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Appendix E Glossary' Abbreviations' anct Acronyms AAS. Americm Astronomical Society. a~rehon. A process in which ~ star or plmet gathers material to itself by gravitational attraction. airflow. A quasi-s~dy radiant emission from the upper atmosphere over middle md low latitude. aIhedo. The fraction of incident light remend by ~ body. Alden mndu~ance. The conductance of ~ plasma particularly in the presence of ~ magnetic field. Alden waves. Hydromagnetic shear waves th~move along magnetic-f~eld lines; amajor accelerationmechmism of charged p~icles in plasma physics md astrophysics. aIkane+ A member of ~ series of saturated aliph~ic hydrocarbons having Be empirical formula C,~H~+2, where is ~ positive integer. alumunosili~te+ A colorIess, crystalline combination of silicate md aluminate in He form of rhombic crystals. mono acid+ Any of the ordain compounds that contain one or more basic amino groups md one or more acidic carboxy} groups md ~~ are polymerized to form peptides md proteins. andesite+ Finely crystalline volcanic rock composed largely of He minerals plagiocIase, feldspar' md pyroxene. AO: Adaptive optics. APL+ Applied Physics L~or~ory (Johns Hopkins University). ap~pse+ The point in ~ orbit mod distant from the Alar of attraction. aromatic Wounds+ Those compounds that have physical md chemical properties resembling benzene. All-Sll+ Asteroid llende~ous-~ample Return (mission). ASI+ Ager~ia Sp~iale Italima' the Italim national space agency. tronomi~l perturbations+ Small deviations in the motion of ~ object caused by echoes in He gravitational field or over forces acting on it. Al}: Astronomical unit the mem distance from Earth to He Sun. Smelt: A volemie rock composed largely of pl~ioelase, feldspar, md dark minerals such as pyroxene md 1- ol~lne. himphere: The life zone of Earth' including the lower pan of He atmosphere' the hydrosphere' soil, md He lithosphere to ~ depth of 2 kilometers. hrecc~a: lloek composed of broken fragments cemented together. ~5
APPENDIX ~ CAE~EM+ Cur~ion arid Analysis Planning Team for Extra~rrestria1 Materials. rhonac~us dhondrite+ A chondritic meteoric ~~ contains ~ relatively large amount of carbon arid has resulting darkeolor. - mini+ A very large Saturn orbiter launched by NASA in October 1997. Several months Mar its arrival ~ Saturn in July 2004, it will deploy the Europe Space Agency~s Huygens Titm probe. It will also conduct complex, multidisciplinary ob~rv~ions of ~e plus atmosphere, rings, magnetosphere' arid sullies. Cassini conducted coordinated onions of Jupiter win Galileo in 1~ 2000. - sX+ Cassini Extended mission. CCS11+ Comet Cryogenic Sample Return (mission). Centaur+ A family of small solar system bodies found between ~e orbits of Jupiter arid Neptune, having appearar~es retrying from as~roida1 to cometlike. Their orbital characteristics indices thy they have not resided in their present locations very long, leading to the suggestion thy they are recently misread Kuiper Belt object. Ch=signite+ A meteoric composed chiefly of olivine thought to come from Mars. MIEN+ The N~iona1 Research Council~s Commi~e on Humeri Exploration. c~hir~lity+ The right- or left-h~dedness of art asymmetric molecule. Absence of summed on reflection. c~hondrite+ A stony meteoric containing chondrules. c~hondrule+ A roughly sphering body consisting chiefly of pyroxene or olivine minerals embedded in the matrix of vermin Cony memories. c1~1hrate+ A compound in which one component is enclosed by the structure of Comer. clinopyroxene+ The general term for my of the pyroxenes ~~ crystallize in the monoclinic system. CRIES: Cenbe National d'Etudes Sp~iales' He French nations space agency. C~S11+ Comet Nucleus Sample lecture. NOEL+ The Nations lleseareh Councils Committee on the Origins md Evolution of Life. coma+ The spherical envelope of gas md dust surrounding the nucleus of ~ active comet created when He ambient hem causes the vaporization of biometry material. comet+ A vol~ile-rich body that develops ~ transient Ionospheres or coma, as it approaches the Sun. Most observed domed have highly elliptical orbits sometimes approaching parabolic. COMPLEX+ The National lleseareh Couneilts Committee on Planetary md Lunar Exploration. Contour: The Comet Nucleus Tour mission. corotation resonance: A periodic enforcement of perturbations ~ the frequency of He