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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

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YC:11OBE! CO~EP~H~^BOTHL orpa;K,D;eHnn. 25 B He6o~Bm~x rIepB~Hux orpa;K'D;eH~x nHor'~a Tpy,~HO TOGO OUpe~e~HTB XapaKTepUCT~KH M~KpOCpe~. ODy6~HKOBaHHMe ~aHHMe CB~eTe~BCTBylOT O TOM, IITO TeMlIepaTypa, BJIa*HOCTB, KOH~eHTpa~H ra30B ~ TBep~BIX HaCTH~ B M~KpOCpe~e HaCTO OKa3MBalOTCH Bite, HeM B MaKpocpe~e [Besch,1980; Flynn, 1959; Gamble, Clough, 1976; Murakami, 1971; Serrano, 1971~. IlapaMeTpu M~KpOCpe~M MOryT BM3MBaTB H3MeHeH~ MeTabo~ecKnx ~ ~no~or~ecKnx HpO~eCCOB ~H 06yC~oB~HBaTB H3MeHeH~ BOCHpHUMHUBOCTH K Sa60~eBaH~M [Broderson et al., 1976; Schoeb et al., 1982; Vesell et al., 1976~. IloMemeH~e llepeu~ub~e oapa~cdenu~ IlepB~HOe orpa - ;eHHe (06~Ho ~eTKa' SaroH ~H CTO~O) orpaH~HBaeT HerIocpe~cTseHHylo cpe~y o6nTaHnH *nsoTHoro. IlpneM~eMme rIepsuHHme orpa;K,D;eH~: · y~OB~eTBOpHIOT HOpMa~BHEIM ~3~0~0rn~ecK~M ~ HOBe~eHHeCK~M HOTpe6HOCTSIM *HBOTHOrO, BK~IOHaH MOHeUCHyCKaHHe ~ ~e~eKaunIo, rIo,~,~ep~aHne TeMlIepaTypM TeJIa, HOpMaJILHOrO xapaKTepa ~BH*eHHU ~ rI03, a TaK*e' rIo rIoKa3aHH~M, pa3MHo~eHHe; . - ~ onecrIe~nsaIoT KOHCHe~HHMe CO~Ha~BHMe B3aHMOOTHO~eHH yCTaHOBKy nepapx~ecKnx OTHOIIIeHlIlI BHyTplI ~IlI Me—;y Orpa)K,D;eH~MH; · ~aIOT B03MO*HOCTB *HBOTHEIM OCTaBaTBCH HUCTEIMU ~ CyX~MU (B COOTBeTCTBHU C HOTpe6HOCTSIMU ~aHHOrO BH~a); obecrIe~nsaIoT a~eKBaTHyIO BeHT~HIO; · 06eCHeHUBaIOT ~BOTHEIM ~OCTyD K HH~e ~ Bo~e7 a TaK*e H03BO~HIOT ~erKO 3aTIOJIHSITB, MeH~TB, 06C~y~BaTB ~ HUCTHTB HOCy~y, r~e CO~ep~TCH KOpM Bo'~a; o6ecrIeHuBaIoT 6e3orIacHocTB ~BOTHOrO, T.e. ncK~IoHaIoT B03MO*HOCTB ero 6ercTBa. c~v~anHoro rIorIanaH~ (HenHKoM ~n KoHe~HocTHMH) B menn 7 ~ r ~ ~ ~ ~ ~n 3acTpeBaH~ Me;K,D;y rIpoTHBorIo~o*HEIMn rIOBepXHOCTHMH; He lIMeIOT OCTpLIX KpaeB ~H BBICTyHOB, KOTOpLIe MOryT TpaBM~pOBaTB ~BoTHoe; '~aIoT B03MO*HOCTB Ha6~Io'~aTB 3a ~BOTHEIMn, rIpaKT~ecKH He BBI3BIBaH - ~ lIX JeCHOKOUCTBa. IlepBulIHEIe orpa*~eHH~ ,~OJI*HEI H3roTaBJInBaTBcH H3 MaTepHaJIOB, KOTOpLIe 6BI O~HHaKOBO y~OB~eTBOp~H KaK HOTpe6HOCTHM ~BOTHEIX, TaK Tpe6oBaHH~M rurneHEI ~ CaHuTapHH. OHU ,~O~*HEI HMeTB r~a'~Kne' HelIpOHlI~aeMBIe HOBepXHOCTH C M~HUMa~BHEIM KO~HHeCTBOM BBICTyHOB, H3rH60B, yr~OB ~ COUp~KaCaIO~UXCH HOBepXHOCTeH, HTO H03BO~eT yMeHB~HTB HaKOIIJIeHlIe rpSI3lI, MyCOpa lI BJIarlI lI 06eCTIelIlITB B03MO*HOCTB UX OHUCTKH 3HH~eK~. OHU ~O~*HEI 6BITB H3rOTOB~eHEI H3 HpO~HEIX MaTepHa~OB, He rIo~ aIo~nxcH KOppO3lIlI lI BBI~ep*HBaIO~UX rpy6BIe B03~eUCTBH~, He TpecKa5IcE' He ~oMa~cE ~ He p~aBeH. MeHee HpO~HEIU MaTepHa~' HaUpUMep ,~epeBO, MO*eT oKa3aTBcH 60~ee HO~XO~HM B HeKOTOpLIX CHTya~X (HpH CTpOlITe3IBCTBe s~Iry~a, CTO~a ~n Hapy*HOrO 3aroHa) ~ MO*eT HpUMeH~TBCH

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28 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL~ 06pa30M BOTHER ~CHO~B3yIOT OTBe~eHHOe HM HpOCTpaHCTBO. ~ HeKOTOp~X BLOB *HBOTH~X Knee 6~aronpu~THuM ~s~eTc~ Hare neperopo~oK (HaTIplIMep, rpLI3yHLI, ~~H KOTOp~X XapaKTepeH THrMOTaKCHC), yKp~THU (HaTIplIMep, HeKOTOpLIe lIplIMaTLI HOBOrO CBeTa) lIJIlI CJIO*HOlI CTpyKTypLI K]IeTOK (HaTIplIMep, KOIIIKlI ~ IIIUMrIaH3e), a He rIpocToe yse~eHne Domain [Anzaldo et al., 1994; Stricklin, 1995~. TaK~M o6pa3oM, peKoMeH~aunn rho pa3MepaM K~eToK, ocHosaHH~Ie ~nIIIB Ha Domain, SIB~RIOTCH He~OCTaTO~HEIMH. B ATOM OTHO~eHHU ~aHHOe ~KOffO0CmffO MO*eT OT~HaTBCH OT AWRs (CM. IplIM. 1, CTp. 2~. BBI~e~HeMOe ~H *HBOTHEIX HpOCTpaHCTBO HO~e*HT HpOBepK MO~HKa~H H0 Mepe HeO6XO~HMOCTH C y~eTOM KOHKpeTHEIX CHTya~H lIOTpe6HOCTelI *lIBOTHEIX (HaUpUMep, B c~y~ae upe- ~ nocTHaTa~BHoro yxo~a, O*lIpeHlISI *lIBOTHEIX ~ rpyHHOBOrO H~H UH~HBH~ya~BHOrO CO~ep~aHHH). . . aKlIe lIOKa3aTe3IlI COCTOS[H~ ~IBOTHEIX, KaK 3~0pOBBe, pa3MHO*eHHe, pOCT, lIoBe~eHHe' aKTHBHOCTE ~ ~cH0~30BaHHe 3aHUMaeMoro HMU HpOCTpaHCTBa MOryT ~CHO~B30BaTBCH ~H O~eHKH COOTBeTCTBH~ UX pa3MemeHn~. KaK M~HUMyM, ~BOTHOe ~O~*HO HMeTB ~OCTaTO~HO MeCTa, HT06BI HOBOpaHUBaTBCH ~ Hp~HUMaTB HOpMa~BHEIe H03BI, HMeTB CB060~HEIU ~OCTyD K KOpMy~KaM ~ rIo~KaM, a TaK*e ~OCTaTO~HOe CB060~HOe ~H HOKpLITOe HUCTEIM HO~CT~OM rIpocTpaHcTso' r~e OHO MO*eT y~o6Ho paCHO~O*HTBCH ~ OT~BIXaTB. B ~eTKe H KO~eK HeO6XO~HMO yCTaHOBUTB HpHHO~H~TyIO Ha~ HO~OM ~aT~OpMy ~H OT~BIXa. TaKne ~aT~OpMBI ~n BBICTyHEI HaCTO ~e~aTe~BHO yCTpaUBaTB ~H C06aK ~ HpUMaTOB. Il~aT~OpMy ~H OT~BIXa, HpHHO~H~TyIO Ha~ HO~OM HaCTO~BKO, HTO *HBOTHOe He MO*eT 3aH~TB H0~ HeH y~O6HyI0 H03y, C~e~yeT cHuTaTB HacTBIo rIoBepxHocTH rIo~a. IlpocTpaHcTBo, 3aHuMaeMoe KOpMy~KaMn, ~ - lIOlIJIKaMlI, yCTpOlICTBaMlI ~H Tya~eTa H~n ~pyrUMU upucuoco )~eHH~M~, KOTOpLIe He Hpe~Ha3HaHeHEI ~H Hepe~BH*eHH~ H~H OT~BIXa, He ~O~*HO BXO~HTB B ~o~a~B no~a. IIOTpe6HOCTB B pa3MepaX HepBHUHEIX Orpa*~eHHU ~ THU HOUpaBOK, peKOMeH~OBaHHEIX B HpUBO~HMBIX H~e Ta6~aX, ~O~*HEI yTBep~aTBCH Ha yposHe IACUC yqpe*~eHn~ ~ ocHos~IsaTBc~ Ha rIoKa3aTe~x ~3He~e~Te~BHOCTH *HBOTHEIX, OHUCaHHEIX B Hpe~y~eM a63aue c yqeToM AWRs ~ PHS Policy (CM. HpUM. 1~. IlpH 3TOM MO*eT HOTpe60BaTBCH KOHCy]IBTa~ CHeUHa~HCTOB, n3yqeHne ~HTepaTypHEIX ~aHHEIX ~ COBpeMeHHOH rIpaKT~K~, a TaK*e yqeT ~3nqecKnx' rIose~eHqecKnx ~ COL~naJI~H~IX Hy;KD; *HBOTHEIX B COqeTaHHU C XapaKTepOM ~ Tpe60BaHH~MU HpOTOKO~a 3KcrIepuMeHTa [Crockett et al., 1993, 1995~. O~eHKa HOTpe6HOCTeH *HBOTHEIX B 3aHUMaeMOM HpOCTpaHCTBe ~O~*Ha OCy~eCTB~TBCH HOCTO~HHO. C TeqeHHeM BpeMeHlI lIJIlI B xo~e ~nTe~BH~Ix 3KcrIepuMeHTos c~e~yeT rIo~yMaTB 0 Lle~ecoo Jpa3HocTn n3MeHeHnn ~oma~n ~n BBICOTEI HoMe~eHH~ ~, B c~yqAe Heo6Xo~HMocTH' OCy~eCTBUTB ux. 3a~aqu ~ o6~eM HacToH~ero py~coffo~cmffa He rIo3Bo~IoT o6cy;KD;aTE rIoTpe6HocTH BCeX ncrIo~B3yeMBIx B nCC~e~OBaHH~X BH~OB *HBOTHEIX. '~H BH~OB, He yrIOM~HyTEIX 3~ecB' B KaqeCTBe OTrIpaBHOn TOqKH MO*HO ncrIoJIB3oBaTB peKOMeH~aLlHn rIO ~o~a~n ~ BBICOTe ~JI~ ~BOTHOrO CXO~HOrO pa3Mepa c aHa3IOrlIqHEIM XapaKTepOM aKTHBHOCTH ~ HOBe~eHH~ ~ yTOqHUTB UX C yqeTOM OT~Hq~Te~BHEIX ocobeHHocTen, upucy~nx ~aHHOMy B~y ~n ~aHHOH oco6~. TaM' r~e 3TO B03MO*HO, co~Ha~BHEIx *HBOTHEIX c~e~yeT pa3Me~aTB rIapaMn H~n rpyrIrIaMH' a He nH~HBH~ya~BHo, rIpH yC~OBHn, qTO TaKOe

