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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2002. The Dynamics of Disability: Measuring and Monitoring Disability for Social Security Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10411.
×

Index

A

Activities of daily living, 58, 61, 187, 192-193, 195-196, 227-232, 247, 253, 265, 292, 296

Activity limitation concept, 193, 196, 197, 201, 202, 204-205, 208, 261, 264, 286

Administration and processing of claims.

See also Disability decision process

definitional issues, 4, 55

file linkages for monitoring work disability, 5, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 106-108, 290-291, 293

growth issues, 2, 10, 19-20, 37, 38, 39, 40

research recommendations, 172-173

Age

and ability to work, 10, 135, 242

and growth of disability programs, 1-2, 35, 18-19, 42, 43, 44-45, 46

labor force participation, 306-308, 320-321, 325, 326

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 110, 143, 294, 297

Aid to the Blind, 37

Aid to the Permanently and Totally Disabled, 37

AIDS/HIV infection, 41

Aliens, qualified, 43-44

Allowances. See Awards and allowances

American Community Survey, 99-101, 109, 295, 297, 298

American Housing Survey, 100-101, 295, 300-301

American Institutes for Research (AIR), 122, 133

American Medical Association (AMA), Guides to Evaluation of Permanent Impairment, 55-56, 203-204

American Psychiatric Association, 241, 242, 245, 250-257, 268, 269, 272-273, 274, 279

American Psychological Association, 245-246

Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), 4, 31, 51, 54, 60, 194, 213, 262, 310, 328, 329

Assistive devices and accommodations, 62, 84, 116, 187, 202, 207, 208, 283-284, 310

Awards and allowances

growth of, 1, 18, 33-42, 46, 47

replacement rate caps, 39

review requirements, 39

minimum benefits, 39

variations in, 136-137

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2002. The Dynamics of Disability: Measuring and Monitoring Disability for Social Security Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10411.
×

B

Baby boom generation, 2, 11, 43, 46, 51, 89, 141, 145, 307, 308

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 95, 100-101, 290, 295, 299-300

Bias, defined, 214

Black Lung Program, 35, 37

Boston College, 143

Bureau of Justice Statistics, 282, 298-299

Bureau of Labor Statistics, 133, 282, 299, 310, 314, 315, 316, 317, 324, 326

Bureau of the Census, 94, 297-298, 300

C

California Work and Health Survey, 324-326

Canadian Health and Activity Limitation Survey, 77, 207, 298

Cardiovascular disease, 46

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 192, 299-300

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Service, 143

Classification of disabilities.

See also International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health

by disabled persons, 218-219, 225-227

fuzzy logic in, 225

mental, 245-250, 253-254

SSA Listings of Impairments, 48, 55, 63, 124, 129-132, 203-204, 245-250

in work disability monitoring system, 6, 296, 298

Clinical Disability Severity Rating, 252

Cognitive considerations

interviewing, 224-225

in survey measurements of disability, 223-225, 236-237, 238, 298

Cognitive theory, 223-225

Composite International Diagnostic Interview, 267

Conceptual issues. See Definition of work disability

Consultative Examiner, 250

Content Reinterview Survey (CRS), 228-231, 234-235

Continuing disability reviews (CDRs), 39, 40

Continuous Work History Sample, 107

Cost containment, 34

Cost-of-living adjustments, 35

Court decisions and class action suits

and definitions of disability, 213

and growth of disability programs, 2, 10, 40, 45, 48, 90, 127

Coverage error, 75-78, 85, 95, 104, 171, 215, 220, 223, 227, 284, 285, 290, 292

Cross-sectional design

for monitoring work disability, 95, 96, 105-106, 291, 293-294

for survey measurement of disability, 96, 219, 291, 293-294

Current Population Survey, 51, 95, 100-101, 104, 106, 206, 234, 290, 295, 298, 299, 318, 324

D

Data collection modes

for monitoring work disability, 95, 97, 102, 106, 110, 291-292, 294, 295

for survey measurement of disability, 69, 70, 72, 74, 78-79, 82, 83-84, 86, 87, 95, 106, 212, 216, 218, 219-220, 223, 228-229, 284, 285, 291-292, 301

Decennial Census, 206, 228-229, 230, 234-235, 236-237, 298

Definition of work disability.

See also Disability decision process

activity limitation concept, 193, 196, 197, 201, 202, 204-205, 208, 261, 264, 286

biopsychosocial model, 260, 285-286

conceptual issues, 4, 53-56, 59, 184-195

cultural perspective, 54, 193

duration or chronicity considerations, 62-63, 202-203

dynamic nature of disability and, 4, 60, 62-63, 84, 198-200, 202-203, 213

enabling-disabling process, 7-8, 74, 190, 191, 213, 281

environmental factors, 4, 7, 54, 57-58, 59-60, 61, 62-64, 83-84, 185-186, 188-190, 191, 194, 196, 198, 204-205, 208, 211, 213, 261-262, 283, 285-286

functional limitation, 4, 30, 54, 58, 59, 186-187, 193, 196, 197, 202, 204, 208, 212, 283