orbital motion. cosmoc~emistry: The branch of science concerned win the chemical composition of He universe md id origin. C~811: Comet Surface Sample lecture (mission). DAP: Da~-~alysis program. diapir: A dome or mlielina1 fold in which ~ mobile plastic eve he ruptured He more brittle overlying rock. diffemn~tion: The process by which He interior of ~ planetary body separates into layers of different compositions. diking: The process by which ~ tabular body of rock emu across He structure of adjacent rocks. DPSlAASi: Division for Planets Sciences of the American Astronomical Soviet. ON: Deep Space Network. dunite: An ultr~ie rock consisting almost solely of ~ magnesium-rich olivine with some ehromite md picoti~. dynamo: An eleeLoma$netie process in which the movement of conductive midrib gives rise to ~ magnetic field. ecliptic: The plane of Earths orbit around the Sun. EGE: Europa Geophysical Explorer (mission). ELAN: Europa Lander (mission). electron dissociation: The process by which molecules are broken apart Trough collisions win electrons. electron spectrometer: A device that measures the distribution of energy in ~ flux of electrons. ELV: Expendable launch vehicle. emission spectrometer: A device ~~ measures the energy emitted by materials due to their intrinsic hem.
APPEHDIX ~ ~7 enilogenous ' endogenie+ Relating to ~ processe of in~ma1 origin. eolian+ Pertaining to ~e action or effect of ~e wind. ElPO+ Education arid public outreach. ESA+ Europe Space Agency. ELV+ Exhume ultraviolet. exogenous' erogenic+ Relying to ~ process of ex~rna1 origin. extre~philes+ Microorganisms capable of growing under extreme physiochemical conditions' such as high temperatures' pressures, arid acidify. extrusion+ Emission of mama or ma$m~ic materials ~ the surfed of ~ ply. Fahry-Perot interferometer+ A device having two parallel glass plates' silvered on their inner surfaces so ~~ art incoming electromagnetic wave is multiply reflected between them to cause self-interference arid then is trar~smitted. fluvi~l+ Pertaining to or produced by the action of ~ river or stream. FY+ Fiscal year. G~lilean satellites+ The four largest moons of Jupiter Io' Europa, Car~ymede, arid Callisto first observed by Galileo in 1610. Galileo+ A large Jupiter orbiter launched by NASA in 1989. Following arrival ~ Jupiter in 1995' it deployed atmospheric entry probe md subsequently he eondue~d complex, multidisciplinary observations of He plmet~s atmosphere' rings, magnetosphere, md satellites. Galileo eondue~d eoordina~d observations win Cassini during He la~erts Jupiter flyby in 1~ 2000. geomorphology+ The study of the origin of geologic l~dforms. geot~hni~+ Application of scientific md engineering principles to problems by using knowledge of the properties of crush materials. Giotto+ The Europem Space Agency launched this spaceport in July 1985 on ~ Category thy enabled it to perform ~ fad flyby of He nucleus of Halley~s Comet in March 1986. Although severly damaged during He encounter' the spacecraft was lair reactivated md performed ~ close flyby of Comet Grigg-Skjellerup in July 1992. GO: C~ymede Orbiter (mission). grahen: A block of He crust, generally with ~ length much greater than its width that he dropped relative to blocks on either side. GENT: Gimt Segmented Mirror Telescope. hahitahle zone: The notional region around ~ star within which ~ Parklike planet would experience environ- men~1 conditions eomp~ible win life as we know it. The solar systems habitable zone stretches' approxi- ma~ly' from the orbit of Venus to the orbit of Mars. heteropol~ner: A polymer thy consist of ~ series of two or more different monomers. HST: Hubble Space Telescope. Huygens: The Europem Space Ageney~s eon~ibution to NASA,s Cassini mission. Huygens will be released from Cassini in late 2004 md will conduct in situ observations of Tithes ahnosphere md surface. hydrosphere: All bodies of water on ~ plmet as distinguished from He lithosphere md the atmosphere. IDPs: ~terplmet~ dust particles tiny particles that once orbited in the space between He planets' normally collected in the stratosphere by high-flying aircraft. igneous cumulates: Accumulations of igneous rocks. i~d gardening: The process of mixing surface materials by impact. IO: Io Orbiter (mission). I1ITF: NASA's Infrared Telescope Facilily. ISAS: Institute of Space md Ashonautiea1 Science' Japm~s space mienee agency.
