, 11, 14, 36, 44, 52-53, 59

American Petroleum Institute, ix, 1

Amoco Cadiz, 122, 149

Artificial islands, 125

Atlantic Ocean, 12-13, 35, 41, 45, 47, 49, 54, 70, 193-194, 196, 198

Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 26

Atmospheric deposition, 16, 22, 30, 31, 40-41, 42, 43, 44-45, 46, 48-49, 51, 55, 57, 59, 69, 71, 76-77, 78, 84-86, 87, 115, 223-231

see also Aircraft fuel;

Volatile organic compounds

aerosols, 85, 86

coastal zones, 77, 86, 223, 224, 227

committee research recommendations, 55, 61

marine mammals, impacts on, 133

models, 85, 109, 110, 223-231

polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 32, 223

precipitation, 85

research methodology, 223-231

two- and four-stroke engines, 3-4, 22, 43, 46, 58, 65, 66, 81-82, 112, 115, 219-220

volatilization, general, 89, 113, 116, 231

B

Before-and-after and control-impact (BACI) observations, 122, 123, 156

Benthic organisms, 4, 24, 25, 33, 39

see also Sediment and sedimentation;

Shellfish

bioavailability, 31

corals, 125, 141

persistence, 31, 151-152

toxic effects, 121, 125, 148, 151-156 (passim)

Benzene, see BTEX

Bioaccumulation, 128-129

Bioavailability, 22, 28, 31, 39, 90, 102-103, 125, 128-129, 131

Biodegradation, see Microbial oxidation

Birds, see Waterfowl and marine birds

Boats, see Ships and boats

BTEX, 20, 114, 126, 127, 220

C

California, 48, 51-52, 153, 200, 201

atmospheric deposition, 48, 223, 224-225

extraction spills, 3, 34, 36, 38

natural seeps, 33, 36, 70, 191-192

transportation releases, 3, 36, 44

volatile organic compounds (VOC), 198, 199

Canada, 40-41, 47, 48

aircraft releases, 215-216

databases, 66, 75

extraction spills, 3, 34-36, 38, 40-41, 70, 193-194, 198

land-based deposition, 78, 80, 233, 234, 235-237, 238

produced waters, 71, 200, 201

transportation releases, 44-45, 75, 211-212, 213

Chemical composition of oil, 19-21, 22

Clean Air Act, 43, 66, 71, 81

Clean Water Act, 255

Climate change, 55, 120, 121

volatile organic compounds (VOC), 58-59

Coastal zones, ix, 29, 46-62(passim), 77-78, 125, 148-149, 236-242

see also Estuaries;

Waterfowl and marine birds;

Recreational vessels;

Shorelines

atmospheric depositions, 77, 86, 223, 224, 227

committee study boundary definitions, 189-190

Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 25-27

extraction spills, 2-3, 33-38, 193-194

Exxon Valdez,23, 24, 25, 75, 100, 128, 130-131, 134, 139-140, 149

International Maritime Organization (MARPOL), 78

land-based deposition, 16, 29, 66, 78, 79-80

mangroves, 62, 89, 125, 145-148

modeling of runoff, 109, 111

Persian Gulf War, 135, 136-137

pipeline spills, 39, 42, 51, 66, 73, 77, 125, 193

polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 32, 47, 78, 79, 85, 87, 238, 239-240, 243, 244-247, 250, 251

produced water, 38, 201, 202

rural, 85, 224, 225

shoreline stranding, 22, 90, 103-104, 109, 113-114, 116

tanker spills, 14

terminal/refinery facilities, 16, 42, 44-45, 47, 51, 53, 55, 57, 59, 69, 77-78, 80, 101, 212-222, 242, 245, 246, 249

Coast Guard, 77, 221-222

transport processes, 22, 90, 103-104, 109, 113-114, 116

Suggested Citation:"Index." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2003. Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10388.
×

volatile organic compounds (VOC), 4, 59, 77

urban areas,

atmospheric deposition, 85, 224-225

runoff, 16, 29, 31, 46, 53, 55, 56, 62, 66, 67, 78-79, 80, 86-87, 157, 235-242, 247-249

see also Rivers

vegetation, 26-27, 125, 142, 143

mangroves, 62, 89, 125, 145-148

wetlands, 62, 89, 124, 125, 143-148

Coast Guard, ix, 1, 3, 4, 55, 58, 59, 61, 65, 75, 87, 117, 142, 194, 213

coastal facility spills, 77, 221-222

Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 25-27

operational discharges, 84, 88

pipeline spills, 193

volatile organic compounds (VOC), 4, 59

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 139

natural resource damage assessments, 23, 111-112, 139

Computer technology

see also Databases

Internet, 24, 66, 193

models, 89, 90, 110-112, 138-139

Consumption, 1, 3-4, 7, 8, 28, 31, 32, 43, 46-47, 58, 65, 69, 86

see also Energy supply/demand;

Recreational vessels;