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2002. The Dynamics of Disability: Measuring and Monitoring Disability for Social Security Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10411.
×

and growth of awards and allowances, 35, 37, 40, 41

handicap concept, 193, 194, 195, 259

ICF model, 54, 56, 58-59, 258, 279

ICIDH model, 54, 57, 58-59, 60, 185, 190, 192-195, 196, 197, 198, 201, 259, 261-263

impairment concept, 186, 192, 196, 197, 201, 203-204, 212, 213, 243, 259, 261

intraindividual factors, 188, 189, 203

IOM models, 54, 56, 60, 188, 190, 194, 200

labor market structural changes and, 4, 30-31, 56, 62, 94, 318

major schools of thought, 56-63, 185-195

and measurement of work disability, 61, 62, 183-184, 212, 200-205, 283-284

for monitoring work disability, 289

Nagi’s Disablement Model, 56, 57-58, 60, 185-190, 192, 195-196, 197, 198, 201, 259

neutral terminology, 193-194, 261, 263-264, 286

in ongoing federal surveys, 49 n.6, 283-284

participation restriction, 193-195, 196, 197, 201-202, 212, 261, 264, 286

pathology/health condition, 186, 192, 196, 197, 201, 203

purposes of, 55, 183, 184-185

quality-of-life and, 58, 60, 190, 199-200, 201

recommendations, 12-13, 63-64

risk factors, 188, 189

as screening device, 55-56, 61, 183-184

secondary conditions, 60, 190, 198-199

social roles concept, 54, 57, 58, 59-60, 61, 187-190, 193, 195-198, 199, 201

statutory, 4, 17-18, 30, 54, 55, 57, 60, 74, 94, 128, 184, 185, 190, 200, 213, 242-243, 251, 262, 279, 281, 283, 289

in surveys, 7-8, 49 n.6, 56, 74, 83-84, 87, 94, 183, 184-185, 211, 212, 213, 263-264, 281-284

Demographic trends

growth of disability programs, 1-2, 18-19, 35, 42, 43-46, 89

Department of Health and Human Services, 18-19

Department of Housing and Urban Development, 300-301

Department of Labor, 9, 61, 122, 123, 132-134, 136, 145, 310, 317, 328-329

Dependents of beneficiaries, 35

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 245, 246

Dictionary of Occupational Titles, 9, 61, 122, 132, 134, 136, 145, 328-329

Differential response error, 220-221

Disability Analyst, 244, 249

Disability claims process, 3, 19, 21

Disability decision process.

See also Administration and processing of claims;

Eligibility criteria

adversary models of benefits adjudication, 138

alternatives to, 10-11, 137-139

American Psychiatric Association evaluation of, 241, 250-257, 268, 269, 272-273, 274, 279

appeals, 19-20, 21

baseline evaluative criteria for redesign, 9, 38, 40, 118, 126-129, 130-131, 139

conceptual issues, 4, 113, 183-184, 242-243, 251;

see also Definition of work disability

Consultative Examiner, 250

continuing disability reviews (CDRs), 39, 40

date-of-onset/period-of-review documentation, 255, 256, 270

difficult claim types, 253, 255-256, 257, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274, 277

environmental factors in, 4, 61, 138

functional assessment instruments, 25, 26, 90, 113, 114, 116-117, 119, 120-122, 124-125, 129, 172, 271, 272, 273-274

and growth of awards and allowances, 19, 37, 38, 39, 40, 114, 136-137, 212

ICF assessment instrument and, 242, 257-266, 268, 273, 275, 277, 278, 279

Index of Severely Disabling Impairments, 25, 116-117, 124, 127, 270

for initial claims, 19, 22-26, 34, 37, 114-117, 241-279

Listings of Impairments, 8-9, 22-23, 24 n.4, 48, 55, 63, 115, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 129-132, 203-204, 244-250, 253-254, 256, 265, 268, 275, 276

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2002. The Dynamics of Disability: Measuring and Monitoring Disability for Social Security Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10411.
×

medical evidence, 19, 22-23, 40, 48, 63, 114, 115, 129, 243, 244, 250, 254-255, 256-257, 268, 270, 271, 272-273, 277-278

for mental impairments, 68, 129, 243-244, 248-249, 253, 265, 275-276, 277-278

Mental Residual Functional Capacity Assessment, 248, 249, 250, 251, 254, 256, 264, 270, 273, 278

NSHA and, 118, 119

objectives, 137-138

occupational classification system, 9, 61, 114, 117, 119, 122-123, 132-134, 136, 172, 312-314, 322-323

organizational fragmentation, 145-146

physician opinions in, 40

post-redesign period, 123-137

Psychiatric Review Technique Form, 244, 248-249, 250, 251, 253-254, 256, 265, 269, 270, 275

quality assurance reviews, 38, 40

recommendations, 9, 10-11, 14, 63-64, 123, 127, 130-131, 138, 172-173, 256-257, 275-279

redesign proposal, 3, 8, 21, 24-26, 90, 116-123, 127, 128-129, 130-132, 133, 139, 145, 172, 211-212, 241, 242

regulations and guidelines, 114, 115

research plan, 10-11, 63-64, 119-123, 125, 126, 130, 131, 132, 133, 139, 172-173, 241, 256-257, 268-279

Residual Physical Functional Capacity Assessment, 24, 273-274

responsibility for, 19, 21, 34, 37, 107, 136-137, 243, 244

return-to-work model, 8, 10-11, 138

Reviewing Medical Consultant, 244, 248-249, 251, 253-254, 271

scope of committee review of, 3, 8

screening instruments, 247, 267-268, 269, 271, 275, 278

simulation and modeling of, 67, 70, 72, 173, 289, 290

vocational capacity assessment, 9-10, 24, 25, 63, 113, 115, 117, 119, 132-137, 172, 203, 204-205, 242-243, 245, 263, 275, 303

WHO DAS II and, 267-268, 275, 278

Disability Determination Services (DDs), 10, 19, 21, 37, 107, 136-137, 243

Disability Employment Strategy, 67, 70

Disability Evaluation Study (DES), 20, 63-64, 212, 170-171.

