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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10415.
×

Index

A

Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration program in DARPA, 117

Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), 352

Advanced Technology Program (ATP) in NIST, 117, 359

Aerospace Corporation, 345

Afghanistan campaign, 28–29

Agricultural systems. See Human and agricultural health systems;

Food distribution systems

Aircraft as weapons, 6, 42, 47, 50, 60, 91, 210, 253, 256, 259–260

Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), 352

Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), 352

Al Qaeda, 26, 28

American Medical Association, 103

American Red Cross, 94, 280

American Society for Microbiology, 68

American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), 258

American Water Works Association, 250

Ammonium nitrate, 122

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) in USDA, 77–78, 93

Animal models, 81, 88, 101, 131, 355

Annual Report to Congress on Combating Terrorism, 347, 350, 358n

Anthrax, 65–66, 72, 76, 85, 102, 254, 258, 358

Anthrax attacks, 7, 25, 27, 62, 66, 94–95, 109, 118, 270, 275, 285

Antibiotics, 81–82, 85–87, 88, 99–100, 102

Antitrust regulations, 102, 184, 204, 360, 362–363

Army Corps of Engineers, 252

Army Research Laboratory (ARL), 352

Army Research Office (ARO), 352

Attribution, 28, 113, 146–147, 230–231, 323–324

bioforensics (microbial forensics), 8, 70, 82–84,

of nuclear and radiological attacks, 5–6, 59–60

Aum Shinrikyo attack, 111

Authentication, 149–151, 156–157, 329, 361

Aviation and Transportation Security Act, 211, 231

Aviation security, 52, 114, 142, 166, 211, 212, 215, 219–221, 226, 231, 319–320

B

Bayh-Dole Act, 359

Behavioral and social issues. See Response of people to terrorism;

Human factors

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10415.
×

Bin Laden, Osama, 295

Biometrics, 217, 226, 320, 329–330, 361

Bioterrorism, 7-8, 32, 65-67, 84-85, 104, 315-316.

See also Human and agricultural health systems

BLASTEX software, 255–256

Bomb Data Registry (FBI), 253, 257

Border Patrol, 213n

Bremer Commission, 336–337

Buildings, major and monumental, 252–258.

See also Cities and fixed infrastructure

Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF), 121, 253, 257

Bureau of Reclamation, 252

Bush, George W., 1, 211, 281, 339

C

Catastrophic terrorism, 26–27

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 67–68, 75–77, 79–81, 85, 90, 101–102, 276, 354

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), 318

Chemical agents. See also Toxic chemicals and explosive materials

approximate toxicity of selected chemical agents, 110

explosives, 49, 60, 112–113, 247, 257, 263

explosives detection, 114, 206, 228, 361

industrial chemicals, 111–112, 121–122, 128, 205, 211, 248

military chemical weapons, 109–111

sensors of, 113–117, 321

treatment of injuries that result from, 129–131

Chemical/Biological Incident Response Force (CBIRF), 129

Chemical Weapons Convention, 110–111

Cities and fixed infrastructure, 16–17, 31, 35, 238–266

electrical supply interruptions, 252

emergency operations centers, 239–245

information technology systems and communications, 252

major and monumental buildings, 252–258

stadiums and other places for large public gatherings, 258–261

transportation and distribution systems, 252

underground facilities, including tunnels, 262–265

water supply and wastewater systems, 245–252

Civil liberties. See Privacy and civil liberties

Coding issues. See Computer code

Cold War, 5, 29, 59, 283, 338, 370

Collaboration, cross-agency, 331–332, 338–339, 350

Command, control, communications, and information (C3I) systems, 11, 146, 148, 158–166.