YC~OB~ CO~EP~H~^BOTHL~ 29 pa3MemeHne He lIpOTlIBOpelIlIT lIpOTOKO3Iy ~aHHOrO ~CC~e~OBaHH~ ~ He SIB3ISIeTCSI lIplIIIlIHOlI HeOlIpaB~aHHOrO pUCKa ~~H 3KCHepUMeHTa~BHEIX *HBOTH~X [Brain, Bention 1979~. B SaBUCHMOCTH OT CaM~X pa3H~X 6no~orn~ecKnx ~ HOBe~eHHeCKHX ~aKTOpOB HpH rpyHHOBOM pasMemeHnn ~BOTH~X,D~SI WHOM oco6n Monet noTpebosaTBc~ 60~Bme ~n MeHBme MecTa, HeM HpH UH~HBH~ya~BHOM CO~ep~aHHU *HBOTH~X. ~pUBO~HMMe HH*e peKOMeH~a~H OCHOBBIBalOTCH Ha TOM ~ODy~eHHU, HTO HapHOe ~H rpyHHOBOe co,~ep~aHne 06~Ho r~pe,~r~o~TuTe~Hee nH,~nsn,~ya~Horo, ,~a~e ec~n Ha Ka;KD;oro ~eHa rIapu ~n rpyr~rIm 6y~eT rIp~XO,~HTECH HeMHOrO MeHE~e MeCTa H0 CpaBHeHUIO C UH~HB~ya~BH~M co~ep~aHneM. HanpuMep, ~BOTHMe MOryT ~e~HTB OTBe~eHHOe HM HpOCTpaHCTBO C ~pyrUMU oCo6HMH. ~o~ee Toro7 HeKOTOpLIe rpLI3yHEI ~H CB~HB~, co~ep~a~HecH B COBMeCTHMBIX rpynnax, pa3BIcK~BaIoT ~pyr ~pyra ~ ~e~RT rIpOCTpaHCTBO BHyTpH K~eTK~, rIp~HMa~cB ~pyr K ~pyLy B~O~B CTeHOK, y~a~BIBa~CB ~pyr Ha ~pyra B HepHO~BI OT~BIXa ~H co6Hpa~cB BMeCTe B ye~HHeHHOM MeCTe [White, 1990; White et al., 1989~. . ~.r ~ ~ . ~pylIHEIU pOraTEIU CKOT, OB~BI ~ K03BI HpO~B~HIOT CTa~HOe HOBe~eHHe, CTpeMSICB K o6pa3oBaHnIo rpynnOBBIX acco~Ha~n ~ TeCHOMy ~3~HeCKOMy KOHTaKTy. I,I Hao6opoT' HeKOTOpLIe ~BOTHEIe, HaUpUMep pa3~HEIe BH~BI lIplIMaTOB, Hy0;aIOTCH B ~OHO~HUTe~BHOM UH~HB~ya~BHOM HpOCTpaHCTBe HpH rpylITIOBOM pa3MemeHnn ~H yMeHB~eHH~ arpeCCHBHOCTH. BBICOTa OrPa)K,D;eHHU MO*eT HMeTB Ba*HOe 3HaHeHHe ,~H HOPMa~BHOrO HOBe~eH~ ~ HOCTypa~BHOrO HpUCHOC06~eHH~ HeKOTOpLIX B~OB *HBOTHEIX. IlpH paCHeTe BBICOTEI ~eTOK Hy*HO Hp~HUMaTB BO BHUMaHHe THH~HEIe H03BI *HBOTHOrO ~ ~OCTaTO~HOe MeCTO ~H 06~3aTe~BHEIX 8~eMeHTOB K~eTK~, HaTIplIMep KOpMyIIIeK, lIOlIJIOK, BaHH C BO~OH. ~pUMaTEI HeKOTOpLIX BH~OB lICTIOJIB3yIOT BepT~Ka~BHEIe HpOCTpaHCTBa ~eTKH B 6o~Bmen CTeneHn, HeM ee lIoJI. ~1IH ux xopoIIIero CaMOIIyBCTBlISI Ba*HO lIpe~OCTaB~HTB HM B03MO*HOCTB BBICOKO B36HpaTBCH Ha BeTKy ~ ~CHO~B30BaTB BepT~Ka~BHOe HpOCTpaHCTBO ~OCTaTO~HOe ~H pa3Me~eH~ BCerO Te~a Ha~ HO~OM ~eTKH. OUpe~e~eHHe pa3MepOB K~eTOK ~H pa3Me~eHH~ *HBOTHEIX ~O~*HO OCHOBBIBaTBCH Ha HpUBO~HMBIX B 3TOM pa3~e~e Ta6~aX; O~HaKO, C 0~06peH~ IACUC, UX MO*HO H3MeHSITB B CTOpOHy yBe~eH~ ~H yMeHB~eH~ C y~eTOM IplIBe~eHHEIX BBI~e KpUTepHeB. B Ta6~. 2.1 lIpUBO,~HTCH peKOMeH~yeMBIe pa3MepLI ~eTOK ~H rpyHHOBOrO CO~ep~aHH~ 06BI~HO ~CHO~B3yeMBIX B ~a60paTOpHEIX ~KCHepUMeHTaX rpLI3yHOB. upH UH~HBH~ya~BHOM co~ep~aHnn H~n HpH ~CHO~B30BaHHU *lIBOTHEIX C MaCCOH Te~a, HpeBBI~aIO~eH yKa3aHHyIO B Ta6~., MO*eT HoTpe6oBaTBcH 6o~Bmee HpOCTpaHCTBO. B Ta6~. 2.2 rIpuBo'~HTcH peKOMeH~yeMBIe pa3MepLI K~eToK'~pyrux 06BI~HO ncrIo~B3yeMBIx B ~a6opaTopHEIx aKcrIepuMeHTax *HBOTHEIX. 3TH ~aHHEIe, B o6~eM, OCHOBaHEI Ha rIoTpe6HocT~x *HBOTHEIX rIpH nH~HB~ya~BHoM co~ep~aHHH. pa3MepLI K~eTOK MOryT 6BITB rIepecMoTpeHEI rIpH Heo6xo~HMocTH o6ora~eH~ Cpe~BI o6nTaH~ ~n co~ep~aH~ ~BOTHEIX C MaCCOn, rIpeBBIIIIaIo~en yKa3aHHyIo B Ta6JI. IlpH rpyrIrIOBOM co~ep~aHHn ~BOTHEIX ~o~a~B o6~ero rIpocTpaHcTBa He ~B~HeTCH o6~3aTe~BHo CyMMOn Be~nH, peKOMeH~yeMBIX ~R nH~HB~ya~BHoro co~ep~aH~ ~BOTHEIX. IlpH rpyrIrIOBOM co~ep~aHHn *HBOTHEIX paCIIeTEI ~O~*HEI ocHoBBIBaTBcH Ha lIOTpe6HOCTSIX ~ lIOBe~eHIIeCKHX XapaKTepUCT~KaX ~BOTHEIX ~aHHOrO BH~a, cosMecTuMocTn ocoben, KO~HeCTBe *HBOTHEIX, a TaK*e 3a~aHax, KoTopLIe CTaBSITCSI lIplI lIX pa3MemeHnn.

30 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP2KAHlIlO BBC77O!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHIlX^BOTHIlX Ta6JInua 2. 1 PeKoMeH,~yeMme pasMepu K]IeTOK ~~H rpynnosoro co~ep~aH~ to ~CIlO~B3yeM~x ~abopaTopHux rpM3yHOB BOTHER Macca, r IlRo~a,~b no~aHao,~Ho ~BOTHOe, GROOM 2 a BucoTa 6' , Moron < 10 6 Mold 8 to 25 12 >258 > 15 Kpucm < 100 17 to 200 23 to 300 29 to 400 40 to 500 60 >5008 >70 XOM~KH < 60 10 ~o80 13 to 100 16 >lOOz >19 MopcKne CB~HKH < 350 60 > 3508 > 101 ,]~H IIepeBO,~a KBa,~paTHuX ,~IOnMOB B KBa,~paTHMe CaHTHMeTpM yMHO*nTb opuse~eHHoe aHa~eHne Ha 6,45. OT no~a,~o nOTO~Ka K~eTKn. ']~H HepeBo,~a ,~IOnMOB B CaHTHMeTpM yMHO~Tb HpUBe,0;eHHOe SHaHeHHe Ha 2,54. B c~yHae tree Kpy~HuX oco6en MO*eT noHa,~o6nTbcH 6o~bmee HpOCTpaHCTBO ,=H y,~OB~eTBOpeH~q OIInCaHHbIM B TeKCTe KpuTep~qM. PeKOMeH,D;yeMMe pa3MepLI K~eTOK,D;~SI KpO~HKOB' KO~eK Co6aK~ lIplIMaTOB lI WITTILY Ta6JInua 2.2 ~K~soTHme Macca,r Il~orua~bno~a BucoTa I, Ha O,0;HO ~IBOTHOe, (AT 2 6 ,0;IOlIM Z KPO~HKH < 2 1,5 14 to 4 3,0 14 to 5,4 4,0 14 >5,40 >5,0 14 Kor~Ku < 4 3,0 24 >40 >4,0 24 CobaKne < 15 8,0 - ~o 30 12,0 - > 30 ~ > 24,0 -

YC:11OBE! CO~EP2KAH~IBOTHLIX Ta6~na 2.2 (rIpo,~o~*eHHe) 31 IBOTHbIe Macca, r IlRoma,~b nova BucoTa ~' Ha WHO ~K~BOTHOe, YET 26 ~IOHM Z 06e3b~HM (BK3IlOHaH HaBHaHOB)~, 3: 1 OC06b to 1 1,6 20 2 oco6n to 3 3,0 30 3 oco6n to 10 4,3 30 4 oco6n to 15 6,0 32 5 oco6en to 25 8,0 36 6 oco6en to 30 10,0 46 7 oco6en > 30 ~ 15,0 46 Ie~oseKoo6pa~Hme 06e3b~HM (Pongidae)3: 1 OC06b to 20 10,0 55 2 oco6n to 35 15,0 60 3 oco6n > 35 U 25,0 84 to~y6n ~ - 0,8 - ilepene~a~ - 0,25 - KYPM ~ <0,25 0,25 - ~O 0,5 0,50 - ~O 1,5 1,00 - ~O 3,0 2,00 - >3,00 >3,00 - ]~H HePeBO~a K~OrPaMMOB B ~YHTM YMHO~K~Tb HPUBe~eHHOe SHaHeHHe Ha 2,2. ]~H HePeBO~a KBa~PaTHbIX ~YTOB B KBa~PaTHbIe MeTPbI YMHO~KUTb HPUBe~eHHOe ate Ha 0,09. OT no~a,~o nOTO~Ka K~eTKn. ~ ]~H HePeBO~a ~IOHMOB B CaHTHMeTPbI YMHO~K~Tb HPUBe~eHHOe SHaHeHHe Ha 2,54. B c~yHae thee Kpy~HbIX oco6en MO*eT noHa,~o6nTbcH 6o~bmee HpOCTpaHCTBO ,=H Y,~OB~eTBOPeH~H OHUCaHHbIM B TeKCTe KPUTeP~HM. ]~H BbIHO~HeHHR ~aHHbIX peKOMeH~a~H MOryT HOHa~06HTbCH HeKOTOpbIe MO,~nKa~n, COOTBeTCTBylO~He ~OpMe Te~a OT,~e~bHbIX oco6en ~ nopo,~. ~]~H HeKOTOpbIX co6aK' oco6eHHo ,~H oco6en, IIpH6~3KalO~nXCH K BepXHen rpaHuLle ~ ~ - HOpMbI B Ka~OlI BeCOBOlI KaTerOplIlI, MO)KeT HOHa~O HTbCH JO~b~e MeCTa, B cooTBeTcTBHn C 3aKoHoM O 6~arococToRHHn ~K~BOTHbIX (Animal Wefare Act). 3ToT SaKOH [CFR, 1985] Tpe6yeT' HT06bI BbICOTa K~eTOK HO3BO1~a ~K~BOTHOMy CTORTb B <<y,~o6Hon IIo3e>>' a M~HuMa~bHaH II~O~a,~b IIOBepXHOCTH IIo~a B ~yTax paBHR~aCb <<MaTeMaT~ecKoMy KBa,~paTy,~nHbI Te~a co6aKH B ~IOHMaX, H3MepeHHOH OT KOHH~Ka HOCa ~O OCHOBaH~ XBOCTa, H~IOC 6 ~IOnMOB; no~eHHbIn peBy~bTaT paS~e~nTb Ha 144,>. Callitrichidae, Cebidae, Cercopithesidae ~ Papio. BbICOTa K~eTOK ~SI HaBHaHOB MO)KeT 6bITb 6o~bIIIe' HeM,~,~pyrux o6eab~H. ']~H HeKoTopbIx pO,~OB (HaIIpuMep' Brachyteles, Hylobates, Symphalangus, Pongo ~ Pan) BbICOTa K]IeTOK ,~O]I)KHa nOBBO~HTb 06eSb~He' BbITHHyBmUCb BO BeCb pOCT, paCKalIlIBaTbC,[, y~eHUB~HCb 3a HOTO~OK, He KaCaRCb 3a~HUMU KOHe~HOCTHMU Ho~a; IIplI 3TOM KOHCTpyK~ HOTO~Ka ~O~KHa Hpe~OCTaB~HTb ~K~BOTHbIM B03MO)KHOCTb IIepe,~BUraTbCH KaK IIO BeTKaM. BbIC~UX 06e3b~H MaCCOH 60~ee 50 Kr ~yHme CO~ep)KaTb B HOMe~eH~X H3 KUpH~a, 6eTOHa lI IIpOBO]IOIIHbIX Orpa~eHlI,[X, a He B 06bIIIHbIX K]IeTKaX. BbICOTa K~eTKH ~O~KHa 6bITb ~OCTaTO~HOH ~ TOrO, HT06bI ~BOTHOe MOr~O 3aH~Tb BepTlIKa]IbHylO H03y, CTOH Ha Ho~y.