See also National Study of Health and Activity

Disability insurance tax rate and trust fund, 34-35

Disability Research Institute, 109, 131, 143

Disabled people

desire to work, 207

discrimination against, 207

employer tolerance, 108

labor force participation rates, 319-321

labor market for, 49-51, 317, 318-328

number of, 212

quality-of-life issues, 58, 60, 190, 199-200, 201

self-classification of disability, 218-219, 225-227

socioeconomic status, 90

stereotypes, 62, 202-203

support for SSA’s Disability Employment Strategy, 67

Disablement process, 84, 188-190, 200

Drug abuse and alcoholism, 48

Duration or chronicity of disability, 19, 44, 62-63, 202-203

Dynamic nature of disability, conceptual issues, 4, 60, 62-63, 84, 198-200, 202-203, 213

enabling-disabling process, 74, 190, 191, 213, 224, 226

and work disability monitoring system, 91

E

Economic censuses, quinquennial, 92

Economic conditions

and growth of disability programs, 2, 18, 37, 38, 40, 41, 42, 47, 48, 49, 88, 89, 287, 288

Education

and ability to work, 10, 135-136, 242

and labor force participation rates, 308-309, 321-322

Effectiveness, defined, 128

Efficiency, defined, 128

831 Disability file, 107

Eligibility criteria.

See also Disability decision process

and definitions of disability, 55

medical and functional, 48

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2002. The Dynamics of Disability: Measuring and Monitoring Disability for Social Security Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10411.
×

for mental impairments, 40, 41, 68

noncitizens, 43-44, 48

original, 34

and program size, 2, 33, 39, 40, 41

substantial gainful activity and, 2, 19, 34, 40, 53, 55, 63, 66 n.1, 94, 114, 115, 123, 184

and survey instrument design, 212

threshold severity requirement, 116

Enabling-disabling process, 7, 74, 190, 191, 224, 226, 281

Environment. See Work environment

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 329

Extraindividual factors, 188, 189, 196, 198.

See also Work environment

F

Federal ongoing surveys

definition of disability in, 49 n.6, 283-284

measurement of disability in, 99-104, 212, 213, 282, 285-286

partnerships for monitoring work disability, 5, 93-94, 95, 99-104, 105-106, 109, 110, 294-301

Functional limitations, 40

assessment instruments, 25, 26, 90, 113, 114, 116-117, 119, 120-122, 124-125, 129, 172, 271, 272, 273-274

definition of, 4, 30, 54, 58, 59, 186-187, 193, 196, 197, 202, 204, 208, 212, 283

and disability decision process, 25, 26, 90, 113, 114, 116-117, 119, 120-122, 124-125, 129, 172, 271, 272, 273-274

interviewing techniques, 224-225

of survey respondents, 75, 77-79, 80-81, 223-227, 284

vocational capacity assessment, 132-133, 329

G

Gender

and growth of disability programs, 43, 44-45, 46, 49, 50

labor force participation rates by, 43, 44, 49, 50, 89, 305-306, 319, 320-321, 325, 326

General Accounting Office, 129

Gore, Al, 20-21

Growth of disability programs

administrative initiatives and, 2, 10, 19-20, 37, 38, 39, 40

allowances and awards, 1, 10, 18, 33-42, 46, 47, 136-137

applications, 33, 35, 41

cost shifting by states and, 19, 47, 90

court decisions and, 2, 10, 40, 45, 48, 90, 127

definitions of disability and, 35, 37, 40, 41

demographic trends and, 1-2, 18-19, 35, 42, 43-46, 89

disability decision process and, 19, 37, 38, 39, 40, 114, 136-137, 212

econometric research studies, 20, 34

economic conditions and, 2, 18, 37, 38, 40, 41, 42, 47, 48, 49, 88, 89, 286, 288

eligibility criteria and, 2, 33, 39, 40, 41, 136-137

historical developments and, 34-42

impairments and, 2, 18, 34, 40, 45-47, 48

labor market dynamics and, 43, 44, 48, 49-51, 52, 89, 288

labor market structural changes and, 2, 18, 48, 89, 304

legislative and regulatory changes and, 2, 10, 18, 19, 34, 35, 38, 39-41, 42, 44, 45, 48, 51-52, 90, 127

for mental impairments, 2, 45-46, 47, 48

outreach efforts and, 2, 19, 37, 42, 47

projected, 2, 43, 51, 141, 145

research needs, 20, 34, 52, 89-94, 127, 212

SSA surveys of, 286-288

trends, 1-2, 35-42

H

Handicap, defined, 193, 194, 195, 259

Health and Retirement Survey (HRS), 288

Homeless populations, 75-76

I

ICF Checklist, 266, 267, 275, 277, 278

Impairments.