See also Communications for first responders

ad hoc interoperability, 159–160

communications during an emergency, 160–163, 165–166

Commercial value for counterterrorism technologies and dual-use strategies, 23, 33, 132, 334, 360–362

in the bioterrorism area, 67–68, 97, 131

information technology, 149, 361

sensors, 117, 132, 361

transportation systems, 220–223, 232, 361

Commission on Aviation Safety and Security in the White House, 219n, 221n, 227n

Committee on Science and Technology for Countering Terrorism, 3, 183n

Communication with the public, 17, 62, 93–94, 162–163, 275–276

Communications for first responders, 2, 11, 137, 144, 146, 158–166, 172, 174, 230, 241, 243, 245, 258, 277

Complex and interdependent systems, 18–19, 31, 35, 287–312.

See also Systems analysis and systems engineering

counterterrorism threat modeling, 294–300

implications for education, 309–310

infrastructure modeling, 300–305

modeling challenges for counterterrorism, 305–309

systems approach to counterterrorism, 288–290

systems management issues, 290–294

Computer code, improving, 154–155, 367

Computer Emergency Response Team, 145

Congress, 339–340, 342, 345–350, 354, 363

Congressional Budget Office (CBO), 350

Congressional Research Service (CRS), 350, 370

CONWEP software, 255–256

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10415.
×

Cooperation between federal, state, and local governments, 22, 38, 92, 127–128, 145, 232, 241–243, 252, 277–278, 333–334, 357–359.

See also Cross-agency collaboration

Critical Infrastructure Information Security Act, 363n

Cross-agency collaboration, 331–332, 338–339, 350

Crosscutting challenges and technologies, 19–20, 33, 35, 313–334

autonomous mobile robotic technologies, 325–327.

See also Robotic technologies

biometrics, 329–330, 361

controlling access to physical and information systems, 329–330.

See also Authentication

coordination of crosscutting technologies, 331–332, 338

human and organizational factors, 330–331, 336.

See also Human factors

integrated data management, 317–320.

See also Data mining;

Information fusion

SCADA systems, 327–328.

See also Supervisory control and data acquisition systems

sensors and sensor networks, 320–325.

See also Sensors and sensor networks

systems analysis and modeling, 315–317.

See also Systems analysis and systems engineering;

Modeling and simulation

Cultural memory, normalization and, 284–286

Customs inspections, 56, 216, 319.

See also U.S. Customs Service

Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT), 219n, 319

Cyberattacks, 136–144.

See also Information technology

Cybersecurity, 10–12, 147–157, 361, 367.

See also Information technology

for energy systems, 182, 187–188, 190, 203–204, 208.

See also Supervisory control and data acquisition systems

D

Data integration. See Data mining;

Information fusion ;

Standards for data integration and database interoperability

Data management. See Data mining;

Information fusion

Data mining, 2, 117, 167–168, 170–171, 217, 225–226, 318–320.

See also Information fusion

Decision-making support, 80, 128–129, 162, 165, 230, 251, 291–293, 296–298, 316, 343–346

Decontamination, 2

of chemical agents, 9–10, 115, 118–120, 130

of human and agricultural systems, 8, 78, 94–96

of IT systems, 153–154

of radiological material, 51, 58–59

robotics for, 120, 230, 326

of water supplies, 9, 125–126

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), 11, 116, 120, 168, 287, 309, 325–326, 338, 352–353, 355

Defense Modeling and Simulation Office in DOD, 287, 302

Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), 5–6, 57, 60, 63, 93, 129, 309, 316, 353

Denial-of-service attacks, 137, 149n, 153

Department of Commerce (DOC), 122, 348–349, 350

Department of Defense (DOD), 52–53, 57, 63, 68, 76, 80, 90, 92, 96, 145, 194, 230, 242, 287, 331, 350, 353–355

Department of Energy (DOE), 11–13, 45n, 52–54, 57, 63–64, 68, 90, 116, 188, 190–195, 207, 313, 320, 331, 338, 348–350, 352, 355, 358n

Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), 8, 75, 91–92, 94, 96, 102, 355, 358n

Department of Homeland Security, 21–22, 68, 339, 342, 345, 349

Department of the Interior, 138

Department of Justice (DOJ), 242, 245, 250

Department of State, 26n, 52, 54, 193, 255

Department of Transportation (DOT), 14–15, 122, 200, 213n, 232, 265, 351, 358

Detection, 28, 166, 228–229, 314, 330.