32 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL~ B Tabs. 2.3 HpUBO~HTCH peKOMeH~yeMMe pa3MepM HOMe~eHHU ~~H Ce~BCKOXO3~HCTBeHH~X ~BOTH~X, 06~HHo ~CHO~B3yeM~X B ~a60paTOpH~X aKcr~epuMeHTax. Echo Macca *HBOTH~X HpH UH~HBH~ya~BHOM ~H rpyHHOBOM CO~ep~aHHU HpeBM~aeT yKaSaHHylO B Tabs., TO ~~H HEX MO*eT HOTpe60BaTBCH 6o~Bmee r~pocTpaHcTso. Ilpu rpyr~r~osoM co,~ep~aHnn Heo6xo,~uMo obecr~e~nTB y~o6HMU dactyl K KOpMy~KaM ~ HO~KaM [Larson, Hegg 1976; Midwest Plan Service, 1987~. TeMuepaTypa ~ B~aiKHOCTb Ilo~ ep~aHHe TeMUepaTypM Te~a B upe~e~ax HOpMM ~B~HeTcH o6~3aTe~BHuM yc~oBueM '~H Te~oKpoBHux *HBOTHuX. B o6meM, MO*HO yTBep - ;aTB, HTO CO~ep~aHHe Hea~aUTHpOBaHHEIX *HBOTHEIX HpH TeMnepaType cs~Ime 85 °F (29,4 °C) ~n Hn~e 40 °F (4,4 °C) B oTcyTcTBue yKpLIT~ ~n ,~pyrux 3a~HTHEIX HpUCHOCO6~eHHU MO*eT HpUBeCTH K K~HHHHeCK~M rIoc~e~cTsu~M [Gordon, 1990] c yrpo30n '~H *~3HH. *HBOTHEIe MOryT a~aUTHpOBaTBCH K 3KCTpeMa~BHEIM TeMUepaTypaM HOCpe~CTBOM lIOBe~eHHeCKHX, ~3~0~0r~ecKnx ~ MOp~O~Or~eCKHX MeXaHH3MOB, O~HaKO TaKaH a,~arITaun~ TpebyeT BpeMeHU ~ MO*eT H3MeHUTB pe3y~BTaTEI aKCr~epuMeHTa ~n KaK~M-TO ~pyrnM o6pa3oM OTpa3nT~C~ Ha HeM [Garrard et al., 1974; Gordon, 1993; Pennycuik, 19671. , ~ ~ . . eMrIepaTypa ~ OTHOCIITe3IBHaH B~a*HOCTB OKpy~aIO~eH Cpe~BI MOryT 3aBlICeTB OT KOHCTpyK~HH HOMe~eHH~ ~ yC~OBHU pa3Me~eHH~ *HBOTHEIX; IplIIIeM OHlI MOryT CyILleCTBeHHO OT3IlIIIaTBCH B HepBHUHOM ~ BTOpHUHOM orpa*~eHH~x. K ~aKTOpaM, KOTOpLIe MOryT CHOC06CTBOBaTB KO~e6aHH~M TeMlIepaTypLI ~ B~a*HOCTH, OTHOCHTCH KOHCTpyK~ ~ MaTepHa~BI, H3 KOTOpLIX lI3rOTOB3IeHEI orpa~eH~, ncuo~B30saHne ~BTpa c Ha~CTaBKOH, KO~eCTBO *lIBOTHEIX B K~eTKe, HpUTO~HaH BeHT~H Orpa~eHH~, HaCTOTa CMeHEI rIo~cT~olIHoro MaTepua~a ~ ero cocTas. B HeKoTop~Ix cuTyaun~x, HarIpuMep rIpu rIoc~eorIepaunoHHoM BOCCTaHOB3IeHlIlI *lIBOTHOrO, CO~ep~aHHU ~BI~HT B TeHeHHe HepBBIX ~HeH rIoc~e BBIXO~a H3 ~ua, co~ep~aHnn HeKoTop~Ix rp~I3yHos, ~meHH~Ix so~oc~Horo rIoKposa, ~ Hosopo;Kn;eHH~Ix ocoben OT~e~BHO OT MaTepH, MO*eT rIoTpe6osaTBcH rIo~ep~aHne 6oJIee BBICOKOH TeMUepaTypLI. ~HaHa30H IOBBI~eHH~ TeMUepaTypLI 3aBUCHT OT yC~OBHU CO~ep~aHHH; UHOr~a OKa3BIBaeTCH ~OCTaTO~HEIM HOBBICHTB TeMUepaTypy TO~BKO B HepBHUHOM Orpa - ;eHlIlI (lI He lIOBBI~aTB TeMUepaTypy BO BTOpHUHOM Orpa~eHHH). 3a OTCyTCTBueM CTpOrO KOHTpO~HpyeMBIX nCC~e,~OBaHHn peKOMeH,~yeMBIe rIoKa3aH~ cyxoro TepMoMeTpa'~H HeKOTOpLIX Han6o~ee HaCTO ncrIo~B3yeMBIx BlI~OB *HBOTHEIX OCHOBaHEI Ha HpO+eCCHOHa~BHOM MHeHHU ~ OHEITe crIeuna~ncTos (Ta6~. 2.4~. Ilpu co~ep~aHnn *HBOTHEIX B 3aMKHyTOM HpOCTpaHCTBe ~HaHa30H CyTO~HEIX KO~e6aHHU TeMUepaTypLI ~O~*eH 6BITB CBe~eH ~0 M~HUMyMa C TeM, HT06BI H36e~aTB MHOrOKpaTHEIX B03~eUCTBHU Ha MeTa60JIlI3M lI lIOBe~eHHe *HBOTHEIX, H3MeH~IO~UXCH ~H KOMUeHCa~H C~BUrOB TeMUepaTypLI OKpy~aIO~eH Cpe~BI. YpOBeHB OTHOCHTe~BHOH B~a*HOCTH TaK*e ~O~eH KOHTpO~HpOBaTBCH, HO B 60~ee ~HpOKOM ~HaHa30He, IeM TeMrIepaTypa; lIplIeMJIeMBIU ~nana30H Ko~eGaHnn OTHOCHTe~BHOH s~a*HocTn cocTas~eT 30 - 70~. 3HaHeH~ TeMUepaTypLI, yKa3aHHEIe B Ta6~. 2.4, He Bcer'~a rIpHeM~eMBI ,~H co'~ep~aH~ B HeBO~e ~HKHX *HBOTHEIX, ~HKHX *HBOTHEIX, 06HTaIO~UX B eCTeCTBeHHOH cpe~e, n~n ~ *HBOTHEIX, HaXO~UXCH B Orpa*~eHH~X Ha OTKpLITOM Bo3~yxe7 r~e OHU HMeIOT

YC:11OBE! CO~EP2KAH~IBOTHLIX 33 Ta6JInua 2.3 PeKoMeH,~yeMme pa3Mepu orpa;K,D;eHnn WIN 06MlIHO ~CrIOJIB3yeM~X Ce~BCKOXO3~HCTBeHHLIX ~~dBOTHLIX KO~-BO ~BOTHbIX B OrPa~eHHU Macca, Kr a IIJIOILIa,0;b IIOBepXHOCTlI Ha O~HO~BOTHOe, ~yT26 OBUM ~ KOOK: 2-5 >5 CB~HbH: 2-5 >5 KPYIIHMU POraTMU CKOT: 2-5 >5 <25 HO 50 > 50 <25 HO 50 > 50 <25 HO 50 > 50 < 15 HO 25 HO 50 HO 100 HO 200 > 200 <25 HO 50 HO 100 HO 200 > 200 <25 HO 50 HO 100 HO 200 > 200 <75 HO 200 HO 350 HO 500 HO 650 > 650 <75 HO 200 HO 350 HO 500 HO 650 > 650 <75 HO 200 HO 350 HO 500 HO 650 > 650 0,0 15,0 20,0 8,5 2,5 7,0 7,5 ,3 5,0 8,0 2,0 15,0 24,0 48,0 >60,0 6,0 10,0 20,0 40,0 >52,0 6,0 9,0 18,0 36,0 >48,0 24,0 48,0 72,0 96,0 24,0 44,0 20,0 40,0 60,0 80,0 05,0 20,0 18,0 36,0 54,0 72,0 93,0 _ 108,0