Urban areas

databases, 67

maps of inputs, 36-37, 48-50

river runoff, 31, 47, 51, 55, 56, 77, 78-79, 80, 87, 101, 124, 153, 224, 233-236, 238-247, 249-251

Corals, 125, 141

Cost factors, 1

Exxon Valdez spill, 14, 23

litigation and liability, 23, 255-257

natural resource damage assessments, 23

CRUCOSA program, 76, 77

D

Databases, 1, 28, 61, 66-67, 193, 233-236, 238

see also Internet

Environmental Research Consulting Database, 75, 78, 82, 212-213

non-tank vessels, 82

pipelines, 73

tanker spills, 75, 213-214

Deepwater Port Act, 255

Demand for energy, see Energy supply/demand

Denmark, 72, 200

see also North Sea

Department of Commerce, 62

see also National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Department of Energy, ix, 202

Department of the Interior, 62

see also Geological Survey;

Minerals Management Service

Developing countries, 38

Diesel fuel, 77, 83, 130, 254

Dispersion, 89, 90, 99-100, 112-113

see also Transport processes, spills

oil spills, 38-39, 98

produced water, 38, 151

toxicity and, 134, 151

Dissolution, 21, 89, 90, 93-94, 108, 112, 114, 115-116, 117, 127

see also Oxidation

Distillates, see Light distillates;

Heavy distillates

Dose factors, 22

E

Economic factors

see also Cost factors;

Energy supply/demand;

Foreign trade;

Funding

foreign trade, 7, 8, 10, 66, 70, 78

historical perspectives, 1, 23, 121

litigation and liability, 23, 255-257

Electric power, oil demand, 7, 8

Emulsification, 89, 90, 92-93, 112, 113-114

Energy Information Agency, 209

Energy supply/demand, 65

see also Consumption

US, 1, 3-4, 7-8

world, 1, 4, 7, 8-11, 16

Entrainment, 89, 90, 93, 100, 117

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), ix, 1, 3, 4, 61, 62, 117

land-based disposition, 79

STORET database, 233-236, 238, 240

non-point source releases, 55

produced waters, 199, 202

recreational vessels, two- and four-stroke engines, 4, 58, 66, 81, 82, 88, 219

toxic effects, 156, 157

volatile organic compounds (VOC), 4, 197

Environmental Research Consulting Database, 75, 78, 82, 212-213

Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 25-27

EPA, see Environmental Protection Agency

ESI, see Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps

Estuaries, ix, 39, 46, 101

pipelines, 73

toxicity, 124, 131-132, 151-152, 155

wetlands, 62, 89, 124, 125, 143-148

Ethyl benzene, see BTEX

Evaporation, 59, 86, 89, 90, 114, 115, 126, 216

EVOS Trustees, 23

Exports of oil, see Foreign trade

Extraction spills, see Oil wells/platforms;

Produced waters

Exxon Valdez,1, 11, 14, 22, 23, 75, 100, 128, 130-131, 134, 139-140, 149

F

Federal Aviation Administration, 59, 88

Federal government, general, 3, 4, 53, 55, 58-59, 61, 63, 87, 88, 117, 156

see also Funding;

Legislation;

Regulatory issues;

specific departments and agencies

Fires, coastal facility spills, 77

Fish and fisheries, 4, 14, 120, 122, 125, 130-131

see also Marine biota;

Marine mammals;

Shellfish

Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 25-27

reproductive/developmental effects, 123-131 (passim), 133, 134-135, 137, 138, 142, 153-154, 155-156

Foreign countries, see Developing countries;

International perspectives

Foreign trade, 7, 8, 10, 66, 70, 78

France, 122

Funding

committee study at hand, ix,x, 1, 53

ground and abandoned vessels, salvage, 67

Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund, 259

G

Galeta tank spill, 142

Gasoline, 22, 32, 58, 113-114, 247-248

BTEX, 127

coastal facilities, 77

two- and four-stroke engines, 3-4, 22, 43, 46, 58, 65, 66, 81-82, 88, 112, 115, 219-220

Geographic factors, general, 1-4(passim), 25-53 (passim), 66, 89

see also International perspectives;

Maps and mapping;

Urban areas;

specific countries, states, and water bodies

databases, 66

definitions of regional boundaries, 189

Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 25-27

rural areas, 85, 224, 225

worldwide releases, total, 2, 3, 12-13, 16, 28, 29, 38, 42, 46, 192, 194-196

Geological Survey, ix, 1, 4, 53, 59, 61, 62, 117, 234, 235

extraction spills, 3

non-point source releases, 55

seeps, 2, 87

toxic effects, 156, 157

Geopolitical factors, see Foreign trade;

International perspectives;