See also Mental impairments AMA evaluation guides, 55-55, 203-204

awards by diagnostic group, 47

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2002. The Dynamics of Disability: Measuring and Monitoring Disability for Social Security Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10411.
×

circulatory conditions, 2, 46, 47, 62, 203

classification, 54, 57, 58-59, 60, 185, 190, 192-195, 261-263

conceptual issues, 186, 192, 196, 197, 201, 203-204, 212, 213, 243, 259, 261

date of onset and period of review, 255

environmental limitations, 115

fatigue, 62, 203

functional, 54

and growth of disability programs, 2, 18, 34, 40, 45-47, 48

multiple combined, 40, 47, 115, 243

musculoskeletal conditions, 2, 46, 47, 62, 203

pain, 62, 203

pathology/health condition, 186, 192, 196, 197, 201, 203

survey design considerations, 76-77

systemic diseases, 47, 62, 203

threshold severity requirement, 116

Index of Severely Disabling Impairments, 25, 116-117, 124, 127, 270

Institute of Medicine, conceptual models of disability, 54, 56, 60, 188, 190, 194, 200

Institutionalized populations, 75-76

Instrumental activities of daily living, 58, 61, 187, 192-193, 247, 296

Internal consistency, 222

International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)

coding and rating, 263-264

conceptual model, 54, 58-59, 83-84, 185, 195, 196, 197, 198, 201-202, 258, 261-263, 277, 279, 285-286

and disability decision process, 242, 257-266, 268, 273, 275, 277, 278, 279

domains, 196, 286

features of, 83-84, 257-258, 285-286

ICF Checklist, 266, 267, 278

ICIDH-1 (1980) compared, 54, 57, 58-59, 60, 185, 190, 192-195, 198, 201, 259, 261-263, 285

ICIDH-2, 185, 196, 197, 265, 282, 285

revision process, 185, 192, 260-261, 265

survey questionnaire mapping to, 285-286

taxonomy, 263

work disability, 265-266

International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities, and Handicaps (ICIDH). See International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health

International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), 257-258

International Task Force on Mental Health, and Addictive, Behavioural, Cognitive, and Developmental Aspects of ICIDH, 260, 265

Interviewing methods, 76-77, 81, 85, 95, 171, 215-217, 219, 220, 224-225, 228, 291-292

L

Labor force participation

accommodations and, 62, 84, 310

age and, 306-308, 320-321, 325, 326

and disability definitions, 56, 62

by disabled persons, 319-321

dynamics of, 89, 304-309

early withdrawal from, 288

educational attainment and, 308-309, 321-322

gender and, 43, 44, 49, 50, 89, 305-306, 319, 320-321, 325, 326

race and, 306, 320-321

Labor market dynamics

alternative work arrangements, 316

contingent employment, 315-316

and definition of work disability, 4, 30-31, 94, 318

for disabled people, 49-51, 317, 318-328

displacement rates, 317-318, 326-328

employment characteristics, 309-318, 321-327

and growth of disability programs, 43, 44, 48, 49-51, 52, 89, 288

industries, 310-312, 321-322

internal structure of work, 317

job security, 315

location of work, 316-317

measuring functional demands, 328-330

occupations, 312-314, 322-323

part-time employment, 314-315, 323-324

structural changes, 2, 18, 30-31, 48, 89, 304

terms of employment, 315-318, 324-326

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2002. The Dynamics of Disability: Measuring and Monitoring Disability for Social Security Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10411.
×

Legislation and regulations

and growth of disability programs, 2, 10, 18, 19, 34, 35, 38, 39-41, 42, 44, 45, 48, 51-52, 90, 127

Leisure activities, 188

Listings of Impairments, 8-9, 22-23, 24 n.4, 48, 55, 63, 115, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 129-132, 203-204, 244-250, 253-254, 256, 265, 268, 275, 276

Longitudinal design

for measurement surveys, 96, 199, 219-220, 228, 291, 293

for monitoring work disability, 5, 95, 96, 97, 105-106, 199, 291, 293

M

Master Beneficiary Record (MBR), 107, 108

Master Earnings File (MEF), 107, 108

Measurement error

disabled person as source of, 223-227

in essential survey conditions, 212, 219-221

in Index of ADLs, 228, 296

interviewer-related, 219, 221

psychometric perspective, 221-222, 228, 231-232, 238

questionnaire-related, 82-83, 85, 216-217, 221, 286

research needs on, 74-75, 82-83, 284-285

respondent-related, 217-218, 223-227, 292

in surveys, 74-75, 82-83, 85, 95, 212, 216-227, 232-237, 284, 285, 286, 290, 291, 292

Measurement of disability.