See also Sensors and sensor networks

use of information technology in detecting attacks, 146–147, 149–151, 166, 187, 207

Deutch Commission Report, 349n

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10415.
×

Dirty bombs. See Radiological dispersion devices

Distributed denial-of-service (DDOS) attacks, 137, 149n, 153

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), 74, 83, 87, 98, 322

Domain Name System (DNS), 138

Dual-use strategies. See Commercial value for counterterrorism technologies

E

Economic aspects of recovery, 282–284

Electric power, 180–195

extra-high-voltage transformers, replacements for, 188–189

intelligent, adaptive power grid, 192–193, 366–367

implementation of existing technology for mitigating vulnerabilities, 183–188

interruptions in, 252

interdependence with other systems, 301–302

recovery from outages, 185–186, 191–192

representative vulnerabilities, 180–183

research and development priorities and strategies, 188–195

Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), 12, 60, 187, 190–195, 198

Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) attacks, 182, 190

Emergency medical response, 90–93, 129–131, 240–241

Emergency operations centers (EOCs), 16–17, 239–245

communications and information technology, 144, 158–159

recommended requirements list, 241

vulnerability of EOC sites and facilities, 241–242, 243

Emergency response. See First responders

Energy systems, 12–13, 31, 34, 177–209

cybersecurity, 182, 187–188, 190, 203–204, 208.

See also Supervisory control and data acquisition systems

electric power, 180–195

oil and natural gas, 196–208

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 9, 68, 90, 96, 112, 121, 126–128, 213n, 248, 250, 252, 287, 358n, 360

Executive Office of the President (EOP), 347–349

Exercises, 28n, 36, 59, 127–128, 130, 159, 344, 354.

See also Training

Explosives, 49, 60, 112–113, 247, 257, 263

detection of, 114, 206, 228, 361

Extra-high-voltage (EHV) transformers, 13, 188–189

F

Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), 14, 52, 211, 213n, 220, 226n, 229, 303

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 58, 93, 121, 127, 318, 355

Federal Communications Commission (FCC), 245

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), 17–18, 59, 62, 92, 121, 127, 129–130, 233, 241–244, 276, 350, 354, 357, 358n

Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), 185–187, 194

Federal government’s program of science and technology for countering terrorism, 21–22, 35, 335–356

Congressional capabilities for supporting, 349–350

current situation, 338–339

essential partners in, 22–24, 35, 357–371.

See also Industry in partnership with government;

States and cities in partnership with government;

Universities in partnership with government

need for analytical capabilities to support decisions about, 343–346

need for coordination, 338–348

role of the federal agencies, 350–355

roles of OHS, OSTP, and OMB, 340–348

Federal Highway Administration, 14, 235n

Federally funded research and development centers (FFRDCs), 345.

See also Homeland Security Institute

Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan, 5, 58–59

Federal Response Plan, 94

Filters, 2, 10, 89–90, 118–120, 126, 247, 254–255, 258, 260, 361

Financial systems, 108, 135, 139, 287

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10415.
×

First responders, 33, 127–129, 145–146, 158–166, 241–245, 276–278, 354, 357.

See also Communications for first responders

Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 8–9, 88, 100–101, 123–125

Food distribution systems, 77–79, 93, 122–124, 133–134, 354, 361.