Political factors

Global climate change, see Climate change

GNOME/ADIOS2, 111, 112

Government role, see Federal government

Grease, see Oil and grease

Great Lakes, 235-236

Greenhouse effect, see Climate change

Ground truthing, 53

Gulf of Mexico, 46, 47, 49, 51, 56

Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 25-27

extraction spills, 3, 23, 33, 25, 35, 38, 55, 70, 105, 193, 194

Ixtoc I, 33, 105

Ixtoc II, 25

land-based deposition, general, 78, 80, 237-238

Suggested Citation:"Index." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2003. Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10388.
×

Mississippi River, 47, 51, 56, 152, 153, 238, 239, 240, 244-246, 248, 249, 250, 251

natural seeps, 2, 33, 55, 56, 70, 191

produced waters, 71, 199-202(passim)

toxic effects, 144, 145, 153

transportation releases, 3, 45, 55, 75

volatile organic compounds (VOC), 196, 198, 199

Gulf of Mexico Offshore Operations Monitoring Experiment, 153-154

H

Heavy distillates, 22, 32, 114, 253, 254

Historical perspectives, ix, 7, 61, 65-66, 69

consumption of petroleum, 43, 46-47, 69, 78

economic factors, 1, 23, 121

energy supply/demand, 1, 3-4, 7-11, 65

Exxon Valdez,1, 11, 14, 22, 23, 75, 100, 128, 130-131, 134, 139-140, 149

Ixtoc I, 33, 105

Ixtoc II, 25

North American inputs, 34-38, 40-41, 44-59 (passim), 69, 193-194, 197-199

persistence, 29

pipelines, 73

research, previous NRC studies, ix, 1, 2, 11, 14-15, 16-17, 28, 30-31, 65, 66-67, 69-70, 72, 76, 77, 82, 84, 85, 86, 119, 123-125, 148, 223

submerged and abandoned vessels, 67, 68

wars and armed conflicts,

Persian Gulf War, 134, 135, 136-137

submerged and abandoned vessels, 67

World War II, 67, 68

worldwide inputs, 12-13, 16, 46, 69-70, 72, 73, 198, 199

Human health, 31, 89

I

Ice, 104-105

Impact of Oil and Related Chemicals and Wastes on the Marine Environment, 14-15

Imports, see Foreign trade

International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), 15, 43, 66, 75-76, 203-204, 207-212

International Energy Agency, 209

International Maritime Organization, 3, 14-15, 55

coastal facility spills, 78

operational discharges, 76, 83, 84

tanker spills, 75, 87-88, 215-216

volatile organic compounds (VOC), 4, 59, 88

International perspectives, general, 157

see also specific countries and bodies of water

databases, 66

developing countries, general, 38

energy supply/demand, 1, 4, 7, 8-11

foreign trade, 7, 8, 10, 66, 70, 78

grounded and abandoned vessels, 67

institutional cooperation, 3, 4, 14-15, 55, 59, 62

non-tank vessel spills, 82

vessel operational discharges, 75-76, 83, 84, 203-204

wars and armed conflicts,

Persian Gulf War, 134, 135, 136-137

submerged and abandoned vessels, 67

World War II, 67, 68

worldwide/international waters inputs, 12-13, 16, 46, 69-70, 72, 73, 213-215, 245-246, 251

International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation Ltd., 75, 82, 213

Internet, 66, 193

Exxon Valdez,24

INTERTANKO, 76, 83, 208

Ixtoc I, 25, 105

Ixtoc II, 25

J

Joint Group of Experts on the Science Aspects of Marine Pollution, 14-15

L

Land-based releases, 4, 22, 28, 43, 46, 48-49, 51, 55, 57, 65, 78-81, 86-87, 115

Canada, 78, 80, 233, 234, 235-237, 238

coastal terminal/refinery facilities, 16, 42, 44-45, 47, 51, 53, 55, 57, 59, 69, 77-78, 80, 101, 212-222, 242, 245, 246, 249

coastal zones, general, 16, 29, 66, 78, 79-80

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 79, 233-236, 238, 240

Gulf of Mexico, 78, 80, 237-238

Mississippi River, 47, 51, 56, 152, 153, 238, 239, 240, 244-246, 248, 249, 250, 251

loading measures, 31, 56, 115, 233-251

Mexico, 80, 237-238

non-point source pollution, general, 28, 47, 51, 55, 61, 87, 89, 119

oil and grease, 78-81, 233, 234-236, 238-240, 241-242, 247-250

polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 32, 78, 79, 85, 87, 238, 239-240, 243, 244-247, 250, 251, 253

research methodology, 78-81, 233-251

rivers, 31, 47, 51, 55, 56, 77, 78-79, 80, 87, 101, 124, 153, 224, 233-236, 238-247, 249-251;

see also Estuaries

runoff, ix, 4, 10, 16, 29, 31, 46, 53, 55, 56, 61, 62, 66, 67, 78-81, 80, 86-87, 157, 235-242, 247-249

urban runoff, 16, 29, 31, 46, 53, 55, 56, 62, 66, 67, 78-79, 80, 86-87, 157, 235-242, 247-249

