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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism (2002)

Chapter: Appendix D: Acronyms and Abbreviations

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Research Council. 2002. Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10415.
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D

Acronyms and Abbreviations

3G

third generation


AFOSR

Air Force Office of Scientific Research

APHIS

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

API

American Petroleum Institute

ARO

Army Research Office

ARPA

Advanced Research Projects Agency

ASCE

American Society of Civil Engineers

ASHRAE

American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers

ASTM

American Society for Testing and Materials

ATF

Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms

ATP

Advanced Technology Program (at NIST)


BW

biological warfare


CBACI

Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute

CBIRF

Chemical, Biological Incident Response Force

CBO

Congressional Budget Office

CBRNE

chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive

CDC

(United States) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CFD

computational fluid dynamics

CFR

Code of Federal Regulations

CHIPS

Clearing House Interbank Payments System

CIA

Central Intelligence Agency

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Research Council. 2002. Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10415.
×

C3I

command, control, communications, and information

CRS

Congressional Research Service

CSTB

Computer Science and Telecommunications Board

C-TPAT

Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism

CW

chemical weapons


DARPA

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

DDOS

distributed denial-of-service (attack)

DI

deionized

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

DOC

Department of Commerce

DOD

Department of Defense

DOE

Department of Energy

DOJ

Department of Justice

DOT

Department of Transportation

DSL

digital subscriber line

DTRA

Defense Threat Reduction Agency


EHV

extra high voltage

EIA

Energy Information Administration

EMP

electromagnetic pulse

EOC

emergency operations center

EOP

Executive Office of the President

EPA

Environmental Protection Agency

EPRI

Electric Power Research Institute


FAA

Federal Aviation Administration

FBI

Federal Bureau of Investigation

FCC

Federal Communications Commission

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

FEMA

Federal Emergency Management Agency

FERC

Federal Energy Regulatory Commission

FFRDC

federally funded research and development center

FOIA

Freedom of Information Act


GIS

geographic information system

GN&C

guidance, navigation, and control

GNP

gross national product

GOCO

government-owned, contractor-operated

GTI

Gas Technology Institute


HACCP

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (an FDA program)

HE

high explosives

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Research Council. 2002. Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10415.
×

HEPA

high-efficiency particulate air (filter)

HEU

highly enriched uranium

HHS

Department of Health and Human Services

HSC

Homeland Security Council

HVAC

heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning


IAEA

International Atomic Energy Agency

IEEE

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

IMS

ion mobility spectrometer

IND

investigational new drug

IND

improvised nuclear device

IOM

Institute of Medicine

IPP

independent power producers

IRS

Internal Revenue Service

ISO

independent system operator

IT

information technology

IU

intelligent information unit

IW

information warfare


LAN

local area network

LD50

lethal dose at which 50 percent of the exposed subjects die

LDC

local distribution company

LNG

liquefied natural gas


m2/g

square meters per gram

MANET

mobile ad hoc network

MIT

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MPC&A

material protection, control, and accounting

MWS

multisensor warning systems


14N

the most common isotope of nitrogen

NARUC

National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners

NASA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

NDEA

National Defense Education Act

NDMS

National Disaster Medical System

NEHRP

National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program

NEI

Nuclear Energy Institute

NFPA

National Fire Protection Association

NIAID

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

NIH

National Institutes of Health

NIOSH

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

NIST

National Institute of Standards and Technology

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Research Council. 2002. Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10415.
×

NNSA

National Nuclear Security Administration

NPC

National Petroleum Council

NPP

nuclear power plant

NQR

nuclear quadrupole resonance

NRC

National Research Council

NSF

National Science Foundation

NSTC

National Science and Technology Council


OHS

Office of Homeland Security

OMB

Office of Management and Budget

ONR

Office of Naval Research

OPCW

Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons

OSTP

Office of Science and Technology Policy


PAL

permissive action link

PCAST

President’s Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology

PCCIP

President’s Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection

PCR

polymerase chain reaction

PDD62

Presidential Decision Directive No. 62

PDD63

Presidential Decision Directive No. 63

picogra

m a trillionth (10-12) of a gram

PETN

pentaerythritol tetranitrate, a high explosive

PPE

personal protective equipment

PRA

probabilistic risk assessment

Pu

plutonium


QA

quality analysis

QC

quality control


R&D

research and development

RAM-D

reliability, availability, maintainability, and durability

RDD

radiological dispersal device

RDT&E

research, development, test, and evaluation

RDX

1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane, a high explosive

RF

radio frequency

RTO

regional transmission operator


S&T

science and technology

SBIR

Small Business Innovation Research

SCADA

supervisory control and data acquisition

SEC

Securities and Exchange Commission

SNM

special nuclear material

SWIFT

Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Research Council. 2002. Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10415.
×

TIC

toxic industrial chemical

TMR

tactical mobile robotics

TNT

2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, a high explosive

TSA

Transportation Security Administration


USCOM

U.S. Conference of Mayors

USDA

U.S. Department of Agriculture

USNRC

U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission


VX

O-ethyl, S[2-(diisopropyl amino) ethyl]methylphosphonothiolate, a nerve agent


WHO

World Health Organization

WMD

weapons of mass destruction

WWI

World War I

WWII

World War II


XML

extensible markup language


Y2K

year 2000

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Research Council. 2002. Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10415.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Research Council. 2002. Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10415.
×
Page 399
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Research Council. 2002. Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10415.
×
Page 400
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Research Council. 2002. Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10415.
×
Page 401
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Research Council. 2002. Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10415.
×
Page 402
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Research Council. 2002. Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10415.
×
Page 403
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Research Council. 2002. Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10415.
×
Page 404
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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism Get This Book
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Vulnerabilities abound in U.S. society. The openness and efficiency of our key infrastructures – transportation, information and telecommunications systems, health systems, the electric power grid, emergency response units, food and water supplies, and others – make them susceptible to terrorist attacks. Making the Nation Safer discusses technical approaches to mitigating these vulnerabilities.

A broad range of topics are covered in this book, including:

  • Nuclear and radiological threats, such as improvised nuclear devices and “dirty bombs;”
  • Bioterrorism, medical research, agricultural systems and public health;
  • Toxic chemicals and explosive materials;
  • Information technology, such as communications systems, data management, cyber attacks, and identification and authentication systems;
  • Energy systems, such as the electrical power grid and oil and natural gas systems;
  • Transportation systems;
  • Cities and fixed infrastructures, such as buildings, emergency operations centers, and tunnels;
  • The response of people to terrorism, such as how quality of life and morale of the population can be a target of terrorists and how people respond to terrorist attacks; and
  • Linked infrastructures, i.e. the vulnerabilities that result from the interdependencies of key systems;

In each of these areas, there are recommendations on how to immediately apply existing knowledge and technology to make the nation safer and on starting research and development programs that could produce innovations that will strengthen key systems and protect us against future threats. The book also discusses issues affecting the government’s ability to carry out the necessary science and engineering programs and the important role of industry, universities, and states, counties, and cities in homeland security efforts.

A long term commitment to homeland security is necessary to make the nation safer, and this book lays out a roadmap of how science and engineering can assist in countering terrorism.

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