See also Human and agricultural health systems

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), 77, 85, 95

Forensics. See Attribution

Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), 184, 204

Funding and costs, 37–38, 186–187, 284, 347–348, 357, 359

G

Gas systems. See Natural gas systems

General Accounting Office (GAO), 66, 340n

General principals and strategies for using science and technology to counter terrorism, 4, 33

Gilmore Commission, 294, 336, 343

Global Emerging Infectious Diseases program in DOD, 75

Global Public Health Information Network, 75

Government-owned, contractor-operated (GOCO) facilities, 100

Guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) systems, 326–327

H

Hart/Rudman Commission, 336–337, 347n, 349n, 363n

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) technology in FDA, 9, 123

Hazardous chemicals. See Toxic chemicals and explosive materials

HAZMAT (hazardous materials) teams, 127–128

Health Effects Institute, 360

Health systems. See Human and agricultural health systems

Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems, 16, 89, 254–255, 257, 259, 261

High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, 89, 118, 258

Highly enriched uranium (HEU), 39–40, 49–50, 55, 57, 322–323

Homeland Security Council (HSC), 342, 346, 348

Homeland Security Institute, 21, 236, 242, 244, 293, 314, 344–346

Human and agricultural health systems, 7–8, 31, 34, 65–106, 365.

See also Food distribution systems

antimicrobials and antivirals, 85–87.

See also Antibiotics

bioterrorism and biological threats, 7–8, 32, 65–67, 84–85, 104, 315–316

communicating risks and responses to the public, 93–94

decontamination protocols, 94–96.

See also Decontamination

defining whether infectious agents and diseases are bioterrorist threats, 84–85

human resources needed, 80, 96–97

identification of biological agents in the environment, 71–73

Internet resources on bioterrorism, 104

involving the S&T and public health communities in intelligence and prevention, 69–71

microbial forensics and analysis of trace evidence, 82–84

personal protective equipment, 89–90.

See also Protective equipment for individuals

regulatory reform for drug development, 100–102

response and recovery, 79–80, 90–93

standards and standardization, 97–98.

See also Standards

surveillance and diagnosis of infection and disease, 73–79.

See also Surveillance

treatment protocols, 94, 129–131

understanding the effects of biological weapons, 80–82

vaccine development, 87–89, 98–100.

See also Vaccines

Human factors, 15, 33, 147, 157, 224, 226, 234, 314, 330–331, 366

Human resources, 80, 96–97, 174, 368–369

HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning). See Ventilation systems

I

Immediate applications for existing technologies, 2

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10415.
×

Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), 213n, 233, 350

Improvised nuclear devices (INDs), 39, 49, 51–52, 55, 57, 322

fabricated from stolen or diverted special nuclear material, 40–41, 44–45

Indemnification. See Liability and indemnification

Independent system operators (ISOs) of electric power systems, 185, 188, 195

Individual rights. See Privacy and civil liberties

Industrial chemicals, 111–112, 121–122, 128, 205, 211, 248

Industry in partnership with government, 359–364

antitrust exemptions, 362–363

commercial value for counterterrorism technologies, 360–362.

See also Commercial value for counterterrorism technologies and dual-use strategies

government procurement and acquisition rules, 363–364

indemnification, 362

Infectious Diseases Society of America, 68

Influenza, 65, 76, 84, 94

Information fusion, 11–12, 136, 146–149, 166–170, 173, 318, 366.

See also Data mining;

Standards for data integration and database interoperability

Information technology (IT), 10–12, 31, 34, 135–176, 355, 367.

See also Cybersecurity;

Cyberattacks

defensive strategy in protecting, 150

implementation, 172–175

information and network security, 147–157

information fusion, 166–170.

See also Information fusion

IT and C3I for emergency response, 158–166.