34 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL Ta6~a 2.3 (npo~o~KeHne) KO~-BO ~BOTHbIX B Orpa~eHlIlI Macca, Kr a IlRo~a,0;b HOBepXHOCTH Ha O~HO~BOTHOe, ~yT26 ~or~a~n TIOHH: 1-4 > 4 B 3arOHe 144,0 < 200 > 200 72,0 60,0 >72,0 ]~H HepeBO~a K~OrpaMMOB B ~yHTM yMHO~Tb HpUBe~eHHOe 3HaHeHHe Ha 2,2. ]~H HepeBO~a KBa~paTHbIX ~yTOB B KBa~paTHbIe MeTpbI yMHO*HTb HpUBe~eHHOe 3Ha~eHne Ha 0,09. B c~yqae 6O~ee Kpy~HbIx ocoben Mo~KeT noHa~o6nTbc~ 6o~br~ee opocTpaHcTso y~OB~eTBOpeH~ OHUCaHHbIM B TeKCTe KpUTep~M. Ta6~a 2.4 PeKoMeH~yeM~e noKa3aHn~ cyxoro TepMOMeTpa ~ 06~Ho nCn0~3yeM~X ~a60paTOpH~X ~BOTH~X ~IBOTHbIe fIoKa3aH~ cyxoro TepMoMeTpa °C °F MbI~H, KpbICbI, HeCHaHK~, MOpCKHe CB~HKH KPO~HKH KO~K~, Co6aK~, HpUMaTbI Ce~bcKoxo3~ncTseHHbIe ~K~soTHbIe ~ ~oMar~Ha~ ~ua 18-26 16-22 18-29 16-27 64-79 61-72 64-84 61-81 B03MO*HOCTB a~aUTHpOBaTBCH, HO~Bepra~CB Ce30HHEIM H3MeHeH~M HOrO~HEIX yCJIOBlIlI. BeHTH~SI~R Ha3HaHeHHe CHCTeMBI BeHT~H COCTOUT B o6ecHeHeHHn ~ocTaTo~Horo IplITOKa KlIC3IOpO~a; yMeHB~eHHU TeH~OBBIX Harpy30K Ha opraHn3M ~BOTHOrO, Bo3H~KaIo~nx B rIpoLlecce ,~BIXaHH~ ~ pa6oTEI ocBeTHTeJIBHon ~ ~ - ,~pyron arIrIapaTypLI; CHH:3KeHHn KOHLleHTpaLlHn ra300 Jpa3HEIx ~ TBep,~BIX rIpuMecen; pery~HpoBaHHn co'~ep:3KaH~ B~arn B aTMoc~epe rIoMe~eH~ H, TaM r,~e 3TO B03M0~3KHO, co3~aHHn rIeperIa'~oB CTaTHIIeCKOrO ,~aB~eHH~ MeJ3K,~y rIpuMBIKaIo~HMH'~pyr K'~pyLy lIOMeILleH~MlI. O~HaKO yCTaHOBKa CKOpOCTH BeHTH~n rIoMe~eHH~ e~e He o6ecrIeHuBaeT a,~eKBaTHEIn ypoBeHB BeHT~HLlHn B rIepBuIIHOM Orpa;K,D;eHHn H, c~e'~oBaTe~BHo, He rapaHTHpyeT KaHeCTBO M~KpOCpe~BI 06HTaH~ ~BOTHOrO. ,~JIH 60JIBmlIHCTBa BlI,~OB ~K~BOTHEIX CTelIeHB ,~nCKOM~OpTa H~n 6~0JIOr~eCKHX lI3MeHeHlIlI, BBI3BIBaeMBIX ~B~KeHHeM so3~yxa (CKB03H~KaMH), He yCTaHOB~eHa. 06~eM ~ ~3~ecKne XapaKTepUCT~KH B03~y~HOrO HOTOKa,

YC:11OBE! CO~EP~H~^BOTHL~ 35 rIOCTylIalO~erO B noMemeHne' a TaK*e xapaKTep era pacupe~e~eH~ sHyTpu lIOMeILleH~ OKa3BIBaIOT B~HHHe Ha BeHT~HIO HepB~HOrO orpa~eHn~ ~ SIB3ISlIOTCH H03TOMy Ba*HEIMU OUpe~e~HIO~HMU ~aKTOpaMU M~KpOCpe~BI 06HTaH~ ~BOTHOrO. B3aHMOOTHO~eHHe Merely THHOM ~ MeCTOHO~O*eHHeM BeHTlIJISI~HOHHEIX pe~eTOK ~ BBITH*HEIX yCTpOUCTB, C WHOM CTOpOHEI, ~ KO3IlIIIeCTBOM, KOH( ~HrypaL~nen, MeCTOlIO3IO*eHlIeM lI BlI~OM HepBHUHEIX Orpa*~eHHU B HOMe~eHHU H~H BTOpHUHOM orpa*~eHnn' c ~pyron, o6yc~os~nsaeT KaHecTso seHTu~Hn rIepsuHHEIx orpa;KD;eHnn, a rIoToMy ~O~*HO rIp~HuMaTBcH BO BHuMaHHe rIpH pacHeTax. IlpH ux BBIrIo~HeHHn, HarIpaB~eHHOM Ha orITHMH3aLlHIo BeHTH~HLlHn rIepBuIIHEIX ~ BTOpHlIHEIX Orpa)K,D;eHHU, lIO3Ie3HEIM MO*eT OKa3aTBCH KOM0BIOTepHOe MO~e~HpOBaHHe, KoTopoe'~aeT B03MO*HOCTB O~eHUTB 3TH ~aKTOpLI C y~eTOM Te~OBOH Harpy3KH ~ xapaKTepapacrIpe~e~eH~ Bo3~y~Horo rIoToKa [HarIpuMep: Hughes, Reynolds, 1995; Reynolds, Hughes, 1994~. B Te~eHne MHorux ~eT ~encTBoBa~n nHCTpyKunn o Heo6xo~uMocTn 10— 1 5-KpaTHon CMeHEI Bo3~yxa B TeHeHHe Haca BO BTOp~HEIX orpa~eH~x; TaKaH HacToTa cHuTa~acB rIpHeM~eMon HOpMOn. H eCMOTpSI Ha TO, HTO 3TH peKOMeH~aLlHn 3~+eKTHBHEI BO MHOruX MeCTaX co~ep~aH~ ~BOTHEIX, OHn He yHuTEIBaIoT pa36poc B03MO*HEIX TerI~oBBIx Harpy3oK; BH~, pa3MepLI KO3IHIIeCTBO HaxO~~SlILlnXCH B HUX *HBOTHEIX; TlITI lIO~CTH~a ~ HaCTOTy ero 3aMeHEI; pa3Mep~I noMemeH~ ~ 3~+eKTHBHOCTE nepepacupe~e~eH~ so3~yxa H3 BTOp~HOrO B rIepB~Hoe orpa;K'D;eHHe. B HeKOTOpLIX CHTya~X HpUMeHeHHe TaKHX HeOUpe~e~eHHEIX Tpe60BaHHU MO*eT HpUBeCTH K H36BITO~HOH BeHTlIJISI~H BTOpHUHOrO Orpa~eHH~, B KOTOpOM HaXO~HTCH HeCKO~BKO oco6eH, ~, KaK C~e~CTBUe, K HOTepe 3HeprHU ~H He~OCTaTO~HOH BeHT~H BTOplIIIHOrO Orpa)K,D;eHlISI, B KOTOpOM HaXO~HTCH MHOrO *HBOTHEIX, ~, KaK C3Ie~CTBUe, K a~n TaM Te~a ~ Henp~THEIX 3anaxos. ~H 60~ee TO~HOrO OUpe~e~eHH~ OUTHMa~BHOrO ypOBH~ BeHTH~H C3Ie~yeT C HOMO~BIO UH*eHepOB-MeXaH~KOB paCCHUTaTB M~HUMa~BHyIO CKOpOCTB BeHTH~nH (06BI~HO B ~yT3/M~H), Heo6xo~HMyIo ~H OTBO~a reHepupyeMoro *HBOTHEIMn TerIJIa. TerIJIoBylo 3HeprnIo' reHepupyeMylo ~BOTHEIMn, MO*HO pacclInTaTB C rIoMo~BIo ypaBHeH~ cpe~Hero ~ o6~ero HOBBI~eHH~ Te~a, Hp~H~TOrO AMep~KaHCK~M 06~eCTBOM UH*eHepOB H0 TerI~OBBIM, XO~O~BHEIM ~ BO3~yIIIHEIM KOH~HLlHOHHEIM yCTaHOBKaM [ASHRAE, 1993~. 3To ypaBHeHne He ~B~eTc~ B - ocrIeun+~H~IM ~ n03TOMy MO*eT rIpuMeH~TBcH ~H ~I06BIX BBI~e~HIo~nx TerI~o *HBOTHEIX. M~HuMaJIBHEIn ypoBeHB Tpe6yeMon BeHT~HLlHn orIpe~eJI~eTcH rIyTeM paclIeTa pacxo~a xJIa~areHTa (o6~n pacxo~ a~areHTa) 7 Heo6xo~HMoro ~R perymqLlHn o~aeMon TeIIJIOBOlI Harpy3Kn' co3~asaeMon MaKCIIMa3IBHEIM KOJI~IeCTBOM ~BOTHEIX, KOTOpLIe MOryT CO~ep~aTBCH B ~aHHOM Orpa~eHHU, ~IOC ~Io6oe TelIJIO, KOTOpOe MO*eT lIpO~y~HpOBaTBCH ~pyrUMU ~CTO~H~KaM~, ~ TeIIJIOOT~aHa OT HOBepXHOCTeH B noMe~eHHH. MeTo~ pacHeTa o6~ero pacxo~a XJIa~areHTa MO*HO TaK*e ~CHO~B30BaTB ~H HOMe~eHHU C HOCTO~HHOH CKOpOCTBIO BeHT~H B ~e~x onpe~e~eHH~ MaKcHMa~BHoro Ko~HecTBa *HBOTHEIX (Ha OCHOBaHHU o6~en MaCCEI *HBOTHEIX), KOTOpLIe MOryT CO~ep~aTBCH B ~aHHOM HOMe~eHHH. XOTH OrI~CaHHEIU MeTO,~ PaCHeTa MO*eT ~CrIO~B30BaTBCH,~H OrIPe,~e~eH~ MlIHlIMaJIBHOH CKOpOCTH BeHT~H, HeO6XO~HMOH ~H Hpe~OTBpa~eHH HaKO~eH~ H36BITOIIHOrO Te~a' y~eT'~pyrUX ~aKTOpOB, HaTIpUMep yCTpaHeHHe HelIplISITHEIX 3aHaXOB, a~epreHOB, TBep~BIX HpUMeCeH ~ 06pa3yeMBIX B