Langmuir circulation, 59, 89, 92, 98-99

Legislation

see also Regulatory issues

Clean Air Act, 43, 66, 71, 81

Clean Water Act, 255

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 139

natural resource damage assessments, 23, 111-112, 139

Deepwater Port Act, 255

Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90), 23, 66, 67, 75, 255-257

Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, 255

Shipowner’s Limitation of Liability Act, 255

Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act, 255

Light distillates, 22, 32, 114, 127, 253, 254

Litigation, 23, 255-257

Lloyd’s Register, 83, 205, 208

Loading measures, 21-22, 31-32, 56, 89-90, 115, 116, 253-254

land-based releases, 31, 56, 115, 233-251

light distillates, 114

models, 89, 90, 233-251

Louisiana, 73, 144, 145, 152

see also Gulf of Mexico

produced waters, 71, 200, 201

M

Mangroves, 62, 89, 125, 145-148

Maps and mapping

Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 25-27

Exxon Valdez spill, 15

North American waters, 34-37, 40-41, 44-45, 48-49, 54, 56

population of US, 50

seaborne flow of oil, worldwide, 12-13

Marine biota, 4, 62, 91, 109, 110, 116, 119-157

see also Bioavailability;

Benthic organisms;

Fish and fisheries;

Marine mammals;

Shellfish;

Toxicity;

Waterfowl and marine birds;

Wildlife

behavioral effects, 125, 128, 135, 138

disease, 123, 127, 131-132, 133, 155, 157

food resource losses, 139

metabolic effects, 125, 127, 128-129, 149

modeling of effects, 121, 123, 128-129, 138-149

natural resource damage assessments, 23, 111-112, 139

neurological/narcotic effects, 125, 133

reproductive/developmental effects, 123-131 (passim), 125, 130-131, 133, 134-135, 137, 138, 142, 153-154, 155-156

temporal factors, 119-123(passim), 129-132, 140-141, 144, 156

Marine mammals, 29, 119, 125, 132, 133, 134, 137-138

Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 25-27

MARPOL, see International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships

Methodology, see Research methodology

Mexico, 193, 194, 211-212, 213

see also Gulf of Mexico

land-based deposition, 80, 237-238

produced waters, 71, 200, 201

Suggested Citation:"Index." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2003. Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10388.
×

production of oil, 70

tanker spills, 75

volatile organic compounds (VOC), 196, 198

Microbial oxidation, 89, 94, 95-97, 114, 149-150

Middle East

exports from, 66

Persian Gulf War, 134, 135, 136-137

Minerals Management Service, ix, 1, 3, 4, 15, 53, 59, 61, 62, 117, 201

model development, 111

pipelines, 73

seeps, 2, 87

volatile organic compounds (VOC), 4, 196, 199

Mississippi River, 47, 51, 56, 152, 153, 238, 239, 240, 244-246, 248, 249, 250, 251

Models and modeling, 23, 59, 89, 90, 91, 108-112, 116, 119, 138

see also Dispersion

atmospheric deposition, 85, 109, 110, 223-231

biological effects, 121, 123, 128-129, 138-149

natural resource damage assessments, 23, 111-112, 139

coastal habitat impacts, 138-139

coastal runoff, 109, 111

computer, 89, 90, 110-112, 138-139

dissolution, 93-94, 112

emulsification, 112

evaporation, 90, 112

land-based production facilities, 108, 233-251

loading, 89, 90, 233-251

natural resource damage assessments (NRDA), 23, 111-112, 139

non-point sources, 109

operational discharges, 109, 110

overwashing, 101

oxidation, 94, 95, 112

partitioning, 102

photooxidation, 95

produced water, 109

recreational boats, 109

rivers, 109, 110

seabirds, effects of spills on, 121

sediments, 109-110

seeps, 108, 109, 110

shallow-water releases, 105-106

shoreline stranding, 103-104

spreading, 97-98

vertical dispersion and entrainment, 100

volatile organic compounds (VOC), 77, 225-226

volatilization, 112

weathering, 109

wells and platforms, 108, 109, 110

Mussels, 22, 24, 128, 131, 137, 141-143

N

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, ix, 1, 4, 53, 59, 61, 62, 117

Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 25-27

extraction spills, 3

land-based releases, 4

model development, 111, 112

natural resource damage assessments, 23

seeps, 2, 87

toxic effects, 156, 157

National Oceans Industry Association, ix, 1

National Science Foundation (NSF), 2, 3

Natural gas, 2

deep subsurface releases, 59, 107-108

spills, 3

supply/demand, 8

Natural resource damage assessments, 23, 111-112, 139

Natural seeps, see Seeps

Netherlands, The, 72, 200, 202

see also North Sea

Non-point source pollution, 28, 47, 51, 55, 61, 87, 89, 109, 119

see also Land-based releases;

Operational discharges;