See also Communications for first responders

long-term recommendations, 146–170

planning for the future, 171

privacy and confidentiality, 170–171

research in, 146–170

short-term recommendations, 144–146

taxonomy of priorities, 148–149

threats associated with IT infrastructure, 136–144

Infrastructure modeling, 300–305, 315–317, 338–339, 344

infrastructure interdependencies, 13, 19, 300, 303, 315–317, 338–339

energy systems, 184–185, 191, 194, 206–207

Institute for Defense Analyses, 345

Intelligence gathering, 20, 29, 52, 70–71, 136, 148, 157, 166, 169, 267, 294, 299, 318, 325, 366

Intelligent information units (IUs), attaching to railcars, 264–265

Interagency Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance, 86

Interdependent systems. See Complex and interdependent systems

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 52, 54

International Civil Aviation Organization, 233

International Maritime Organization, 233

International Organization for Standardization, 303

Internet, 135, 137–143, 146, 150, 161, 164, 171, 203, 302

Investigational new drug (IND) status, 100, 102

J

Joint Services Chemical and Biological Defense Program, 353

L

LD50 (lethal dose at which 50 percent of the exposed subjects die), 81, 126

Liability and indemnification, 88, 99, 101–102, 184, 204, 249, 360, 362

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities, 196, 200–201

Local distribution companies (LDCs) for natural gas distribution, 198–200

M

Marsh Commission, 336–337

Materials Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) program in Russia, 53–54

McCarthyism, 282

Media, the, 62, 275–276

Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, U.S. Army, 353

Metadata, 19, 303–305.

See also Standards for data integration and database interoperability

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10415.
×

Metropolitan Medical Response System, 91–92

Microbial forensics. See Attribution

MITRE Corporation, 345

Modeling and simulation, 19–20, 287–288, 305–309, 315–318, 366.

See also Infrastructure modeling;

Risk modeling and risk assessment

of disease spread, 75, 79–81, 315–316, 322

for exercises, training, and decision making, 17, 21, 80, 92, 95, 242–244, 251, 316, 344

of specific systems, 129, 251, 255, 257, 273, 285, 315, 328

Monumental buildings, 252–258

Murrah Federal Building attack, 112, 122, 253, 259, 271

N

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 287, 331, 333, 352, 355

National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC), 186–187, 195

National Defense Education Act (NDEA), 368

National Disaster Medical System (NDMS), 92

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), 16, 257–258, 358

National Guard, 127–128, 145, 280

National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center, 191, 193, 207

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), 68, 76, 97

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 11, 16, 98, 120, 126, 145, 257–258, 260, 344, 348, 350, 352

National Institutes of Health (NIH), 68, 76, 80–81, 97–98, 131, 234, 244, 350, 352

National Medical Response Teams for Weapons of Mass Destruction, 91

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), 57, 62–64, 348

National Science and Technology Council (NSTC), 22, 332, 342, 347

National Science Foundation (NSF), 11, 18, 116, 120, 168, 234, 304, 308–309, 331, 333, 338, 350, 352, 355, 369

National Security Agency (NSA), 242, 318

Natural gas systems, 196–201, 204–208

implementation of existing technologies for mitigating vulnerabilities, 204–205

liquefied natural gas, 200–201

physical vulnerabilities of the natural gas infrastructure, 197

pipelines, 198–200

research and development priorities and strategies, 205–208

Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), 352

Nerve agents, 108–111, 115, 129, 131

Network security, 147–157, 172–173

authentication, detection, and identification, 149–151

containment, 152–153

principles of defensive strategy, 150

recovery, 153–154

research issues, 154–157

Normalization and cultural memory, 284–286

North American Electric Reliability Council, 195

Nuclear and radiological threats, 4, 5–6, 31, 34, 39–64

homeland security challenges, 49–51

improvised nuclear devices (INDs), 40–41, 44–45, 49–50, 51–57

nuclear and radiological threat matrix, 39–49

nuclear power plants (NPPs), 6, 41–44, 46, 50–51, 60, 182

nuclear weapons and weapons components, 39–40, 42–43, 49–50, 51–57

radiological dispersion devices, 48, 49, 51, 58, 61–62

reducing vulnerabilities, 51–62

Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), 42

Nuclear Posture Review, 53

Nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectrometry, 114

Nuclear Regulatory Commission. See U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

O

Office of Emergency Preparedness, 92

Office of Homeland Security (OHS), 17, 21–22, 62–64, 94, 121, 145, 186, 188–189, 195, 211, 241–242, 245, 250, 258, 265, 290, 293–294, 319, 339–347, 350, 354, 358n, 360, 371

Office of Management and Budget (OMB), 145, 332, 340–343, 347–350, 358n

Office of Naval Research (ONR), 326, 352

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10415.
×

Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), 22, 242, 340–342, 344, 346–350, 359, 363, 371.