Has ISO+ Infrared Space Observatory. isotopic fractionation+ The process by which ~e isotopic composition of ~ subsume is charmed over time due to physics arid chemical processes. ISS+ In~rn~iona1 Space Station. APPENDIX ~ Joule hem+ The hem generated when ~ elec~ica1 current flows Trough ~ medium having electrical resister. JPL+ ki Propulsion L~or~ory. POP+ Jupiter Polar Orbiter with Proms (mission). JOIST+ James Webb Space Telescope. KBO+ Kuiper Belt object ~ general name for ~e bodies found in the Kuiper Belt. KBP+ Kuiper Belt-Pluto (Explorer mission). komntiite+ Mmile-derived igneous rock win ~ content high in magnesium. Kuiper Bell+ A region of the solar system confining icy plmetesimals distributed in ~ roughly circular disk some 40 to 100 AU from He Sun. Pluto is believed to eireumseribe He innermost region of the Kuiper Belt. Lnn~ir probe+ A device for measuring the temperature md electron density of ~ plasma. LDEF+ Long Duration Exposure Facility. Iherzolit~+ Peridot composed principally of olivine. LIBS+ Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy. Lindblnd resonance+ A eelestrial-meehmies phenomenon occurring when ~ orbiting object encounters periodic crews of ~ gravi~tiona1 po~ntia1 ~ He same frequency ~ its radial oseill~ions. Iine~ment+ A sleight or gently curved, lengthy topographic feature. Iithosphere: The rigid outer crust of rock of ~ plme~ry body. littoral drift+ Materials moved by waves md currents of the liquors zone. LEAPT+ Lunar Sample Analysis Plying Team. LEiSiT+ Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. Lunn+ A series of some 24 spaceport launched to He Moon by He former Soviet Union between 1959 md 1976. The series included Tree sueeessfu l sample-return missions (tunas I 6, 20' md 24) md the deployment of two Lunokhod rovers (tunas 17 md 21~. Mngellan+ A NASA spaceer~launehedin May 1989. In the period August I99Oto October 1994' He spacecraft eondue~d orbital observations of Venus' including the complex radar mapping ofthe plmet~s eloud-shrouded surface. magnetic dipole moment+ A property of He magnetic field induced by ~ current loop. magnetosphere+ The region exterior to ~ planet in which id magnetic field plays He dominant part in controlling the physical processes that take place there. MAO+ Mars Upper Atmosphere Orbiter (mission). Mariner+ A series of Il plenary spaceport launched by NASA in He period from 1962 to 1973. The series included successful flyby missions to Venus (mariner 2, S. md 10~, hears Mariners 4, 6' md 7) md Mereury (Mariner 10~' md the first Mars orbiter (Mariner 9~. MEP+ Mars Exploration Program. MEPAG+ NASA,s Mars Exploration Payload Assessment Group. MeSll: Mereury Sample-lleturn (mission). MISS+ Mars Globe Surveyor. microwave radiometer+ A receiver for deleting microwave Herman radiation. ML3N: hears Long-Lived Lander Network (mission). MOLA+ Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter. morphology+ The field that deals win the structure md form of ~ object ~ my Rage in its evolution. MQF+ hears Quarantine Facility.