See also National Study of Health and Activity;

Survey measurement of disability

activity limitation (at work), 201, 204-205

conceptual issues, 61, 62, 183-184, 200-205, 212, 283-284

direct assessment, 205-208

duration/chronicity considerations, 202-203

empirical evidence on error in, 227-236

environmental barriers and accommodations and, 109, 232-233, 237

functional limitations, 204, 227-236

health condition or pathology, 201, 203

impairment, 201, 203-204

with Index of ADL, 227-232, 292

participation restriction, 201-202

quality-of-life considerations, 90

research recommendations, 109

role of work and, 201, 205

threshold, 62, 202

work disability, 201, 205, 232-236

Medicaid coverage, 2, 35, 37, 138

Medical evidence, 19, 22-23, 40, 48, 63, 114, 115, 129, 243, 244, 250, 254-255, 256-257, 268, 270, 271, 272-273, 277-278

Medical examinations and performance tests

for monitoring work disability, 95, 96, 102, 290, 293, 295, 300

for NSHA, 70, 71, 78, 79-80, 81

for surveys, 70, 71, 78, 79, 81, 95, 96, 289, 290, 293, 295, 300

Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 100-101, 102, 106, 108, 110, 294, 295, 297

Medicare, 2, 138

Mental impairments

affective disorders, 253

anxiety disorders, 247, 253, 254

autistic disorder, 247

American Psychiatric Association evaluation of claims process, 241, 250-257, 268, 269, 272-273, 274, 279

Clinical Disability Severity Rating, 252

date-of-onset/period-of-review documentation, 255, 256, 270

difficult claim types, 253, 255-256, 257, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274, 277

disability determination process, 68, 129, 243-244, 248-249, 253, 265, 275-276, 277-278

eligibility criteria, 40, 41, 68

growth in awards and allowances for, 2, 45-46, 47, 48

ICF assessment instrument, 242, 257-266, 268, 273, 275, 277, 278, 279

Listing of, 48, 244-250, 253-254, 256, 265, 268, 275, 276

medical evidence, 243, 244, 250, 254-255, 256-257, 268, 270, 271, 272-273, 277-278

Mental Residual Functional Capacity Assessment, 248, 249, 250, 251, 254, 256, 264, 270, 273, 278

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2002. The Dynamics of Disability: Measuring and Monitoring Disability for Social Security Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10411.
×

mental retardation, 247, 253

organic mental disorders, 253

personality disorders, 247, 253, 256

Psychiatric Review Technique Form, 244, 248-249, 250, 251, 253-254, 256, 265, 269, 270, 275

recommendations, 256-257, 275-279

research issues, 256-257, 268-279

schizophrenic, paranoid and other psychotic disorders, 246, 253, 254

sequential evaluation, 243-244, 248-249, 253, 276, 277-278

somatoform disorders, 253

statutory definition, 242-243

substance addiction disorder, 247

vocational capacity assessment, 242-243, 245, 263, 275

WHO DAS II, 267-268, 275, 278

Mentally disabled

deinstitutionalization of, 19, 40, 47

stigmatization, 84

survey design for, 75-76

Monitoring

of costs, 34-35

of work disability, see Work disability monitoring system

N

Nagi, Saad, 57, 185, 259

Nagi’s Disablement Model, 56, 57-58, 60, 185-190, 192, 195-196, 197, 198, 201, 259

National Academy of Social Insurance (NASI), 129, 130, 269, 271

National Center for Health Statistics, 94, 108, 110, 192, 299-300

National Comorbidity Survey, 299

National Crime Victimization Survey, 100-101, 295, 298-299

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 100, 101-103, 109, 171, 295, 289, 300

National Health Interview Survey, 49 n.6, 95, 100, 102-103, 109, 110, 206, 290, 295, 296, 299, 300, 318

Disability Supplement, 171, 226, 234, 235

National Household Survey of Drug Abuse, 100, 102-103, 104, 292, 295, 301

National Institute of Mental Health, 278

National Institutes of Health, 143, 267

National Longitudinal Study (NLS), 288

National Medical Care Expenditure Survey, 294

National Medical Care Utilization and Expenditure Survey, 294

National Organization on Disability/Harris Survey of Americans with Disabilities, 226

National Performance Review, 20-21

National Science Foundation, 143

National Study of Health and Activity.

See also Survey measurement of disability

corrective revisions, 8, 71-72, 86, 87

data collection plans, 7, 69, 70, 72, 74, 78-79, 85, 86, 171, 290

disability decision process evaluation, 118, 119

features, 67-70

field experiments, 6, 73, 74, 171

information goals, 20, 52, 65, 66-67, 88, 91

interim reports on, 66, 70, 78, 80, 81, 170-173

long-term usefulness of, 8, 91

medical examinations, 70, 71, 78, 79-80, 81

monitoring system for work disability, 5, 97-99, 104, 109

pilot study, 6-7, 8, 70, 71, 72-74, 78, 81, 82, 86

quality issues, 70-74

questionnaire design and testing, 70, 71, 72, 73, 81-82, 85, 87, 90, 171, 284

recommendations, 12, 70, 85, 87, 147-148, 170-171, 173

research, 72-73, 85, 172-173

response rates, 8, 69-70, 73, 81, 171

sample design, 7, 67-68, 73, 78, 80, 171

sample sizes, 7-8, 68-69, 70, 80, 170-171

scope of committee study, 2-3, 26-27, 65-66, 147-148

simulation of disability decision process, 67, 70, 72, 173

testing phase, 7, 72, 78, 86, 170

time allocation for, 6-7, 70-74, 86, 173

Nonobservation errors, 214-216, 284-285

Nonresponse error, 76, 77, 80-81, 85, 95, 104, 215-216, 220, 227, 284, 285, 290, 291, 292

Numident, 108

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2002. The Dynamics of Disability: Measuring and Monitoring Disability for Social Security Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10411.
×

O

Observational errors, 216-221, 227, 284-285

Occupational classification systems, 9, 61, 114, 117, 119, 122-123, 132-134, 136, 172, 312-314, 322-323, 328-329