See also President’s Science Advisor

Oil and refined products, 201–208

command, control, and communications, 203

implementation of existing technologies for mitigating vulnerabilities, 204–205

oil system vulnerabilities, 202

pumping stations for crude oil and refined products, 203

refineries, 201–202

research and development priorities and strategies, 205–208

Oklahoma City attack, 112, 122, 253, 259, 271

Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), 110

P

Panic and fear, 61, 143, 259, 261, 274-275

Pathogens, 2, 84–85, 365.

See also Human and agricultural health systems

Pentagon attack, 25, 255, 283

Political aspects of recovery from a terrorist event, 281–282

President’s Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection (PCCIP), 141, 193, 242, 337, 355

President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), 342, 346, 363

President’s Science Advisor, 62–64, 337, 341n, 347n

Prioritization, 3, 33, 36, 293, 294, 299, 314, 335, 337, 339, 343–346

of counterterrorism efforts for transportation systems, 224

of factors in security of energy systems, 183

by individual social units (cities, etc.), 271

of nuclear counterterrorism activities, 63–64

a taxonomy of priorities for IT research, 148–149

Privacy and civil liberties, 15, 18, 29, 170–171, 175, 183, 226, 276, 281, 320, 329, 330–331, 361

Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) approach, 257

Project Air Force, 345

Protective equipment for individuals, including first responders, 2, 22, 59, 89–90, 98, 120, 127–128, 276, 354,

Public health systems, 31, 66–67, 74–77, 90–93, 94, 102–103, 320.

See also Human and agricultural health systems

Q

Quality analysis/quality control (QA/QC) programs, 123

R

Radiological dispersion devices (RDDs), 48, 49, 51, 58, 61–62.

See also Nuclear and radiological threats

RAND Corporation, 345

“Reachback” capabilities, 129

Recovery, 28.

See also Decontamination

economic aspects of, 282–284

from a catastrophic energy system shutdown, 186, 205

in network security, 153–154

political aspects of, 281–282

sensors and sensor networks in, 323

of transportation services, 230

Regional transmission operators (RTOs), 185, 188, 195

Regulations and rules, possible adjustments to, 359–364

antitrust regulations, 102, 184, 204, 360, 362–363

for information technology products, 145, 173

pharmaceutical-related, 100–102, 124–125, 131, 362–363

for specific systems, 122, 186, 227

tightening of nuclear and radiological regulations, 52, 61

Response of people to terrorism, 17–18, 31, 35, 267–286

anticipation and preparedness, 271–272

goals of different types of terrorist attacks, 268

institutional, group, and political vulnerability, 268–270

long-term recovery processes, 281–286

occurrence of attack, 274–279

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10415.
×

short-term recovery processes, 279–280

universality of human responses, 270–271

warnings, 273, 277, 280

Response to terrorism, phases of, 27–28

Ridge, Tom, 277, 319, 341n, 342, 358n

Risk modeling and risk assessment, 95, 250, 257, 290, 294–300, 306–308, 317

Robotic technologies, 20, 72, 95, 120–121, 164, 206, 230, 244, 314, 325–327, 333, 367

Russian nuclear materials and weapons, 5, 40–41, 42–45, 49–50, 52–54

S

Sandia National Laboratories, 42, 60

Sarin gas attack in Japan, 111, 118

SCADA systems. See Supervisory control and data acquisition systems

Sensors and sensor networks, 2, 314, 320–325, 338, 350, 361, 365.