Recreational vessels

North Cape barge spill, 92, 149

North Sea, 39, 66, 129-130, 155, 195

produced waters, 71, 72, 199, 200, 202

Norway, 71, 199, 200, 202

see also North Sea

O

Ocean dumping of waste, 31, 78

Office of Pipeline Safety, 3, 39

Oil and grease, 78-81, 233, 234-236, 238-240, 241-242, 247-250

Oil in the Sea: Inputs, Fates, and Effects (1985), ix, 11, 14.65, 66, 81, 123, 125, 126, 148, 156, 199

Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90), 23, 66, 67, 75, 255-257

Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund, 259

Oil wells/platforms, 2-3, 16, 28, 30, 33-39, 51, 53, 54, 55, 57, 58, 59, 65, 66-67, 69, 70-71, 86, 119, 152-155, 226

committee study methodology, estimates, 193-202

coastal zones, 2-3, 33-38, 193-194

databases, 66-67, 70

Gulf of Mexico, 3, 23, 25, 33, 35, 38, 55, 70, 105, 193, 194

Ixtoc I, 33

Ixtoc II, 25

maps of inputs, 34-37, 40-41

modeling, 108, 109, 110

polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 32, 47, 51

regulatory issues, 39, 66, 71

volatile organic compounds (VOC), 3, 39, 65, 70, 71, 88, 153, 196-199

Operational discharges

see also Produced waters;

Recreational vessels

Coast Guard, 84, 88

drill cuttings, 39, 66

International Maritime Organization, 76, 83, 84

international perspectives, 75-76, 83, 84, 203-204

modeling, 109, 110

regulatory issues, 15, 42-43, 55, 57, 58, 55, 58, 66, 75-76, 83, 84, 88, 203-212

ships, general, ix, 3-4, 16, 22, 31, 39, 42, 43, 46, 48-49, 51, 52, 55, 57, 59, 65, 69, 75-76, 78, 82-84, 114-115, 203-212

tankers, 75-76, 78, 82-83, 86, 88, 204-208, 226

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, 10

OSIS, 111

OSRA, 111

Outer Continental shelf, 66, 73, 152-155, 193, 201

see also Oil wells/platforms

Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, 255

Overwashing, 89, 101

Oxidation, 29, 89, 90, 94-97, 112, 114, 149-150, 224

P

Pacific Ocean, 12-13, 34, 36, 40, 44, 46, 48, 51-52, 57, 58, 198, 237

PAH, see Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

Partitioning, 102

Persian Gulf War, 134, 135, 136-137

Persistence, 22, 28, 31, 33, 89, 113, 120, 125, 135, 151-152

see also Vocalization;

Weathering processes

benthic organisms, 31, 151-152

Petrleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), 193, 199, 201

Petroleum consumption, see Consumption

Petroleum extraction, see Oil wells/platforms

Petroleum in the Marine Environment,ix, 11, 14. 65

Petroleum transportation, see Transportation

Photoactivation, 29

Photooxidation, 29, 89, 90, 94-95, 224

Pipeline Integrity Management Program, 39

Pipelines, 3, 16, 23, 28, 30, 32, 39, 42, 44-45, 51, 55, 57, 59, 66, 69, 73-74, 193-196

Coast Guard, 193

committee study methodology, estimates, 193, 194-196

databases, 67

regulatory issues, 39, 73

Plants, see Vegetation

Platforms, see Oil wells/platforms

Political factors, 1, 121

see also Legislation;

Regulatory issues

Exxon Valdez spill, 23, 255

major spills, general, 23, 119

size of spill and policy, 21

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 1, 3, 4, 20, 21, 29, 32, 51, 114

atmospheric deposition, 32, 223

coastal zones, 32, 47, 78, 79, 85, 87, 238, 239-240, 243, 244-247, 250, 251

Suggested Citation:"Index." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2003. Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10388.
×

inputs, general, 61, 85, 87, 223-231, 238, 239-240, 243, 244-247, 250, 251, 253-254

land-based deposition, 32, 78, 79, 85, 87, 238, 239-240, 243, 244-247, 250, 251, 253

microbial oxidation, 96

modeling of spills, 112

natural seeps, 32, 33

oil wells/platforms, 32, 47, 51

partitioning, 102, 128

photooxidation, 95

research methodology, 238, 239-240, 243, 244-247, 250, 251, 253-254

sediments, 29, 102, 127, 131, 151-152

two-stroke engines, 58, 88

toxic effects, 21, 29, 31-33, 127-132, 135-136, 148, 149, 153

Precipitation, chemical, 85

Production, see Oil wells/platforms

Produced waters, 22, 30, 38, 39, 40-41, 51, 55, 57, 59, 66, 69, 71-72, 114, 150-152