APPEHDIX ~ MOO+ Mars Reco~aissar~e Orbiter. MEL+ Mars Science Laboratory (mission). ~11+ Mars Sample Return (mission). mucilage+ An organic ma~ria1 the has gluelike properties. MI3SES-C+ A Jar science arid ~chnology~elopment mission designed to ren~=ous with ~ asteroid' collect samples of its surface malaria' arid return Gem to Earn for study. MWC+ Meteoric Working Group. nakhlite+ A meteoric composed of art aggregate of diopside arid olivine thought to come from Mars. NAS+ N~iona1 Academy of Sciences. NASA+ National Aeronautics arid Space Administration. NASDA+ Nations Space Development Agency of Japan. NEAR+ Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (mission). NEO+ Near-Earth object. NEP+ Nuelear-elee~ie propulsion ~ reaction drive thy utilizes ~ fission reactor to power ~ ion engine. neutral mass spectrometer+ A device thy measures He distribution of atomic arid molecular masses in ~ beam of neutral particles. NGLT+ Next Generation Lowell Telescope. Noac~hian era+ The earliest recognizable epoch in martim geologic history. It is characterized by ~ heavy era~ring ram md the earliest preserved rocks. NOP: Neptune Orbiter win Probes (mission). NOTE+ Neptune OrbiteriTriton Explorer (mission). N1IC: National lleseareh Council. NSF: Nations Seienee Foundation. NVO: National Virtual Observatory. Obliquity: The male between the orbits plane of ~ object md Be plane of its rotations equator. Ovulation: The disappearance of the light of ~ celestial body owing to the intervention of mother body of larger apparent size across Be line of sight. OES: NASA's Offiee of Earn Seienee. OM: Organic mater. OMB: Office of Management md Budge~part of the Executive Offiee of Be President. Oort cloud: A spherical distribution of comets having semimajor axes between 1~000 md 50~000 AU, Epically with low orbital eccentricity. Orthopyroxene: A series of pyroxene minerals erys~llizing in the orthorhombie system. OSF: NASA,s Office of Space Flight. OSS: NASA,s Office of Space Seienee. Outguessing: The emanation of gases from within ~ object. PUS: Planetary Da~ System. periapse: The point in ~ orbit closest to the center of attraction. perihelion: The point ~ which ~ bodying orbital motion takes it closest to the Sun. photochemistry: The study of the effects of light on chemical reactions. photometry: Measurement of light intensities. phylogenetic: Pertaining to the relationship between different organisms. Such relationships are typically based on comparisons between the genetic eharae~ri~ies of different organisms. PI: Principal investigator. Pioneer: A series of 13 NASA spaceport launched between 1958 md 1978. The series included Be first missions to Jupiter (Pioneer 10 md Il) md Saturn (Pioneer Il) md eulmina~d win two missions to Venus (Pioneer Venus ~ md 2~.
Ado APPENDIX planet~im~+ The ploy bodies ~t formed ~e building blocks of all ~e solar systems plural arid sa~lli~s. plow wave+ A disturbance of ~ plasma involving oscillation of id constituent particles arid of art electro- magnetic field' which propagates from one point in ~e plasma to Brother without net motion of the plasma. pyroxene+ A ferromagnesium rock-forming mineral having ironic (Silos) single inosilica~ chains as its principal motif. 11&A+ Research arid analysis. rncemue mixture+ A mixture with equal quantities of crystals of pure dextrorot~ory md levorotatory isomers' making it optically inactive. rndiogeme+ Relying to the decay of radioactive isotopes. rndio~otope+ A radioactive isotope. rndiometric nge+ The age of art object ~ determined by measurement of its radioactive isotopes md their ~~61e end-produc~. reflectance spectroscopy+ Measurement of the spectral radimt flux reflected from ~ surface. regolith+ The layer of fragmented, incoherent rocky debris on the surfed of ~ plar~etbody. retariling potential+ An elee~ie potential thy causes We speed of ~ charged particle to be reduced. loose zone+ The region about ~ plar~et where tidal forces are sufficiently strong to Car apt ~ idealized fluid body. llosettn+ A large Europem Space Agency mission originally scheduled for launch in 2003 md designed to rendezvous with md conduct extended studies of comet 46 P/Wir~en in 2011. Problems win id launch vehicle have delayed the launch until 2004 ~ the earliest. Its target comet is currently under review. UPS+ lladioisotope power system. 