See also Detection

deployment of, 19, 55–57, 117, 225, 323–325, 365

for detecting and characterizing biological and chemical agents and explosives, 7, 9, 71–73, 77, 98, 113–117, 228–230, 250–251, 260–261, 321–322, 324, 361

for detecting nuclear and radiological materials, 51, 55–57, 322–323, 354, 361

for first responders, 16, 163, 244

intrusion detection and monitoring, 189, 206–207

standards for and testing of, 10, 98, 117, 324–325

for water systems, 126, 250–251

September 11 attacks, 7, 16, 20, 25, 58, 60, 64, 102, 121, 161, 211, 219–220, 224, 231, 235, 253, 260, 271, 279, 282, 285, 288, 335

Shipping containers, 2, 14, 216–218, 361

Simulation. See Modeling and simulation

Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) programs, 117, 359

Smallpox, 65, 84–86, 101

Special nuclear material (SNM), 39–41, 49–50

detection and interdiction of, 55–57, 322

need to inventory, 54

Spokespersons. See Trusted spokespersons

Stadiums and other places for large public gatherings, 258–261

Standards, 21, 22, 337, 339, 344, 348, 358, 359–360, 364

for biological detection and diagnosis, 7, 71–72, 76, 97–98

for buildings, 2, 16, 255–258

for communications for first responders, 2, 158–159, 245

for data integration and database interoperability, 19, 20, 303–305, 314, 320

for decontamination, 2, 10, 96

for emergency response protocols and equipment, 8, 22, 89, 120, 241, 244

for energy systems’ control systems, 187, 204, 328

for filters, 2, 10, 89–90, 258

for sensors, 10, 325

for transportation systems and related equipment, 217, 232–233, 235

States and cities in partnership with government, 357–359.

See also Cooperation between federal, state, and local governments

Stolen nuclear weapons and improvised nuclear devices. See also Nuclear and radiological threats

detection and interdiction, 55–57

protection, control, and accounting for, 52–55

Strategic research and planning for the Transportation Security Administration, 231–235

Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems, 13, 19–20, 33, 122, 135, 139–141, 178, 194, 208, 327–328

attacks on, 139–140, 199

strengthening, 187, 190, 314, 361

vulnerabilities of, 141, 152, 203, 293

Surgeon General, 62, 276

Surveillance, 2, 27

biological, 7, 68, 73–79, 97–98, 321–322, 354

physical, 13, 120–121, 189, 207, 222, 263, 323, 325–326, 331

Systems analysis and systems engineering, 19, 31, 36, 233, 287, 293–294, 308–310, 314–317, 344, 351, 366.

See also Complex and interdependent systems

Systems expertise for the OHS, 293–294, 343–346

Systems management issues, 290–294

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10415.
×

T

Technical Support Working Group, 359

Telecommunications, 138–139, 143, 150, 302, 316, 361

Terrorism defined, 26–27n.

See also Catastrophic terrorism

Threats associated with IT infrastructure, 136–144.

See also Cyberattacks

disproportionate impacts, 141–142

IT attack as an amplifier of a physical attack, 137

likelihood and impact, 142–144

possibilities for attack using IT, 137–140

security vulnerabilities of SCADA systems, 141.

See also Supervisory control and data acquisition systems

Toxic chemicals and explosive materials, 8–10, 31, 34, 107–134.

See also Chemical agents;

Industrial chemicals

chemicals as weapons, 108–113

mitigating vulnerabilities, 113–127

responding to attacks, 127–131

Training, 79, 103, 130, 272, 316.