36 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL~ rIpo~ecce MeTa6o~aMa rasoB' Mo~eT rIpuBecTH K Heo6xo'~HMocTH o6ecrIeHeH~ CKOpOCTH BeHTHJISI~H, HpeBM~alO~eH paCHeTHMU M~HUMyM. Echo pace M~HuMyM OKasuBaeTCH Cy~eCTBeHHO Hoe lo-KpaTHon CMeHM Bos'~yXa B Sac, Toga MO*eT rIoTpe6osaTBcH cos'~aHHe Belt C tree HHaKOn CKOpOCTBlO BO BTOp~HOM orpa;K'D;eHHn rIpH yC3IOBlIlI, IITO TaKaSI BeHT~q~ He HpUBe~eT K HaKO~eHHIO Bpe,~HuX ~n HerIpHeM~eM~X KOHLleHTpaLlHn TOKCHIIeCKHX rasos' sarIaxos ~n TBep,~MX lIpUMeCen B rIepB~HOM Orpa;K,D;eHHH. IIO'~O6H~M o6pa3oM, Korea pace M~HuMyM oKa3usaeTc~ cymecTseHHo sume 15- KpaTHOH CMeHM B03~yXa B Sac, Heo6xo~uMo upe~ycMoTpeTB Mepu no co3~aHnIo OHO~HUTe~BHOH BeHTH~H ~~H pe~eHH~ BTUX BOUpOCOB. B HeKoTop~x c~y'Ia~x lIplIMeHeHlIe BeHT~ISI~H C HOCTO~HHOH CKOpOCTBIO BO BTOp~HOM Orpa*~eHHU MO*eT HpUBeCTH K HeO6XO~HMOCTH yTO~HeHH~ rpa~HKa CaHUTapHOH 06pa60TKH orpa*,~eHnn H~n orpaHn~eHn~ KO~HeCTBa HaXO~UXCH TaM ~BOTH~X, HTo6M HO~ep~aTB COOTBeTCTByIO~He yC~OB~ oKpy~a~omen Cpe~BI. CO~ep~aHHe *HBOTH~X B K~eTKaX C HpUTO~HOH BeHTH~HeH IpOrIyCKaeMBIM IIepe3 ~BTpLI KOMHaTHEIM B03~yXOM ~H B ~pyrux HepB~HEIX Orpa*~eHH~X C He3aBUCHMBIMU ~CTO~H~KaMU B03~yXa (T. e. BO3~yxoM7 lIOCTylIaIO~HM He H3 ~aHHOH KOMHaTEI) MO*eT 8~eKTHBHO pe~HTB BOUpOCEI BeHTH~SI~H, ~CK~IOHUB HeO6XO~HMOCTB BeHTH~HpOBaTB BTOpHUHEIe Orpa - ;eH~ B TOH CTeHeHU, KOTOpaSI HOHa~06~aCB 6BI, ec~n 6BI HepB~HEIe Orpa - ;eH~ He HMe~H He3aBUCHMBIX ~CTO~H~KOB BeHT~. TeM He MeHee, BTOplIIIHEIe Orpa*~eHH~ Hy*~aIOTCH B ~OCTaTO~HOH BeHTH~H ~H obecrIe~eH~ OTBO~a Te~a, BBICB060~aeMOrO HepB~HEIMU orpa~eH~Mu. Ec~n crIeuna~3uposaHH~Ie orpa*,~eHn~ o60py,~osaH~I a~eKTusH~IMn ~BTpaMU ~ OHUCTKH OT KOpHyCKy~HpHEIX ~ ra3006pa3HEIX HpUMeCeH, TO BO BTOp~IHEIX 3arpa~eH~X MO*HO ~CHO~B30BaTB pe~HpKy~HpyIO~H B03~yX. t,I30~SITOpHEIe ~eTKH C ~BTpaM~, He HMeIO~He CHCTeMBI HpUTO~HOH BeHT~ISI~H, KOTOpLIe ~CHO~B3yIOTCH, HaUpUMep, ~H co~ep~aH~ HeKOTOpLIX B~OB rpLI3yHOB, OrpaHHHUBaIOT BeHT~HIO. ~H pe~eH~ BTOH HpO6~eMBI, T.e. ~ y~eH~ M~KpOCpe~BI 06HTaH~ ~ yBe~eH~ OTBO~a Te~a, MO*eT HOHa~06HTBCH H3MeHeHHe MeTO~OB CO~ep~aHH~ *HBOTHEIX, B TOM Huc~e caHuTapHEIx rIpoLle~~yp~ yCTaHOBKlI K3IeTOK BO BTOplIIIHOM Orpa)K,D;eHlIlI lI lI3MeHeH~ lIX IIJIOTHOCTlI. IlpUMeHeHHe peL~upKy~upy~omero so3,~yxa,~ BeHT~ISI~H noMemeHnn C *HBOTHEIMn rIo3Bo~HeT c6epeUB 3HaHuTe~BHoe KO~eCTBO 3Heprnn' HO rIpH 3TOM HeceT B ce6e HeKHU pUCK. MHOrHe M~KpOOpraHH3MBI, HaTOreHHEIe ~H *HBOTHEIX, rIepeHOCHTCH BO3,~yxoM ~JIn TBep,~BIMn TeJIaMn, HarIpuMep' HaCT~KaMU HEM~, H03TOMy OTpa60TaHHEIU B03~yX, KOTOpLIU BHOBB nocTynaeT B CHCTeMBI OTO~eH~, BeHT~n ~ KOH,~HOHupOBaHH~ Bo3~yxa (heating, ventilation and air conditioning - HVAC), odc~y~sa~omne HecKo~Ko KoMHaT, Hpe~CTaB~HeT OHaCHOCTB HepeKpeCTHOH KOHTaM~Ha~. OTpa60TaHHEIU BO3,~yx, rIo'~JIe~a~n peLlupKyJI~LlHn, Heo6xo,~HMo rIporIycKaTE lIepe3 BBICOK03~eKTHBHEIe B03~y~HEIe ~BTpLI ~H OHUCTKH OT KOpHyCKy~HpHEIX r~puMecen (high-efficiencyparticulate airfiltered - HEPA),~qy,~a~eH~Tsep,~Ix IIaCTlI~ ~0 Ha~a~a pe~HpKy~; CTeHeHB ~ 3~eKTHBHOCTB ~BTpa~H ~O~*Ha COOTBeTCTBOBaTB O~aeMOMy pUCKy. ~BTpLI HEPA s~InycKaIoTc~ B pa3HEIX BapHaHTaX, HTO H03BO~eT H0~06paTB UX H0 CTeHeHU 3~eKTHBHOCTH C y~eTOM B03MO*HOrO pUCKa [ASHRAE, 1992, 1993~. B 03~y~HEIU HOTOK, lICTOIIHlIKOM KOTOpOrO He SIB3ISlIOTCH HOMe~eH~, r~e co~ep~aTc~ *nsoTH~Ie,

YC~OB~ CO~EP~H~^BOTHL~ 37 a KOTOpLIlI ncrIo~BayeTc~ ,~ seHT~L~n ,~pyrux rIoMemeHnn (HarIpuMep, rIoMemeHnn, rue paboTaeT odcJIy*nsa~omun rIepcoHaJI, xpaH~Tc~ sarIacm KopMa, rIo,~cTnJIolIHoro MaTepuaJIa ~ ,~pyrne lIpe~MeTEI), MO*HO pe~HpKy~HpOBaTB ~~H BeHT~H HOMe~eHHU C *HBOTH~MH; HpHHeM ~~H TaKOrO BO3~y~HOrO HOTOKa MO*eT Tpe60BaTBCH MeHee UHTeHCHBHaH ~BTpa~H H~n KOH~HOHUpOBaHHe, HeM ~H B03~y~HOrO HOTOKa, r~ocTyr~a~omero ns r~oMemeHnn, r,~e HaXO,~TCSI ~BOTHMe. O~HaKO B HeKOTOp~X CHTya~X (HaUpUMep, B c~y~ae upuMaTos ~ 6no~orn~ecKu onacHux MaTepHa~OB) pUCK HacTo~BKo BuCOK, HTO BOUpOC o6 ncuo~BsosaHnn peL~upKyJInpy~omero so3,~yxa soo6me He paccMaTpusaeTc~. ypoBeHB TOKC~eCKHX ~n C~BHO rIaxHy~nx ra3oB' TaKHX KaK aMMnaK, MO*HO rIo~ep~BaTB B ~OrIyCTHMBIX rIpe'~e~ax' ec~n ux y'~a~HTB C rIoMo~BIo CHCTeMBI BeHT~RLlHn ~ 3aMe~aTB BO3~yxoM, co~ep~a~HM TaKne ra3BI B HH3KHX KOH~eHTpa~X ~n He co~ep~a~HM ux Boo6~e. cooTBeTcTByIo~aH o6pa6oTKa peLlupKyJInpyIo~ero Bo3~yxa rIyTeM x~MulIecKon a6cop6LlHn ~JIn OIInCTKH MO*eT 6BITB'~ocTaTo~Ho a~eKTHBHOn; O~HaKO ~R BeHT~n rIoMe~eHHn C *HBOTHEIMn lIpe~TIOIITeHHe C3Ie~yeT OT~aBaTB nCTIo3IB30BaHnIO HepeLlupKyJInpylo~ero Bo3~yxa. IlpuMeHeHHe Bo3~yxa, rIpoIIIe'~IIIero lIepe3 ~BTpLI HEPA, HO He Hepe3 ~BTpLI ~ OHUCTKH OT ra3006pa3HEIX HpUMeCeH (HaTIplIMep, ~BTpLI H3 aKTHB~poBaHHoro ~peBecHoro yr~), ~ODyCKaeTCH B orpaH~eHHoM lInc~e c~y~aeB rIpH yC3IOBlIlI, IITO: . KoMHaTH~In so3,~yx cMemusaeTc~ KaK M~HuMyM c 50% cse~ero so3,~yxa (~pyrnMn cJIoBaMn, ncrIoJIB3yeTcH He 6oJIee 50% peL~upKyJInpy~omero so3,~yxa); IaCTOTa BBIrIOJIHeHH~ TaKHX rIpoLle'~yp, KaK CMeHa rIO~CTHJIOIIHOrO MaTepHaJIa ~ MonKa KJIeToK, a TaK*e o6pa6oTKa peLlupKyJInpylo~ero so3~yxa ~B~HeTCH ~OCTaTO~HOn, HT06BI CBeCTH '~o M~HuMyMa KOH~eHTpa~HIO TOKC~eCKHX ra30s ~ 3anaxos; · pe~HpKy~HpyIO~H B03~yX B03Bpa~aeTCH TO~BKO B HOMe~eHHe ~H 30Hy, KOTOpLIe ~B~IOTCH ero ~CTO~H~KOM, 3a ~C~IOHeHHeM TeX C~y~aeB, KOr~a OH lIOCTylIaeT lI3 30H, r,~e He co,~ep~aTc~ *nsoTH~Ie; pe~HpKy~HpyIO~H so3~yx no~sepraeTc~ KOH~HOHUpOBaHUIO ~ IepeMeIIIlIBaHlIIO C HOTOKOM HUCTOrO B03~yXa, HTO H03BO~HeT IO~ep*HBaTB HOpMa~BHEIU ypOBeHB TeMUepaTypLI ~ B~a*HOCTH B IOMeILleHlIlI ~H *HBOTHEIX. ~OCTaTO~HO HaCTaH CMeHa HO~CT~a ~ MOUKa ~eTOK B COHeTaHHU C HH3KOH IIJIOTHOCTBIO *HBOTHEIX B ~aHHOM HOMe~eHHU, HOH~eHHOH TeMUepaTypOH B3Ia*HOCTBIO B03~yXa B HeM TaK*e H03BO~HeT CHH3HTB KOH~eHTpa~HIO TOKCIIIIeCKlIX lIJIlI CIIJIBHO HaXHyILlUX ra30B B aTMOC~epe HOMe~eHHH. o6pa6oTKa pe~HpKy~Hpylo~ero Bo3~yxa c ~e~Io y~a~eHH~ TBep~BIx H~n - ~ ~ ~ ra300 Jpa3HEIx rIpuMecen ~B~HeTcH ~oporocToH~en rIpoLle'~ypon ~ Mo~eT OKa3aTBCH He3~eKTHBHOH B c~yHae HenpaBH~BHoro H~n Hea~eKBaTHoro 06C~y~BaH~ ~BTpa~HOHHEIX CHCTeM. ~H obecne~eH~ ux MaKCHMa~BHOH 3~eKTHBHOCTH TaKHe CHCTeMBI Hy*~aIOTCH B pery~HpHOM OCMOTp lIpaB~IBHOH 3Kc~yaTaunn. BBIcoKaH lIpOlI3BO~HTe~BHOCTB ~IO60n c~cTeM~I HVAC TpebyeT peryJI7RpHOlI lIpOBepKlI lI lIpO~aKT~eCKOrO peMOHTa, HTO B~IOHaeT O~eHKy ee ~yHKLlHOHupOBaH~ Ha ypOBHe BTOp~HOrO orpa~eH~. IlpH TaKOn OLleHKe