1ITG+ lladioisotope thermoelectric generator. SON+ Small Bodies Node (of the Plme~ry D~a System). senrp+ A cliff or seep slope of some extent' generally separating two level or gently sloping areas. SET+ Science definition ~am. shergottite+ A type of meteorite win ~ basaltic composition consisting chiefly of pigeonite md maskel~i~ that is thought to come from Mars. SIM: Space Interferometry Mission. sinter: To coalesce into ~ single mass by application of pressure or head but without melting. SI1ITF: Space Infrared Telescope Facilily. SKA: Square-Kilometer Array. SNC: A group of meteorite types Nought to have originated on Mars. SOFIA: Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy. solar-electric propulsion: lleaetion system that utilizes solar energy to power ~ ion engine. solar nebula: The cloud of gas md dust from which our Sun, the planets' md other bodies in Me solar system formed. space weathering: Alteration of ~ atmosphereless planetary bodying (e.~., ~ asteroids) surface materials by exposure to the space environment. SPA-S11: South Pole-Aitken Basin Sample-lleturn mission. S11&T: Supporting lleseareh md Technology. SSB: The National lleseareh Couneilts Space Studies Board. SSE Survey: Solar System Exploration Survey. stochastic: London. strntigrnphy: The study of the relationships between stratified rocks. stratosphere: The region above the troposphere' where ~ planets abno sphere becomes stably stratified as ~ result of solar hewing. st~matolite: A multilayered structure in ealeareous rocks ~~ are believed to be of algal origin. STSici[: Space Telescope Science Institute.
APPEHDIX ~ supereriti~l fluid+ A fluid ~ ~ temperature arid pressure above id critical point exhibiting ~e charac~ri~ics of both ~ liquid arid ~ gas. SWAS+ Submillime~r Wave Astronomy Sa~lli~. TEX+ Titar~ Explorer (mission). TON+ Terres~i~ Ply ~ophysica1 Network (mission). thermosphere+ The uppermost region of ~ plus atmosphere, where the temperature increases with height as ~ result of strong hewing from above md where molecular diffusion of hey plays ~ major role in vertical hey trar~sport. tholin+ The reddish, tarlike orgar~ic residue created in simulations of the action of ultraviolet radiation on gams typically found in planets environments. till heating+ The interns hewing of ~ ply - body owing to friction caumd by ~e differential gravitational effect of art ex~rna1 body on the mass in question. TPF+ Terrestrial Ply Finder (mission). T1IF+ Troj=~ur Reco~aissar~e Flyby (mission). Trojan+ A clustering of asteroids thy is found ~ ~e gravi~tional-~quilibrium points 60 degrees ahead of arid behind Jupiter in its orbit about the Sun. tropopause+ The bounds between the troposphere arid stratosphere, often characterized by art abrupt change in the ram ~ which He temperature varies as ~ function of height. troposphere+ The lowermost portion of ~ plmetts a~osphere, in which temperature decreases win height md thermal convection takes place. T Tauri+ A type of irregular variable star whose spectrum shows broad md very intense emission lines; these are believed to be young stars thy have not yet reached He main sequence. The Sun is believed to have exhibited T Tauri ehar~teristies early in its history. T Tauri phase+ An early phase in the evolution solar-type stars eharae~rized by extreme variability md mass loss. ultra~naf"~: Igneous rock composed principally of mafia (magnesium md iron) minerals, such as olivine md pyroxene. ultraviolet spe~mmeter+ A device that produces ~ spectrum of ultraviolet light. LOP: Uranus Orbiter win Probe (mission). Venera+ A very successful series of some 16 flyby, orbiter' md lander missions to Venus launched by the former Soviet Union in the 1961-~3 period. Viking+ A pair of orbiters md landers launched by NASA to explore Mars in August md September ~ 975. Viking ~ md ~ orbiters functioned in orbit about Mars until July 1978 md August 1980, respectively. The Viking ~ md 2 landers operand on the martim surface from July md September 1976 until November 1982 md April 1980, respectively. VISE+ Venus ~ Situ Explorer (mission). citric+ Referring to ~ pyroolastio m~eria1 that is oharao~ristioally glassy (conning more than 75 percent glass. volatile+ Element ~~ condense from or exist ~ ~ gas ~ low temperatures. Voyager: A pair of deep-sp~oe missions launched by NASA to the outer solar system in 1977. Between them' these spacecraft conducted olose-up observations of Jupiter (~979~' Saturn (~80 md I981~, Uranus (~' md Neptune (l 989~. VS11: Venus Sample-lleturn (mission). Z-~is accelerometer: A device ~~ measures He ram of acoeler~ion along ~ particular direction. Vinyl cloud: A lentioular-shaped dust cloud surrounding the Sun md maintained by fine material from as~roida1 collisions md biometry aotivity.