Occupational Information Network (ONET) database, 9-10, 61, 122-123, 132-134, 145, 172, 328-329

Office of the Inspector General, 129

Old Age Assistance, 37

Old Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program, 107-108

Outreach efforts, and growth of disability programs, 2, 19, 37, 42, 47

Owens, Patricia, 250

P

Paid and unpaid role activities, 187

Pain, and disability, 40, 62, 114, 203

Parkinson’s disease, 187

Parsons, Talcott, 54, 58, 59, 195

Participation, conceptual issues, 193-195, 196, 197, 201-202, 212, 261, 264, 286

Provider-based survey data, 102, 290, 295, 296

Proxy respondents, 78-79, 83, 95-96, 106, 212, 216, 218, 223, 225, 226, 228, 230-231, 284, 292

Q

Quality issues, in NSHA, 70-74

Quality of Employment surveys, 317

Quality of life

and disability definitions, 58, 60, 190, 199-200, 201

health-related, 199-200

Questionnaire design

for monitoring work disability, 293

for NSHA, 70, 71, 72, 73, 81-82, 85, 87, 90, 171, 284

for survey measurement, 70, 76-77, 82-83, 85, 87, 205-207, 212, 216-217, 223-224, 226-227, 228, 230-231, 232, 233, 236-238, 281-282, 284, 285-286, 293-294

R

Race, and labor force participation rates, 306, 320-321

Recall bias, 217-218

Recommendations

concepts of work disability, 12-13, 63-64

disability decision process, 9, 10-11, 14, 63-64, 123, 127, 130-131, 138, 172-173, 256-257, 275-279

for monitoring work disability, 5, 13, 92-93, 147

for NSHA, 70, 85, 87, 170-171, 173

research infrastructure and capacity building, 14, 142

survey measurement of disability, 13, 85, 86-87, 170-171

Regulations. See Legislation and regulations

Rehabilitation, 60, 134, 188, 190, 191, 198, 203, 259

Reliability

defined, 221, 127

of disability decision process, 127

of Index of ADL, 227

interrater, 134, 222, 254

measures of, 222

of Mental Residual Functional Capacity Assessment, 254

of occupational classifications, 134

of survey measures of disability, 221, 222, 227, 231-232, 236

of WHO DAS II, 267

Research issues

cooperative agreements, 144

disability decision process, 10-11, 63-64, 119-123, 125, 126, 130, 131, 132, 133, 138, 139, 172-173, 241, 256-257, 268-279

extramural programs, 11, 143

grant programs, 142-143, 144

growth of disability programs, 20, 34, 52, 212

infrastructure and capacity building, 11-12, 142, 140-147

intramural programs, 11, 144

measurement of disabilities, 141-147, 208, 284-285

mental impairments, 268-274

monitoring work disability, 301

NSHA, 72-73, 85, 172-173

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2002. The Dynamics of Disability: Measuring and Monitoring Disability for Social Security Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10411.
×

resource requirements, 14, 141-144

survey methods, 74-87, 208, 284-286, 301

Residual Physical Functional Capacity Assessment, 24, 273-274

Respiratory disorders, 203

Respondent burden, 70, 76-77, 81-82, 106, 216, 217-218

Response rates, 8, 69-70, 73, 76, 81, 171, 215

Retirement History Survey, 288

Retirement Research Consortium (RRC), 143

Reviewing Medical Consultant, 244, 248-249, 251, 253-254, 271

S

Sample design, 7, 67-68, 73, 78, 80, 171, 214, 219

Sample sizes, 7-8, 68-69, 70, 80, 98, 104, 106, 170-171, 218, 295, 296

Sampling error, 79-80, 214, 290, 292

Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry, 267

Screening

instruments, 247, 267-268, 269, 271, 275, 278

methods, 70, 75-78, 81, 85, 227-232, 298

Secondary conditions, 60, 190, 198-199

Selection bias, 228

Self reports, 83, 95-96, 106, 212, 218-219, 220, 223, 226, 230-231, 284, 291-292

Sensitivity and specificity, 129, 130

Social activities, 188

Social classification, 226-227

Social cognition, 225-226

Social roles, and definition of work disability, 54, 57, 58, 59-60, 61, 84, 187-190, 193, 195-198, 199, 201

Social Security Act, 34

amendments, 35, 44

definition of disability, 4, 17-18, 61, 94, 184, 185, 190, 242-243, 262, 279, 281, 283, 289

Social Security Administration

administrative databases, 106-108

disability surveys, 88 234, 286-288

information needs for policy decisions, 89-91

Office of Research, Evaluation and Statistics (ORES), 141

Program Operations Manual System, 273

regulations, 273

Social Security Advisory Board, 129, 141

Social Security Benefits Reform Act of 1984, 40

Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) program

administrative database, 107

applications and awards, 18, 35-36, 38, 41, 46, 47, 243

beneficiaries enrolled, 18, 35, 36, 39, 42

composition of beneficiary population, 43, 44-45, 46

cost containment measures, 34-35

coverage and support levels, 34, 35

defined, 1 n.1, 17

definition of disability, 242

DHHS analysis of, 18-19, 20

eligibility criteria, 243

growth trends, 1, 18, 35-37, 41, 43, 44, 45, 46, 48, 49

inception, 33, 34-35

income replacement rates, 39

initial determination of disability, 34, 243;

see also Disability decision process

SSI benefits concurrently with, 47

terminations, 35, 36, 38-39, 41-42

waiting period to receive benefits, 35, 37

workers insured, 42, 43

Social Security retirement program, 37, 49, 51-52, 107, 288

Social Security Survey of Disabled Adults, 287

States.