38 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL cJIe~yeT nameplate owed sos~yIIIHoro rIoToKa Ha Come ~ shoe, a TaK*e' ecJIn 3TO B03MO*HO, lIepelIa~BI CTaT~eCKOrO ~aB~eH~. OcsemeH~e CBeT MO*eT OKa3MBaTB B~HHHe Ha ~~no~orn~o, MOp~O~OrHIO ~ r~ose~eHne~soTHuxpasHuxs~os [Brainardetal., 1986; Erkert, Grober, 1986; Newbold et al., 1991; Tucker et al., 1984~. IloTeHuna~Hme ~oTocTpeccopu BK~IOHalOT HeO6~HHMU ~OTOHepHO~, UHTeHCHBHOCTB ~ CHeKTpa~BHMe xapaKTepucT~Ku ncTo~H~Ka ocsemeH~ [Stoskopf, 1983~. MHoro~nc~eHHme ~aKTOpM MOryT MeH~TB HOTpe6HOCTH *HBOTH~X B OCBe~eHHU ~ ~O~*HM y'IlITLIBaTBCH HpH onpe~e~eHnn a~eKBaTHOrO ypOBHR OCBe~eH~ HOMe~eHHU BUBapHSI. K TaK~M ~aKTOpaM OTHOCHTCH: UHTeHCHBHOCTB OCBe~eHH~, HTe~BHOCTB ~KCHO3~H, ~HHa CBeTOBOH BO~HM, OCBe~eHHe, KOTOpOMy *lIBOTHLIe lIO~Bepra~HCB paHee, HUrMeHTa~H *HBOTH~X, BpeM~ CBeTOBOH ~KCHO3~H B upe~e~ax unpKa~Horo un~a, TeMnepaTypa Te~a' ropMoHa~Hun CTaTyC, BO3paCT, BH~, HO~ ~ CTOK H~H ~HHH~ *HBOTHOrO [Brainard, 1989; Duncan, O'Steen, 1985; O'Steen, 1980; Saltarelli, Coppola, 1979; Semple- Rowland, Sawson, 1987; Wax, 1977~. B o6meM, MO*HO yTBep - ;aTB, HTO CBeT ~O~*eH paCCeUBaTBCH HO BCeMy BUBapHIO ~ 06eCHeHUBaTB HeO6XO~HMylO *HBOTH~M OCBe~eHHOCTB, a TaK*e cooTseTcTsy~omne yc~os~ ~q yxo~a 3a HlIMlI, OCMOTpa (BK]IlOHaH *HBOTHEIX B K~eTKaX, paCHO~O*eHH~X B CaMOM HH3y CTOeK) ~ 6e30HaCHOCTH HepCOHa~a. IlpH BTOM CBeT B BUBapHU ~O~eH 6MTB ~OCTaTO~H~M ~H HOpMa~BHOrO SpeH~ enpoaH~oKp~HHon perymqunn CyTO~H~X ~ ~HpKa~H~X ~OB [Brainard, 1989~. ~OTOHepHO~ ~B~eTCH Ba*H~M pery~TOpOM peUpO~yKTHBHOrO HOBe~eH~ ~soTHuxMHoruxs~os [Brainardetal., 1986; Cherry, 1987~; oHTaK*eMo~eT naMeH~TB ~nHaM~Ky yse~eHn~ Maccm ~ r~oTpe6~eHn~ KopMa [Tucker et al., 1984~. c~y~anHoe BK~IOHeHHe cBeTa BO BpeMSI TeMHOBOrO HepHO~a~O~HO 6MTB ~CK~IOHeHO ~n CBe~eHO ~0 M~HUMyMa. ~OCKO~BKy *HBOTHMe HeKOTOp~X B~OB He e~HT HpH TyC~OM OCBe~eHHU ~H B TeMHOTe, ~HTe~BHOCTB TaKHX HepHO~OB ~O~*Ha 6MTB BM6paHa TaK~M o6pa3oM, HTo6M He oTpa~aTBcH Ha UX COCTO~HHH. '~H o6ecrIeHeHH~ pery~HpHoro cyTo~Horo ~nK~a ocse~eHH c~e,~yeT lICTIO3IB30BaTB aBTOMaTHHeCKHe CHCTeMBI B~IOHeHHH/BBIK~IOHeHH CBeTa ~ rIepno,~ecKu rIpOBepSITE paboTy TauMepa. B ~a60paTOpHEIX 3KCHepUMeHTaX Ha~e Bcero nCHO~B3yIoT *HBOTHEIX, Be'~y~nx HO~HOn o6pa3 ~3HH. B c~y Toro7 HTO KpLICEI-a~B6HHOCEI 6o~Bme' IeM ~pyrne B~BI *HBOTHEIX rIO~Bep~eHEI ~oToToKcHlIecKon peTHHOrIaTHn, ux ~CTIO~B30Ba~H ~ onpe~e~eH~ HOpMa~BHEIX ypOBHeH OCBe~eH~ HOMe~eHHU BuBap~ [Lanum, 1979~. ,~aHH~Ie rIo nHTeHcusHocTn ocsemeH~ rIoMemeHnn rIpuMeHuTe~BHo K ~pyrnM *HBOTHEIM, OCHOBaHHEIe Ha HaylIHEIX nCCJIe~OBaHHSIX, OTCyTCTByIOT. ,~OCTaTOIIHon ~JISI HOpMaJIBHOrO yxo~a 3a *lIBOTHEIM~, HO BCeH B~HMOCTH, ~B~HeTCH OCBe~eHHOCTB HOpH~Ka 325 ~K (30 ~yTOB/KaH~e~) Ha paCCTO~HHU OKO~O 1,0 M (3,3 ~yTa) OT no~a; up~eM TaKaSI lIHTeHCIIBHOCTB He BBI3BIBaeT ~HH~eCKHX HpH3HaKOB ~OTOTOKC~eCKOH peTHHOHaTHU y 6e~BIX KpLIC [Bellhorn, 1980~. OcsemeHHocTB ~o 400 ~K (37 ~yTOB/KaH~e~), H3MepeHHaH B HyCTOM HOMe~eHHU Ha paCCTO~HHU 1,0 M OT rIoJIa, ~orIycTuMa ~JI~ rp~I3yHos, ecJIn rIpu 3TOM lICTIOJIB3yIOTCH OUpe~e~eHHEIe Mep~I, rIpermTcTsyIomne rIospe;Kn;eHnIo ceT~aTKu r~a3a y a~B6nHocos [Clough, 1982] . O~HaKO yC~OBH~ OCBe~eHH~, B KOTOpLIX HaXO~OCB KOHKpeTHOe

YC:11OBE! CO~EP~H~^BOTHL~ 39 ~soTHoe, MoryT oKa3aTB Sophie Ha ero IIyBCTBlITe3IBHOCTB K TOKC~eCKOMy UCTBHIO CBeTa; HMelOTCH CBe~eH~ O TOM, HTO OCBe~eHHOCTB, HpeBBI~alO~aH Ty, lIplI KOTOpOlI *lIBOTHOe pOCJIO ~ pa3BUBaJIOCB, Ha 130-270 JIK, SIBJISIeTCSI r~oporoson ~ Motet sussaTB r~ospe;Kn;eHne ceT~aTKu y oT~e~BHux 6e~ux Kp~C, ec~n Cy~nT~ rIo ruCTO~OrulIeCK~M' MOp~OMeTpu a~eKTpo~no~orn~ecK~M ~aHHuM ~ Semple - Rowland, Sawson, 19 87] . H eKOTOpMe pyKOBO~CTBa peKOMeH~ylOT OHeHB HH3KylO UHTeHCHBHOCTB ocsemeH~—r~op~Ka 40 ~K—~H ~BOTHOrO, HaXO~erOCH B Cepe~HHe K~eTKu [NASA, 1988~. Mo~o~me 6e~me ~ HUrMeHTHpOBaHHMe MM~H rIpe~rIoHnTaloT 6O~ee HnaKne yposHn ocsemeH~ rIo cpasHeHnIo co B3pOC~MMU oco6HMn [Wax, 1 977l, XOTSI HOTeH~Ha~BHOe HOBpe*~eHHe CeTHaTK~ 06yC~oB~eHHoe CO~ep~aHHeM BTUX rpM3yHOB HpH 60~ee HpKOM CBeTe, oKa3MBaeTc51 B 60~HHCTBe c~yHaeB 06paTHMMM. TaK~M 06pa30M, ~H ~IBOTHLIX, y KOTOpLIX 06Hapy~eHa lIpe~paCHO~O*eHHOCTB K ~OTOTOKC~eCKOH peT~HorIaTun, ocsemeHHocTB HayposHe K~eTKu ~o~Ha cocTas~qTB 130-325 ~K. C ~e~BIo yMeHB~eHH~ HeHy*HOH CBeTOBOH CTHMy~H *HBOTH~X lICTIO3IB3yIOT TaKne MeTO~BI co~ep~aH~, KaK spameHne ~eTOK H0 OTHO~eHUIO K ~CTO~H~Ky CBeTa [Greenman et al., 1982] ~n Hpe~OCTaB~HIOT ~BOTH~M B03MO*HOCTB H3MeH~TB CBOIO CBeTOByIO 3KCH03~HIO HyTeM HOBe~eHHeCKHX peaKLlHU HaTIpUMep, pLITBe TyHHe~H H~n ncuo~B30saHne CTpyKTypHEIX 8~eMeHTOB K~eTKH B KaHeCTBe yKpLITHH). BO3MO*HOCTB pery~HpOBaHHSI UHTeHCHBHOCTH OCBe~eH~ c~e,~yeT paCCMaTpUBaTB KaK Cpe~CTBO obecne~e UHTeHCHBHOCTH, a~eKBaTHOH HOTpe6HOCTHM KaK ~BOTHEIX, TaK ~ HepCOHa~a, pa60TaIO~erO B BUBapHU, a TaK*e KaK Cpe~CTBO 3KOHOMHU 3HeprHH. Cpe~CTBa ylIpaB3IeHlISI ~O~*HEI HMeTB ~OpMy ~Ka~BI BepHBepa ~ MeXaHH3Ma pery~uposaH~, a He ~CHO~B30BaTBCH HpOCTO ~H TOrO, HT06BI B~IOHaTB ~H BBIK~IOHaTB CBeT B HOMe~eHHH. ~pH Hp~H~THU pe~eHHU, KaCaIO~UXCH O~HOpO~HOCTH CBeTa, ~BeTOBOrO UH~eKCa, CBeT03a~HTHEIX 3KpaHOB, y~eTa 6~eCTSI~UX ~ OTpa~aIO~UX HOBepXHOCTeH, CpOKa C~y*6BI ~CTO~H~KOB CBeTa, lIX TelIJIOBBI~e~eHH~ ~ BBI60pa 6a~aCTHOrO COUpOTHB~eHH~, MO*HO BOCHO~B30BaTBCH pyKOBO~CTBOM 06mecTsa UH*eHepOB-CBeTOTeXH~KOB CesepHon AMep~Ku (Illuminating Engineering Society of North America - IESNA) [Kaufman, 1985,1987~. IIIyM IIIyM, lICTOIIHlIKOM KOTOpOrO SIBJISlIOTCH ~BOTHEIe ~ 06C~y~BaIO~H UX rI epcoHa~ ~ C3Iy~IT HelIpeMeHHOlI XapaKTeplICTlIKOlI ,~eUCTByIO~erO BlIBaplISI [Pfaff, Stecker, 1976~. IIO3TOMY rIpu rIpoeKTuposaHnn ~ 3Kc~yaTaunn susap~ HeO6XO~HMO yHUTEIBaTB B03MO*HOCTB pery~HpOBaHH~ ypOBHR ~yMa [Pekrul, 1976~. OueHKa rIoTeHuna~BHoro so3~encTs~ myMa Ha opraHn3M ~soTHoro TpebyeT y~eTa ero UHTeHCHBHOCTH, HaCTOTEI, CKOpOCTH ero so3H~KHoseHn~, ~HTe~BHOCTH ~eUCTB~, BH6pa~0HHEIX XapaKTepUCT~K 3ByKOBOrO 3~eKTa, ~HaHa30Ha C~BI~HMOCTH, ypOBH~ ~yMa, HpH KOTOpOM paHee co~ep~a~ncB ~soTH~Ie, a TaK*e BOCTIplIlIMIIlIBOCTlI K IIIyMOBOMy B03~eUCTBUIO *HBOTHEIX HHOrO B~a, CTOKa ~H ~HHHH. Pa3~e~eHHe HOMe~eHHU, B KOTOpLIX pa60TalOT ~10~H ~ CO~ep~aTCH ~IBOTHEIe, H03BO~eT 3HaHUTe~BHO yMeHB~HTB He6~aronp~THoe B03~eUCTBUe IIIyMa Ha Tex ~ ~pyrux. *lIBOTHEIX, co3~aIo~nx MHOrO myMa7 HanpuMep co6aK'