Alaska/Canada, 71, 200, 201

coastal zones, 38, 201, 202

databases, 67

dispersion, 38, 151

Environmental Protection Agency, 199, 202

Gulf of Mexico, 71, 199-202(passim)

input estimate methodology, 30, 199-200

Mexico, 71, 200, 201

modeling, 109

North Sea, 71, 72, 199, 200, 202

oil and grease, 78-81, 200, 201

polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbond (PAH), 32, 114

regulatory issues, 66, 71, 72, 151

weathering, 38

Puerto Rico, 47, 51, 53, 56, 198

R

Recreational resources

Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 25-27

tarballs, effects on, 104

Recreational vessels, 29, 31, 32, 43, 48-49, 51, 53, 55, 59, 69, 78, 81, 87, 115

databases, 66, 67

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 4, 58, 66, 81, 82, 88, 219

regulatory issues, 43, 58, 66, 81, 219-220

research methodology, 219-220

two- and four-stroke engines, 3-4, 22, 43, 46, 58, 65, 66, 81-82, 112, 115, 219-220

Refineries, see Terminal facilities and refineries

Regulatory issues, 23, 55, 62, 66, 255-257

see also Legislation

aircraft fuel dumping, 59, 88, 219-220

drill cuttings, 39, 66

grounded and abandoned vessels, 67

International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), 15, 43, 66, 75-76, 203-204, 207-212

litigation and liability, 23, 255-257

oil wells/platforms, 39, 66, 71

pipeline safety/spills, 39, 73

produced water discharges, 66, 71, 72, 151

recreational vessels, two- and four-stroke engines, 43, 58, 66, 81, 219-220

regional data, 32-33

tanker safety, 39, 55, 62, 66, 75, 83, 87-88, 157

tarballs, 104

vessel operational discharges, 15, 42-43, 55, 57, 58, 55, 58, 66, 75-76, 83, 84, 88, 203-212

volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 4, 71, 197

Remote sensing, 53, 101

Research methodology, ix, 23

see also Computer technology;

Databases;

Models and modeling

atmospheric deposition, 84-86

before-and-after and control-impact (BACI) observations, 122, 123, 156

biological effects, 121-123, 125, 131

coastal facility inputs, 211

committee recommendations, 53, 55, 59, 61-62, 86-88, 117, 156-157

committee study at hand,ix, 15-16, 17, 119, 189-254

ground truthing, 53

input estimation, 30-31, 53, 189-254

land-based discharges, 78-81, 233-251

natural seeps, estimates, 191-192

non-tank vessel spills, 82

NRC studies, previous, ix, 1, 2, 11, 14-15, 16-17, 28, 30-31, 65, 66-67, 69-70, 72, 76, 77, 82, 84, 85, 86, 119, 123-125, 148, 223

recreational vessels, two- and four-stroke engines, 219-220

remote sensing, 219-220

shallow-water releases, 105-106

tarballs, 104

time-series analyses, 122

volatile organic compound (VOC) inputs, 71, 196-199

Rivers, 31, 47, 51, 55, 56, 77, 78-79, 80, 87, 101, 124, 153, 224, 233-236, 238-247, 249-251

see also Estuaries

Runoff, ix, 4, 10, 16, 29, 31, 46, 53, 55, 56, 61, 62, 66, 67, 78-81, 80, 86-87, 157, 235-242, 247-249

modeling, 109, 111

Rural areas, 85, 224, 225

Russia, 70

S

Salinity, 122, 143-145

Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 25-27

San Jacinto River, 77

Saudi Arabia, 70, 200

Sediment and sedimentation, 4, 22, 30, 39, 59, 67, 73, 114, 117, 119

see also Benthic organisms;

Shellfish

polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 29, 102, 127, 131, 151-152

toxicity, 127, 128, 130, 131, 142, 146, 151-152, 153-154

transport processes, 39, 89, 90, 100-101, 102-104, 109-110, 113-114

weathering, 28, 119, 127

Seeps, 2, 16, 21, 22, 23, 28, 30, 33, 46-47, 51, 52, 53, 57, 58, 61, 65, 67-70, 86, 113, 116

Alaska, 33, 36, 59, 70

California, 33, 36, 70, 191-192

committee study methodology, 191-192

databases, 67

Geological Survey, 2, 87

Gulf of Mexico, 2, 33, 55, 56, 70, 191

maps of inputs, 36-37, 54, 56

Minerals Management Service, 2, 87

models, 108, 109, 110

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2, 87

polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 32, 33

tarballs, 89, 104

toxicity, 32, 33, 149-150, 156

Shellfish, 22, 127, 130, 132, 144-145, 148-149, 153-154

mussels, 22, 24, 128, 131, 137, 141-143

Shipowner’s Limitation of Liability Act, 255

Ships and boats, 32, 65

see also Recreational vessels;