See also Disability Determination Services (DDs)

cost shifting by, 19, 47, 90

initial disability determinations, 34, 37

welfare recipients, 37

Stigmatization, 84, 193, 226

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 301

Substantial gainful activity (SGA), 2, 19, 34, 40, 53, 55, 63, 66 n.1, 94, 114, 123, 133, 184, 242-243

Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program, 33

administrative database, 107

applications and awards, 18, 37-38, 42

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2002. The Dynamics of Disability: Measuring and Monitoring Disability for Social Security Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10411.
×

composition of beneficiary population, 43

defined, 1 n.1, 37, 17

eligibility, 37, 243

growth of, 1, 18, 35, 37-38, 42, 43-44, 49

number of recipients, 37—38

outreach efforts, 2, 19, 37, 42, 47

processing of claims, 37, 243;

see also Disability decision process

qualified aliens, 43-44, 48

SSDI benefits concurrently with, 47, 243

terminations, 37-38

Supplemental Security Record, 107

Survey measurement of disability.

See also Work disability monitoring system

cognitive considerations, 223-225, 236-237, 238, 298

conceptual issues, 7, 49 n.6, 56, 74, 83-84, 87, 94, 184-185, 211, 212, 213, 263-264, 281-284

coverage error, 75-78, 85, 95, 104, 171, 215, 220, 223, 227, 284, 285, 290, 292

cross-sectional design, 96, 219, 291, 293-294

data collection models, 69, 70, 72, 74, 78-79, 82, 83-84, 86, 87, 95, 106, 212, 216, 218, 219-220, 223, 228-229, 284, 285, 291-292, 301

data sources, 290-291

design options, 83, 215-216, 290-301

development of, 289-290

differential response error, 220-221

environmental measurements, 83-86, 183-184, 211, 232-233, 237, 282, 285-286

errors of nonobservation, 214-216, 284-285

errors of observation, 216-221, 227, 284-285

essential survey conditions, 83, 212, 219-220, 223, 230, 233, 238

functional limitations of disabled persons to respond to, 75, 77-79, 80-81, 223-227, 284

household-based, 75-76, 94, 95-96, 106, 171, 215-216, 220, 282, 284, 289, 290, 292, 293

ICF mapping to questionnaires, 285-286

institutionalized/homeless populations, 75-76

interviewing methods, 76-77, 81, 85, 95, 171, 215-217, 219, 220, 224-225, 228, 291-292

longitudinal design, 96, 199, 219-220, 228, 291, 293

measurement error, 74-75, 82-83, 85, 95, 212, 216-227, 232-237, 284, 285, 286, 290, 291, 292

medical examinations and performance tests, 70, 71, 78, 79, 81, 95, 96, 289, 290, 293, 295, 300

methodological issues, 75-87, 214-238, 284-286

for monitoring work disability, 5, 93, 95, 97-98, 99-104, 109, 284-286, 289-301

nonresponse error, 76, 77, 80-81, 85, 95, 104, 215-216, 220, 227, 284, 285, 290, 291, 292

ongoing federal surveys, 99-104, 212, 213, 282, 285-286

periodicity, 91, 95, 106, 291

prevalence of benefit eligibility as goal, 99

prevalence of disability across surveys, 233-234

provider-based, 102, 290, 295, 296

proxy respondents, 78-79, 83, 95-96, 106, 212, 216, 218, 223, 225, 226, 228, 230-231, 284, 292

questionnaire design, 70, 76-77, 82-83, 85, 87, 205-207, 212, 216-217, 223-224, 226-227, 228, 230-231, 232, 233, 236-238, 281-282, 284, 285-286, 293-294

recall bias, 217-218

recommendations, 13, 85, 86-87, 170-171

research framework, 74-86, 208, 284-286, 301

respondent burden, 70, 76-77, 81-82, 106, 216, 217-218

response rates, 70, 76, 81, 171, 215

sample design, 67-68, 73, 78, 80, 171, 214, 219

sample sizes, 7-8, 68-69, 70, 80, 106, 170-171, 218, 295, 296

sampling error, 79-80, 214, 290, 292

screening methods, 70, 75-78, 81, 85, 227-232

self-classification of disability, 218-219, 225-227

self reports, 83, 95-96, 106, 212, 218-219, 220, 223, 226, 230-231, 284, 291-292

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2002. The Dynamics of Disability: Measuring and Monitoring Disability for Social Security Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10411.
×

social cognition, self-concept, and social desirability aspects of, 225-227

SSA initiatives, 286-288;

see also National Study of Health and Activity

testing, 85-86, 171

time allocation issues, 74, 86

types of, 205

Survey of Disability and Work (1978), 287-288

Survey of Disabled and Nondisabled Adults (1972), 287

Survey of Economic Opportunity, 234

Survey of Income and Education, 234

Survey of Income and Program Participation, 95, 100, 102-103, 171, 206, 231, 232, 234, 285, 290, 295, 297, 298