See also Exercises

for first responders, 62, 127–128, 242–244, 300, 354

Transportation Security Administration (TSA) in DOT, 14–15, 211, 231–235, 319, 350–351, 354

Transportation systems, 13–15, 31, 35, 210–237

aviation systems. See Aircraft as weapons;

Aviation security

common characteristics of, 212–214

considerations for security strategies for, 214–223

disruption of, 139, 196, 279, 315

human factors, 15, 224, 226, 229, 232, 234

industrial chemicals, transport of, 112, 121–122

layered security systems, 214–220

managing research and development activities, 224, 233–235, 351, 354, 358

railcar and container contents, 263–265

research and technology needs, 223–231

shipping container threat scenario and security strategy, 216–218, 361

strategic research and planning advice for the TSA, 231–235

Trusted spokespersons, 2, 6, 17, 62, 276

Tunnels. See Underground facilities

Tylenol-poisoning incident, 124

U

Unabomber case, 271

Underground facilities, including tunnels, 113, 230, 262–265

Undersecretary for Technology in Department of Homeland Security, 22, 342–343, 346

Underwriters Laboratories, 16

Universities in partnership with government, 364–371

balancing security needs with the requirements for research, 370–371

critical long-term research needs, 365–367

investing in research in a variety of disciplines, 332–333, 369–370

sustaining the nation’s scientific and engineering talent base, 368–369

Urgent research opportunities, 2

U.S. Army, 45n, 114, 188

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, 246

U.S. Coast Guard, 96, 121, 233, 343, 350

U.S. Conference of Mayors (USCOM), 238–239, 262, 265, 358

U.S. Customs Service, 213n, 216, 219, 233, 319, 350

U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 68, 76–79, 93, 96, 128, 213n, 354

U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), 6, 41–42, 44n, 47–48, 50, 54, 60, 63, 182

U.S. Postal Service, 109, 214

USS Cole incident, 271

V

Vaccines, 8, 80–82, 85–89, 97, 98–101, 355, 362–363

Ventilation systems, 2, 10, 16, 89–90, 113, 119, 230, 243, 254–255, 257–258, 260–261, 263–264, 361

Veterans Administration (VA), 92

Volpe National Transportation Systems Center in DOT, 15, 233

W

Warnings, effectiveness of, 17, 162–163, 273, 277, 280

Water supply and wastewater systems, 125–127, 245–252

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 2002. Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10415.
×

Weapons of mass destruction (WMD), 1, 31, 63, 91, 93–94, 128, 321.

See also Bioterrorism;

Chemical agents;

Nuclear and radiological threats;

Catastrophic terrorism

West Nile virus outbreak, 66

World Customs Organization, 233

World Health Organization (WHO), 75

World Organisation for Animal Health, 77

World Trade Center (WTC) attacks, 16, 25, 236, 241, 253–254, 258, 271, 283, 285, 323

World Wide Web, 141

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Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism Get This Book
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Vulnerabilities abound in U.S. society. The openness and efficiency of our key infrastructures – transportation, information and telecommunications systems, health systems, the electric power grid, emergency response units, food and water supplies, and others – make them susceptible to terrorist attacks. Making the Nation Safer discusses technical approaches to mitigating these vulnerabilities.

A broad range of topics are covered in this book, including:

  • Nuclear and radiological threats, such as improvised nuclear devices and “dirty bombs;”
  • Bioterrorism, medical research, agricultural systems and public health;
  • Toxic chemicals and explosive materials;
  • Information technology, such as communications systems, data management, cyber attacks, and identification and authentication systems;
  • Energy systems, such as the electrical power grid and oil and natural gas systems;
  • Transportation systems;
  • Cities and fixed infrastructures, such as buildings, emergency operations centers, and tunnels;
  • The response of people to terrorism, such as how quality of life and morale of the population can be a target of terrorists and how people respond to terrorist attacks; and
  • Linked infrastructures, i.e. the vulnerabilities that result from the interdependencies of key systems;

In each of these areas, there are recommendations on how to immediately apply existing knowledge and technology to make the nation safer and on starting research and development programs that could produce innovations that will strengthen key systems and protect us against future threats. The book also discusses issues affecting the government’s ability to carry out the necessary science and engineering programs and the important role of industry, universities, and states, counties, and cities in homeland security efforts.

A long term commitment to homeland security is necessary to make the nation safer, and this book lays out a roadmap of how science and engineering can assist in countering terrorism.

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