Tankers

International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 15, 43, 66

operational discharges, ix, 3-4, 16, 22, 31, 39, 42, 43, 46, 48-49, 51, 52, 55, 57, 59, 65, 69, 75-76, 78, 82-84, 114-115, 203-212

spills, non-tank vessels, 46, 48-49, 51, 52, 55, 57, 59, 69, 214-216

submerged and abandoned vessels, 67, 68

Shorelines, ix, 14, 16, 32, 89

see also Coastal zones

Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 25-27

Exxon Valdez,23, 24, 25

extraction spills, 2-3

shoreline stranding, 22, 90, 103-104, 109, 113-114, 116

transport processes, 22, 89, 90, 103-104, 109, 113-114, 116

SIMAP, 111-112

Small spills, 23, 74

see also Recreational vessels

Solubility, see Dissolution

Spills, 2, 22, 59-60, 89, 113-114

see also Oil wells/platforms;

Pipelines;

Ships and boats;

Small spills;

Tankers;

Transport processes, spills;

Weathering processes

fires, 77

historical perspectives, 1, 4, 11, 12-13, 29;

see also specific spills

small spills, 23, 74;

see also Recreational vessels

size of release, 21, 55, 59, 61, 109, 120, 133-134

Suggested Citation:"Index." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2003. Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10388.
×

Spreading, 89, 90, 97-98, 100

Standards, see Regulatory issues

STORET database, 233-236, 238, 240, 244, 250

Submerged and abandoned vessels, 67, 68

Supply/demand, see Energy supply/demand

T

Tankers, ix, 3, 12-13, 16, 17, 30, 39, 42, 51, 55, 57, 59, 69, 74-76, 78, 86, 87-88, 212-216

databases, 75, 213-214

Exxon Valdez,1, 11, 14, 22, 23, 75, 100, 128, 130-131, 134, 139-140, 149

International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 15, 43, 66

International Maritime Organization, 75, 87-88, 215-216

maps, 34-37, 44-45

operational discharges, 75-76, 78, 82-83, 86, 88, 204-208, 226

regulatory issues, 39, 55, 62, 66, 75, 83, 87-88, 157

volatile organic compounds (VOC), 4, 30, 65, 76-77, 88, 225

Tarballs, 20, 22, 89, 90, 101, 104, 113-114, 115, 137

Temperature factors, 29, 89, 109, 122

see also Climate change

atmospheric deposition, general, 85, 223, 226

biological effects, 120, 121, 123

dissolution, 93

ice, 104-105

microbial oxidation, 97

oxidation, 94, 97

volatile organic compounds (VOC), tanker releases, 76

volatilization, 115

Temporal factors, 1, 22, 61

see also Persistence;

Transport processes, ecological;

Weathering processes

atmospheric deposition, 85

biological effects, 119-123(passim), 129-132, 140-141, 144, 156

evaporation, 90

microbial oxidation, 97

pipeline spills, 39

recreational boats, 66

small spills, 23, 28, 66

time-series analyses, 122

transportation related spills, 39, 43

Terminal facilities and refineries, 16, 42, 44-45, 47, 51, 53, 55, 57, 59, 69, 77-78, 80, 101, 212-222, 242, 245, 246, 249

Texas, 71, 144, 200

see also Gulf of Mexico

Time factors, see Temporal factors

Time-series analyses, 122

Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH), 61, 78, 80, 87, 240

Toulene, see BTEX

Toxicity, 21, 28-29, 31, 61, 62, 125-157

bioaccumulation, 128-129

behavioral effects, 125, 128, 135, 138

benthic organisms, 121, 125, 148, 151-156 (passim)

definitional issues, 125

disease, 123, 127, 131-132, 133, 155, 157

dispersion and, 134, 151

dissolution of aromatic compounds, 93

dose factors, 22

Environmental Protection Agency, 156, 157

estuaries, 124, 131-132, 151-152, 155

food resource losses, 139

Geological Survey, 156, 157

Gulf of Mexico, 144, 145, 153

human health, 31, 89

loading rates, 21-22

metabolic effects, 125, 127, 128-129, 149

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration , 156, 157

natural seeps, 32, 33, 149-150, 156

neurological/narcotic effects, 125, 133

polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 21, 29, 31-33, 127-132, 135-136, 148, 149, 153

photooxidation, 95

produced water discharges, 38

reproductive/developmental effects, 123-131 (passim), 125, 130-131, 133, 134-135, 137, 138, 142, 153-154, 155-156

sediments, 127, 128, 130, 131, 142, 146, 151-152, 153-154

weathering, 22, 29, 126, 127-128, 144, 147

Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act, 255

Transport process, spills, 4, 22, 30, 38-39, 58, 59, 89-90, 91, 97-103, 109-114, 115, 116

see also Dispersion

advection, 89, 90, 98, 99, 112-113, 116

bioavailability, 22, 28, 31, 39, 90, 102-103, 125, 128-129, 131

deep-water releases, 106-108

Langmuir circulation, 59, 89, 92, 98-99

models, 89-90, 108-112

overwashing, 89, 101

partitioning, 89, 90, 101-102, 128

pipeline spills, 39

sediments, 39, 89, 90, 100-101, 102-104, 109-110, 113-114

shallow-water releases, 105-106

shorelines, 22, 89, 90, 103-104, 109, 113-114, 116

sinking, 89, 90, 100

spreading, 89, 90, 97-98, 100, 104-105, 112-116(passim)

viscosity, 20, 74, 90, 92-93, 97, 100, 114, 231

Transportation sector, 2, 3, 16, 28, 32, 39, 42, 41-43, 44-45, 47, 53, 54, 57, 65-66, 69, 72-77, 78

see also Aircraft fuel;