40 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL~ CBlIHelI, KOS ~ HpUMaTOB, C~e~yeT HOMe~aTB Ha paCCTO~HHU OT TUXHX *HBOTH~X, HaUpUMep rpM3yHOB, KpO~HKOB ~ KODAK. BMeCTO TOrO HTo6M lI3BICK~BaTB MeTO~BI CHH*eHH~ ypOBH~ ~yMa' c~e~yeT yHUTEIBaTB XapaKTeplICTlIKlI <<IIIyMHEIX>> *HBOTHEIX HpH HpOeKTHpOBaHHU BUBapHH. Bos~encTsue myMa c yposHeM nHTeHcusHocTu, rIpes~ImaIomuM 85 ~E, Mo~eT oKasaT~ s~Hne KaK Ha c~yxoson ar~r~apaT' TaK ~ Ha ~pyrne opraH~I [Fletcher, 1976; Peterson, 1980i, s~Issas aosuHorIeHnIo ~ yse~eHne Macc~ Ha~rIolIelIH~Kos y rp~I3yHos [Geber et al., 1966; Nayfield, Besch, 1981i, cHn~eHne ~epT~BHocTn y rp~IsyHos [Zondek, Tamari, 1964] ~ rIos~ImeHne apTepua~EHoro ~as~eHnH y rIpuMaTos [Peterson et al., 1981~. MHorne BH~BI ~BOTHEIX o6~a~aIoT crIoco6HocTBIo c~BImaTB 3ByKH TaKOn HaCTOTEI, KOTOpLIe He ~OCTy~HEI He~oBeKy [Brown, Pye, 1975; Warfleld, 1973i, n03TOMy Hy*Ho o6pa~aTB oco60e BHuMaHHe Ha rIoTeH~Ha~BHoe Bo3~encTBue arIrIapaTypLI' HarIpuMep BH~eoarIrIapaTypLI' ~ MaTepHaJIOB, rIpo~yLlupyIo~nx IIIyM B ~HarIa3oHe C~BImuMOCTH HaXO~nXCH rIo6~3ocTH ~BOTHEIX [Sales, 1991~. TaM' r~e BTO B03MO*HO, Hy*HO cTpeMuTBcH K TOMy, HT06BI pa6oTEI, COrIp~eHHEIe C IIIyMOM, BBIrIo~H~ncB B rIOMe~eH~X ~n 3oHax' OT~e~eHHEIX OT MecT pa3Me~eH~ ~BOTHEIX. IIOCKO~BKY H3MeHeHHe xapaKTepa aKcrIo3~n myMOBOMy Bo3~encTBuIo MO*eT oKa3BIBaTB pa3~Hoe B~HHe Ha pa3HEIX ~BOTHEIX [Armario et al., 1985; Clough,1982i, HepCOHa~ ~O~eH CTpeMUTBCH K TOMy7 HT06BI cBecTH ~o M~HUMyMa B03H~KHOBeHHe HeHy*HOrO myMa. tI36BITO~HEIn ~ HepeMe~aIO~HCH ~yM MO*HO yMeHB~HTB HyTeM 06yUeHH~ HepCOHa~a HpUMeHeHUIO a~BTepHaTHBHEIX MeTO~OB pa60TEI C ~BOTHEIM~, KOTOpLIe He lIMeIOT ~yMOBOrO 3~eKTa, ~ ~CHO~B30BaHUIO HpO~a~OK ~ aMOpTH3aTOpOB Ha Te~e*Kax7 rIorpy3~nKax ~ cTonKax. B BUBapHU He~B3H HO~B30BaTBCH pa,~noarIrIapaTypon, 6y~BH~KaMU ~ ~pyrUMU upu60paMn, C03~aIO~HMU ~yM, ec~n TO~BKO OHlI He BXO~HT B COCTaB yTBep~eHHOH ~KCHepUMeHTa~BHOH ar~r~apaTyp~I ~n 060py~0BaH~, upe~Ha3Ha~eHHoro ~ oborameHn~ Cpe~BI 06HTaH~ *HBOTHEIX. OPrAHI13AL\lIlI IIOBE,1;EHlIlI *lIBOTHbIX CTPYKTYPa CPe~bl O6HTaHMB CTPYKTYPa OKPY*aIOILIeH *HBOTHOe CPe~BI COCTOUT H3 KOMHOHeHTOB rIepsu~Horo orpa*,~eHn~, T.e. 06CTaHOBKH K~eTK~, 060py~0BaHH~, r~pe,~Ha3Ha~eHHoro ,~H oborameHn~ Cpe~BI 06HTaHH~, Hpe~MeTOB, lIpe~Ha3HaHeHHEIX ~H pa3B~eHeHH~ *HBOTHEIX, ~ CTpyKTypHEIX 3~eMeHTOB K~eTKH. B 3aBUCHMOCTH OT B~a ~BOTHEIX ~ HaUpaB~eH~ UX ~CHO~B30BaH~ CTpyKTypa Cpe~BI 06HTaH~ ~O~*Ha B~IOHaTB ~aHKH ~H OT~BIXa, HO~KH ~H HaCeCTEI, Hrpy~K~, KOpMy~KH ~ HO~K~, MaTepHa~ ~H CTpOUTe~BCTBa rHe3~ lI HOp, TyHHe3IlI, KalIe3IlI lI ~pyrHe Hpe~MeTEI, KOTOpLIe Hpe~OCTaB~HIOT *lIBOTHEIM 60~B~He B03MO*HOCTH ~H HpO~B~eHH~ BH~OCHe~nHHOrO rIoBe~eH~' rIp~H~T~ HopMa~BHEIx rIo3 ~ crIoco6cTByIoT ux 6~arorIo~y~HIo. B rIoc~e~HHe rO~BI rIO~y~eH 60~BIII0n o6~eM ~aHHEIX B OTHOIIIeHHn eCTeCTBeHHOn - lICTOplIlI lI ~KO~Or~eCKHX HOTpeDHOCTeH MHOrUX ~BOTHEIX; TeM He MeHee~ ~CC~e,~OBaHH~ 3KO~OrUlIeCKHX XapaKTeplICTlIK, KOTOpLIe CHOC06CTByIOT 6~arorIo~yHnIo 3KcrIepuMeHTa~BHEIx *HBOTHEIX, c~e~yeT rIpo~o~*aTB. H eKOTOpLIe rIy6~nKa~' B KOTOpLIX CO~ep*HTCH OHUCaHHe CHoC060B

YC~OB~ CO~EP~H~^BOTHL~ 41 oborameHn~ ape, o6nTaHn~ to ncr~o~ayeM~x ~abopaTopHux *HBOTH~X, HpUBO~HTCH B Opus. A ~ B 6~6~0rpa~HeCKoM yKaSaTe~e, HO~rOTOB~eHHOM ~H~OpMa~HOHH~M ~eHTpOM Sa~HTM *HBOTH~X [AWIC, 1992; NRC, B HeHaTHi. COL~aJIbHa~ cpe,~a Or~pe,~e~eHHoe BHUMaHHe c~e,~yeT y~e~HTB CO~Ha~BH~M HOTpe6HOCTHM ~BOTH~X. Coat cpe,~a to r~pe,~r~o~araeT En KoHTaKT ~ 06~eHHe Me)K,D;y ~BOTH~MU PHOTO Baja (KOHCHe~HMe *HBOTHMe), HO MO*eT BK~IOHaTB ~ 6eCKOHTaKTHylO CBH3B Meaty OT~e~BH~MU oCo6HM~, OCy~eCTB~SIeMylO HOCpe~CTBOM SpUTe~BH~X, C~yXOB~X ~ 060H~Te~BH~X CHrHa~OB. IlpH B03MO*HOCTH ~ B c~y~ae COOTBeTCTBUSI C HpOTOKO~OM 3KCTIeplIMeHTa, CO~Ha~BHEIX *HBOTHEIX C~e~yeT pa3Me~aTB B yC~OBH~X, obecrIe~nsaIom~x En KOHTaKT C KOHCHe~HHEIMU oco6~Mu. HaTIpUMep, rpyrIrIosoe co,~ep~aHne CO~Ha~BHEIX HpUMaTOB ~n cobaK HaCTO oKa3~IsaeT rIo~o*nTe~BHoe she, ecus B COCTaB rpylITIBI BXO~HT cosMecTuM~Ie oco6~. A~eKsaTH~Ie coat s3auMo,~encTsu~ Me*,~y KOHCTIe~HEIMU ~BOTHEIMU HMeIOT Ba*HOe 3HaHeHHe ~~H HOpMa~BHOrO pa3BUT~ ~BOTHEIX MHOrUX BLOB. CO~Ha~BHEIU KOMDaHBOH MO*eT OC~a6HTB a~eKT cTpeccoson cuTyaLlun [Gust et al., 1994i, cM~rlInTs HeHopMaJIsHoe rIoBe'~eHHe [Reinhardt et al., 1988, 1989i, y~y~nTB B03MO*HOCTH BBInO~HeH~ ~3~HecKHx y~pa*HeHHn [Whary et al., 1993] ~ yse~nT~ ~nana30H B~OCHeUH~HOrO HOBe~eH~ ~ CTHMy~H KOrHUTHBHEIX ~yHK~. upH rpyrIrIOBOM pa3Me~eHHn ~BOTHEIX c~e~yeT y~nTEIBaTB TaKne ~aKTOpLI, KaK rI~oTHocTB rIorIy~HLlHH7 B03MO*HOCTH pacrIpe~e~eHH~ B K~eTKe, rIepBoHaHa~BHoe 3HaKoMcTBo ~ co~Ha~BHEIn paHr ~BOTHEIX ~ Borer et al., 1 98 8; Diamond et al., 1987; Drickamer, 1977; Harvey, Chevins, 1987; Ortiz et al., 1985; Vandenbergh, 1986, 1989~. Ilpu rIo'~6ope rIo'~xo'~en coLlHaJILHon cpe~BI 06HTaHUSI c~e,~yeT yHUTEIBaTB TaKne 06CTo~Te~BCTBa, KaK Ha~ne TeppuTopHaJIsHEIx ~n 06ILleCTBeHHEIX OTHOIIIeHHn y ~aHHOrO BH~a *HBOTHEIX B rIpupo,~e ~ ~e~ecoo6pa3HocTB pa3MemeHn~ *HBOTHEIX UH~HBH~ya~BHO, r~apaMn ~n rpyr~r~aMu. 3HaHne s~ocr~eun~Horo couna~Horo r~ose,~eH~ ~BOTHEIX B HpUpO~HEIX yC~OB~X 6y~eT CHOC06CTBOBaTB yCHe~HOMy pe~eHUIO sorIpoca ux rpyrIrIosoro co,~ep~aH~. TeM He MeHee, He sce oco6n CO~Ha~BHEIX BH~OB *HBOTHEIX MOryT ~H ~O~*HEI CO~ep~aTBCH B rpynnax; 3KcnepuMeHTa~BH~Ie, seTep~HapH~Ie ~n lIOBe,~eHIIeCKHe coo6pa~eH~ MOryT C,~eJIaTB HeB03MO*HEIM 6~arOHO~y~HEIU ncxo,~ TaKoro pa3MemeHn~. Couna~Hoe co,~ep~aHne MO*eT yBe~HTE BepOSITHOCTB TpaBM~pOBaH~ ~BOTHEIX B pe3y~BTaTe ~paKH [Bayne et al. , 1 995i, HOBBICHTB Hpe~paCHO~O*eHHOCTB K TaK~M MeTa60~eCK~M Hapy~eH~M, KaK aTepocKJIepo3 [Kaplan et al., 1982] ~ n3MeHuT~ r~ose~eHIIecKne ~3~0~0r~ecKne ~yHKunn [Bernstein, 1964; Bernstein et al., 1974 a,bJ. KpoMe TOrO, y pa3JI~IHEIX B~OB *HBOTHEIX Ha6~Io~aIoTc~ pa3~ B COBMeCTHMOCTH HO~OB [Crockett et al., 1994; Grant, Macintosh, 1963; Vandenbergh, 1971; vom Saal, 1984~. O~HaKO pUCK, CBH3aHHEIU C CO~Ha~BHEIM CO~ep~aHHeM, cymecTseHHo cHn~aeTc~, ec~n *nsoTH~Ie coL~na~BHo cosMecTu COLlHaJILHaH sr4enKa CTa )~EHa. rpyHHOBOe CO~ep~aHHe ~H CO~Ha~BHEIX *HBOTHEIX ~B~HeTCH lIpe~HOUTHTe~BHEIM; O~HaKO B c~y~ae, Kor~a Heo6xo~uMo obecne~nTB ux nH~nsu~ya~Hoe co~ep~aHne, c~e~yeT ncrIo~30saT~ ~pyrne CrIOC06BI