OTHER llEPOlITS OF THE SPACE STUDIES BOARD Satellite Observations of He Earths Environment: Aeeeler~ing the Transition of Research to Operations (2003) Assessment of Directions in Miero$ravity md Physical Seienees Research ~ NASA (prepublication) (2002) Assessment of the Usefulness md Availability of NASA's Each arid Space Mission D~a (2002) Factors Affecting the Utilization of the ~tern~ional Space Station for lleseareh in the Biological md Physical Seienees (prepublie~ion) (2002) Life in He Universe: An Assessment of U.S. arid In~rnationa1 Programs in Astrobiology (prepublic~ion) (2002) Review of NASA,s Each Science Enterprise Applications Program Ply (2002) "Review of He Redesigned Space In~rferome~y Mission (SIM)'' (2002) Safe On Mars: Precursor Measurements Necessary to Support Hum art Operations On the Martiar~ Surface (2002) The Sun to the Earn md Beyond: A Decade lleseareh by in Solar ~ Space Physics (prepublie~ion) (2002) Toward New Partnerships in Remote Sensin$: Government, the Prince Sector, md Earth Seienee Research (2W2) losing Remote Sensin$ in Same arid Loch Government: ~form~ion for Management arid Decision Making (2002) Assessment of Mars Seienee arid Mission Priorities (prepublic~ion) (2001) The Mission of Miero$ravity arid Physical Societies Research ~ NASA (2001) The Quarantine md Certification of Martin Samples (2001) lleadiness Issues Loveland to lleseareh in the Biological md Physical Seienees on He Intern~iona1 Space Station (LOCI) ``Seientifie Assessment of the Deseoped Mission Concept for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST)~' (2001) Signs of Life: A Report Based on He April 20N Workshop on Life Detection Techniques (prepublie~ion) (2001 ) Trar~sformin$ Remote Ser~sir~$ Da~ into Information arid Applie~iot~s (2001) Up. Ash onomy md Astrophysics: Mma$in$ ~ Integrated Program (2001) Assessment of Mission Size Trade-offs for Earn arid Space Seienee Missions (20~) Ensuring the Climax Record from He NPP arid NPOESS Me~orolo$iea1 S~elli~s (2000) Future Biotechnology Research on the ~tern~ion~ Space Station (2000) Issues in He IE~te$r~iot~ of Research md Oper~iot~ Satellite Systems for Climate Research: I. Seiet~ee arid Design (2000) Issues in the ~te$r~ion of Research arid Operations Sa~lli~ Systems for Climate Research: II. Implementation (2000) M~ro$ravity Research in Support of Technologies for the Humeri Exploration arid Development of Space arid Plar~etary Bodies (20~) ``Or~ Cot~tir~uin$ Assessment of Technology Development ire NASA's Office of Space Seiet~ee'' (2000) <<On lleview of Seientif~e Aspects of He NASA Trima Mission,' (2000) "On the Space Seienee Enterprise Draft Strategic Plar~'' (2000) Preventing He Forward Contamination of Europa (2000) Review of NASA,s Biomedical Research Program (2000) Review of NASA's Each Seienee Enterprise Research Strategy for 2000-2010 (2000) The Role of Small Satellites in NASA md NOAA Earth Observation Programs (2000) Copies of these reports are available free of charm from Spam Studies Board The N~iorla1 Academies 500 Fifth Skeet' N.W.' Washirl~on' DO 2000 (204 334-3~7 ssbCnas.~du w~.rl~ iorla1 becalm ie s. or ~~b ~~b .html NOTE: Limed according to War of approval for re 1~.