T

Termination of benefits

CDRs and, 41

proof of medical improvements and, 40

reasons for, 38-39

trends, 35, 36, 37-39, 41-42, 51

Test-retest, 222

Testing, survey design, 85-86, 171

Ticket to Work and Self-Sufficiency Program, 67, 138

Ticket to Work and Work Incentives Improvement Act of 1999, 10, 138

U

University of Michigan, 143

U.S. Census for Year 2000, 206

V

Validity

concurrent, 127, 222

construct, 127, 222

criterion, 127, 221-222

defined, 127, 221-122

of disability decision process, 123, 127-128

of Index of ADLs, 227-228

of Listing of Medical Impairments, 130, 131-132

measures of, 222

predictive, 127, 222, 227-228

of survey measurement of disability, 221-222, 227-228, 236, 238

of WHO DAS II, 267

Variable errors, defined, 214, 221

Variance, defined, 221

Virginia Commonwealth University, 27, 120-122

Vocational capacity assessment, 9-10, 24, 25, 63, 113, 115, 117, 119, 132-137, 172, 203, 204-205, 242-243, 245, 263, 275

W

Waiting period to receive benefits, 35

Welfare recipients, 19, 37

Welfare reform, 48

Westat, 26, 67-70, 71, 72, 78-79

Work disability.

See also Definition of work disability;

Measurement of disability

dynamic nature of, 60

inconsistencies in reporting of, 235-236

Work disability monitoring system.

See also Survey measurement of disability

ad hoc special studies, 5-6, 108

administrative data linkages, 5, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 106-108, 290-291, 293

assessment of utility of, 289

characteristics, 94-108, 285-286

classification of disability in, 6, 296, 298

committee of experts, 6, 111-112

for continuous monitoring, 5, 87, 91-92, 93, 95, 96-108, 109, 212, 284-286, 291, 293, 294

cost considerations, 96, 98, 104, 290, 294, 301

cross-sectional data collection, 95, 96, 105-106, 291, 293-294

data sources, 94, 95, 290-291

defined, 94

design considerations, 5-6, 94-108, 110-111, 285-286, 289, 290-301

development and planning for, 92-93, 108-112, 289-290

disability decision process modeling component, 290

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2002. The Dynamics of Disability: Measuring and Monitoring Disability for Social Security Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10411.
×

disability definition for, 289

error considerations, 95, 98, 104, 106, 290, 291, 296

evaluation and testing, 93, 98, 110-112

implementation objectives, 6, 92-93, 111

longitudinal data collection, 5, 95, 96, 97, 105-106, 199, 291, 293

mode of data collection, 95, 97, 102, 106, 110, 291-292, 294, 295

NSHA and, 5, 97-99, 104, 109

partnerships with other federal agencies, 5, 93-94, 95, 99-104, 105-106, 109, 110, 294-301

physical examination data, 95, 96, 102, 290, 293, 295, 300

policy and planning issues to be

addressed by, 5, 89-94, 287

purpose of, 88-89, 94-95

questionnaire-related issues, 293

recommendations, 5, 13, 92-93, 147

reduced sets of measures in intervening years, 6, 97-99

research needs, 301

sample sizes, 98, 104, 106, 295, 296

screening instrument, 298

survey measurement component, 5, 93, 95, 97-98, 99-104, 109, 284-286, 289-301

Work environment

accommodations, adaptations, and barriers, 62, 84, 187, 202, 207, 208, 211, 283-284

and definition of disability, 4, 7, 54, 57-58, 59-60, 61, 62-64, 83-84, 185-186, 188-190, 191, 194, 196, 198, 204-205, 208, 211, 213, 261-262, 283-284, 285-286

and disability decision process, 4, 61, 138

measures of, 83-86

social, 84, 193

survey measurements of, 83-86, 183-184, 211, 232-233, 237, 282, 285-286

Work experience, and ability to work, 10, 136, 242

Work incentives, 39, 67

Workers’ compensation, 55-56, 134, 204, 303

Workshop on Measuring Functional Capacity and Work Requirements, 90, 132

Workshop on the Measurement of Persons with Work Disability, 293, 301

World Health Assembly, 258

World Health Organization

DAS II, 267-268, 275, 277-278

health definition, 199-200

ICIDH model, 54, 57, 58-59, 60, 185, 190-195, 242, 259, 261-263

International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 257-258

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2002. The Dynamics of Disability: Measuring and Monitoring Disability for Social Security Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10411.
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The Dynamics of Disability: Measuring and Monitoring Disability for Social Security Programs Get This Book
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The Society Security disability program faces urgent challenges: more people receiving benefits than ever before, the prospect of even more claimants as baby boomers age, changing attitudes culminating in the Americans With Disabilities Act. Disability is now understood as a dynamic process, and Social Security must comprehend that process to plan adequately for the times ahead. The Dynamics of Disability provides expert analysis and recommendations in key areas:

  • Understanding the current social, economic, and physical environmental factors in determining eligibility for disability benefits.
  • Developing and implementing a monitoring system to measure and track trends in work disability.
  • Improving the process for making decisions on disability claims.
  • Building Social Security’s capacity for conducting needed research.

This book provides a wealth of detail on the workings of the Social Security disability program, recent and emerging disability trends, issues and previous experience in researching disability, and more. It will be of primary interest to federal policy makers, the Congress, and researchers—and it will be useful to state disability officials, medical and rehabilitation professionals, and the disability community.

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