Foreign trade;

Pipelines;

Ships and boats;

Tankers

atmospheric deposition, 42-43

databases, 67

energy demands of sector, 7, 8, 9-10

Gulf of Mexico, 3, 45, 55, 75

input assessment methodology, 203-217

maps of inputs, 36-37

motor vehicles/urban highways, 79, 80

polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 32, 42, 47

Two- and four-stroke engines, 3-4, 22, 43, 46, 58, 65, 66, 81-82, 112, 115, 219-220

U

United Kingdom, 72, 199, 200, 202

see also North Sea

Urban areas

atmospheric deposition, 85, 224-225

Boston Harbor, chronic contamination, 131

runoff, 16, 29, 31, 46, 53, 55, 56, 62, 66, 67, 78-79, 80, 86-87, 157, 235-242, 247-249

V

Vegetation, 125, 142, 143

Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 26-27

mangroves, 62, 89, 125, 145-148

Vessels, see Recreational vessels;

Ships and boats;

Submerged and abandoned vessels;

Tankers

Viscosity, 20, 74, 90, 92-93, 97, 100, 114, 231

Volatile organic compounds (VOC), 4, 43, 46, 58-59, 65, 70, 71, 87, 153

see also Aircraft fuel;

Atmospheric deposition

climate change and, 58-59

coastal zones, 4, 59, 77

Coast Guard, 4, 59

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 4, 197

extraction spills, 3, 39, 65, 70, 71, 88, 153, 196-199

Gulf of Mexico, 196, 198, 199

input estimate methodology, 196-199

International Maritime Organization, 4, 59, 88

Mexico, 196, 198

Minerals Management Service, 4, 196, 199

regulatory issues, 4, 71, 197

research methodology, 225-226

tanker releases, 4, 30, 65, 76-77, 88, 225

transportation releases, 3, 42

Volatilization, general, 89, 113, 116, 231

W

War and armed conflicts

Persian Gulf War, 134, 135, 136-137

submerged and abandoned vessels, 67

World War II, 67, 68

Waterfowl and marine birds, 11, 14, 22, 29, 119, 121, 122-123, 125, 132-140(passim)

Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps, 26-27

Weathering processes, 20, 21, 89, 90, 109

bioavailability, 20, 74, 90, 92-93, 100, 114, 231

dissolution, 89, 90

emulsification and, 90, 114

Suggested Citation:"Index." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2003. Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10388.
×

evaporation, 59, 86, 89, 90, 114, 115, 126, 216

pipeline spills, 39

produced water discharges, 38

sediments, 28, 119, 127

submerged oil, 101

toxicity and, 22, 29, 126, 127-128, 144, 147

Wells, see Oil wells/platforms

Wetlands, 62, 89, 124, 125, 143-148

Wildlife, 11, 14, 23, 62, 89, 119, 121, 123, 125

see also Benthic organisms;

Bioavailability;

Fish and fisheries;

Marine biota;

Toxicity;

Vegetation;

Waterfowl and marine birds

Exxon Valdez spill, 23, 24

natural seeps, 53, 87

sensitive habitats, 53, 87, 125, 138-139

Wind, 90, 92

Langmuir circulation, 59, 89, 92, 98-99

overwashing, 101

World Wide Web, see Internet

X

Xylene, see BTEX

Suggested Citation:"Index." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2003. Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10388.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2003. Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10388.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2003. Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10388.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2003. Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10388.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2003. Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10388.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2003. Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10388.
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Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects Get This Book
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Since the early 1970s, experts have recognized that petroleum pollutants were being discharged in marine waters worldwide, from oil spills, vessel operations, and land-based sources. Public attention to oil spills has forced improvements. Still, a considerable amount of oil is discharged yearly into sensitive coastal environments.

Oil in the Sea provides the best available estimate of oil pollutant discharge into marine waters, including an evaluation of the methods for assessing petroleum load and a discussion about the concerns these loads represent. Featuring close-up looks at the Exxon Valdez spill and other notable events, the book identifies important research questions and makes recommendations for better analysis of—and more effective measures against—pollutant discharge.

The book discusses:

  • Input—where the discharges come from, including the role of two-stroke engines used on recreational craft.
  • Behavior or fate—how oil is affected by processes such as evaporation as it moves through the marine environment.
  • Effects—what we know about the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on marine organisms and ecosystems.

Providing a needed update on a problem of international importance, this book will be of interest to energy policy makers, industry officials and managers, engineers and researchers, and advocates for the marine environment.

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