42 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL~ o60ra~eHUm cpe,~M -ox 06UTaHum, KOTOpMe KoMrIeHcupoBa~u 6M OTCyTCTBUe ,~pyrUx oco6eU, HarIpUMep, 6e3orIacHoe -u- rIo3uTuBHoe o6~eHUe C o6cJIy~u-BaIo~-u-M rIepCOHaJIOM A yJIy~IIIeHUe CTpyKTypM oKpy~aIo~eu cpe,~. AKTlIBHOCTb AKm.URHO~m.h CUR. O6h~O IT HRuF~TeRh~ HKTURHOCTh ~ , , HO TaK*e BK~IOHaeT KOrHuTUBHMe ~yHK~UU u co~ua~EHoe o6~eHue. ~pO~UME aKT-u-BHocT-u- ~UBOTHuX, co,~ep~a~UxcH B ~a60paTOpH~X yC~OBU~X, MO*eT 6MTB thee OrpaHU~eHHuM, HeM y HaXO,~UXCH Ha cBo6o'~e *-U-BoTHEIX. BUraTe~BHaH aKTUBHOCTB ~UBOTHEIX, B TOM Acme -u-cHo~B3oBaH-u-e EMU BepTUKaJIBHOrO HpOCTpaHCTBa, Gotcha yH-U-TEIBaTBCH HpU O~eHKe yC~OBUU CO~ep~aHUH ~UBOTHEIX U~u HpU OLleHKe a~eKBaTHOCTU UX aKTUBHOCTU B KaHeCTBeHHOM U KO~U~eCTBeHHOM OTHO~eHUU. C~e,~yeT U36eraTB rIpuHyD;uTe.~BHou aKTUBHOCTU, ec~U TO~BKO ee BBIrIO~HeHUe He ~UKTyeTCH ~eHe6HEIM-u- UMU aKcrIepuMeHTa~BHEIMu Tpe60BaHU~Mu. Ilp-u-MeH-u-Te~BHo K 60~B~uHCTBy BU~OB ~UBOTHEIX He~e~aTe~BHou CHUTaeTCH ~suraTe~BHaH aKTUBHOCTB, KOTOpaH xapaKTepU3yeTc~ 6eCKOHe~HEIM-U- HOBTOpeHU~MU, oTcyTcTB-u-eM LleJIu -u- -u-cK~IolIaeT'~pyrue TUIIBI HOBe~eHUH [AWIC, 1992; Bayne, 1991; NRC, B rIeHaT-u-; CM. TaK*e rIpuM. A: <<o6ora~eH-u-e cpe'~BI o6-u-TaH-u-H BOTHEIX>> I . ~UBOTHEIe ~O~*HEI u-MeTB B03MO*HOCTB ~eMoHcTpupoBaTB rIaTTepHEI Bu~ocrIe~u~uHHou aKTUBHOCTU. Ha co6aK' KOmeK-u- MHor-u-x'~pyrux'~oMa~H-u-x ~UBOTHEIX 6~aroTsopHoe B~UHHUe OKa3BIBaeT Ho3-U-T-U-BHoe o6meHue c He~OBeKOM [Rollin, 1990~. co6aKaM c~e~yeT ~aBaTB B03MO*HOCTB rIpory~UBaTEcH Ha rIoBo~Ke, 6eraTE UMU rIepexo~UTE B ~pyroe rIoMe~eHUe (HarIpuMep, KOMHaTy, K~eTKy 6oJIBIIIero pa3Mepa UJIU BoJIBep Ha OTKpLITOM so3~yxe) ~H co~-u-a~BHEIx KoHTaKToB, UrpLI UMU ucc~e~oBaHuM. ~eTKu HaCTO UCHO~B3yIOTCH HpU KpaTKOBpeMeHHOM co~ep~aHUu cobaK ~H BeTepUHapHOrO OCMOTpa UJIU lIpOBe~eHUH 3KCHepUMeHTa; O~HaKO BO~BepLI, ~O~a~KU ~H BBIry~a-u-~pyrue TeppUTOpuu BHe K~eTKU rIpe~ocTaB~HIoT 6o~Bme rIpocTpaHcTBa '~H -u-x aKT-u-BHocT-u-7 a HOTOMy C~e~yeT HOO~p~TB UX uCuo~B3osaHue [Wolff, Rupert, 1991~. ,~JI~ KpyrIHEIX ceJIBcKoxo3HucTBeHHEIx ~UBOTHEIX, HarIpUMep OBeLl, JIoIIIa'~eu -u- KpyrIHOrO poraToro CKOTa, CJIe~yeT u-MeTB rIpOCTOpHEIe 3aroHEI, IIJIOILla~KU ~H TpeHUpOBKU U nacT6Uma. BOIIPOCbI CO,LEP)KAHH~ ~K0BOTHbIX KOPM *-u-BoTHEIe ~O~*HEI rIo~ylIaTB BKyCHEIU7 HeKOHTaMUHupOBaHHEIu -u- - ~ C Ja~aHCUpOBaHHEIu rIO rIuTaTe~BHoMy COCTaBy KOpM e~e~HeBHO -u-~-u- B 3aBUCUMOCTu OT UX noTpe6HocTeU, ec~U TO~BKO rIpoToKo~ -u-x u-crIo~B3oBaH-um He Tpe6yeT oco60ro pe~UMa KOpM~eHUm. Ilo~KoMuTeTEI KoM-u-TeTa rIo rI-u-TaH-u-Io BOTHEIX Ha~-u-oHa~BHoro Hay~Ho-ucc~e~oBaTe~BcKoro COBeTa HO~rOTOBUMU uc~epn~IsaIomun MaTepua~, co~ep~amou Tpe60BaHUH K HuTaHnIo ~a60paTopH~Ix~K~soTH~Ix [NRC,1977,1978,1981a,b,1982,1983,1984,1985a,b, 1986,1988,1989a,b,1994,1995~.B3Tux~y6~nKaun~xpaccMaTpHsaIoTcHTaKne BorIpocEI, KaK rapaHT~ KaHeCTBa, OTCyTCTBue X~MHHeCKHX ~n M~KpO6HEIX KOHTaM~HaHTOB ~ rIpuCyTCTBue rIpupO'~HEIX ~OBuTEIX Be~eCTB B KOpMOBBIX

YC:11OBE! CO~EP~H~^BOTHL~ 43 HpO~yKTaX, 6~0~0CTy0HoCTB HUTaTe~BH~X Be~eCTB B KOpMe ~ era sKycosue KalIeCTBa. MeHe~*epaM KO~OHHU ~BOTH~X C~e~yeT HO~araTBCH Ha 3~paBMU CM~C~ IplI 3aKylIKe, TpaHCTIOpTlIpOBKe, XpaHeHlIlI KOpMOB lI 06paILleHlIlI C HlIMlI, CTpeMSICB CBeCTH ~0 M~HUMyMa BepO~THOCTB BHeCeH~ B KO~OHUIO *HBOTHEIX 3a60~esaHnn, rIapa3nTos, HOTeH~Ha~BH~X HepeHOCH~KOB 3abo~esaHnn (HarIpuMep, HaceKoM~x ~ ,~pyrux spe,~nTeJIen) ~ x~MnIIecKnx rIpuMecen. AreHTEI HO 3aK~Ke KOpMOB ~O~HEI y~HTEIBaTB HpO~e~ypLI ~ MeTO~BI, KOTOpLIe lICTIO3IB3yIOT UX HpOH3BO~HTe~H ~ HOCTaB~HKH KOpMOB ~ 3a~HTEI KOpMOB o6ecHeHeHUsI UX BBICOKOrO KaHeCTBa (HaUpUMep, CHOCO6BI XpaHeHH~ ~ o6pa~eHH~ c KOpMaMn, MeTO,~BI 60pB6BI C rIapa3nTaMH). tIHCTHTyTEI'~o~*HEI Tpe60BaTB OT HOCTaB~HKOB KOpMa HepHO~HeCKOrO Hpe~OCTaB~eHH pe3y~BTaToB ux aHa~3a Ha co'~ep~aHHe OCHOBHEIX rInTaTe~BHEIx Be~eCTB. Ilo~B3oBaTe~HM c~e'~yeT 3HaTB'~aTy H3rOTOB~eH~ KOpMa ~,~pyrne rIoKa3aTe~' KOTOpLIe MOryT rIoB~TB Ha CpOK ero XpaHeH~. 3a~e~a~BIn KOpM ~n KOpM, KOTOpLIn TpaHCrIOpTHpOBa~CH ~ XpaHH~CH C HapyIIIeHHeM rIp~H~TEIX HOpMaTlIBOB, MO*eT OKa3aTBCH HelIO3IHO~eHHEIM H0 OUpe~e~eHHEIM rInTaTe~BHEIM KoMrIoHeHTaM. c~e'~yeT o6pa~aTB oco60e BHuMaHHe Ha KOJI~eCTBO rIpO,~yKTa B Ka;K,D;On rIOJIy'IeHHOn rIapTHn C TeM, IIT06BI B rIepByIo olIepe'~B ncrIo~B3oBaTB paHee rIOCTyrInBIIInn KOpM. Me~eH~,~JI~ o6pa6oTKH ~n XpaHeH~ KOpMOB ~n ux nHrpe,~HeHTOB ~O~*HEI CO~ep~aTBCH B HUCTOTe ~ 6BITB 3a~eHEI OT HpOH~KHOBeHH~ Bpe'~nTeJIen. KopMa cJIe'~yeT xpaHuTE He Ha rIoJIy, a Ha rIo,~oHax, rIoJIKax ~n Te~e*KaX. H eUCHO~B30BaHHEIe OTKpLITEIe Me~KH C KOpMOM ~O~*HEI XpaHUTBCH B HeUpOHH~aeMBIX ~H Hapa3HTOB KOHTe~HepaX, HT06BI cBecTH ~o M~HuMyMa B03MO*HOCTB ero KoHTaM~Ha~n ~ H36e~aTB noTeH~Ha~BHoro paCTIpOCTpaHeHH~ B036y,~HTeJIeH 3a60JIeBaHHH. XpaHeHne KOpMa rIpH TeMrIepaTypax 6oJIee 21 °C (70 °F), rIpu lIOBBI~eHHOH B~a*HOCTH, B aHTlICaHlITapHEIX yC~OB~X, HpH B03~eUCTBHU CBeTa, K~C~OpO~a, HaCeKOMBIX n ,~pyrux rIapa3nToB ycKopHeT rIpo~ecc ero rIopHH. IlpH ncrIo~3osaHHn CKOpOlIOpTSlILllIXCSI lIpO~yKTOB, HaUpUMep M~Ca, ~pyKTOB ~ OBO~eH, HeO6XO~HMO C06~IO~aTB OC06BIe MepLI Hpe~OCTOpO*HOCTH, HOCKO~BKy yC~OB~ XpaHeH~ SIB3ISlIOTCH HOTeH~Ha~BHEIMU ~CTO~H~KaMU KOHTaM~Ha~H ~ MOryT HpUBeCTH K yXy~eHUIO KaHeCTBa KOpMa. ~pUMeCH B KOpMOBBIX HpO~yKTaX MOryT oKa3aT~ CH~EHoe B~HS[HHe Ha 6nox~Mu~ecKne ~ ~3~0~0rn~ecKne rIpoL~ecc~I, ,~a~e ec~n OHlI lIplICyTCTByIOT B TaKHX HH3KHX KOH~eHTpa~X, KOTOpLIe He MOryT BBI3BaTB ~HH~eCKHe CHMUTOMBI TOKC~eCKHX HOpa~eHHH. HaTIpUMep, HeKOTOpLIe HpUMeCH UH~y~HpyIOT CHHTe3 ~epMeHTOB ne~eHn, KOTOpLIe MOryT H3MeHUTB peaK~HIO opraHn3Ma *HBOTHOrO Ha pa3~H~Ie ~apMaKo~orn~ecKne r~per~apaT~I [Ames et al., 1993; Newberne, 1975]. Ilpu IpOBe~eHHU HeKOTOpLIX 3KCHepUMeHTOB peKOMeH~yeTCH ~CHO~B30BaTB Ipe~BapUTe~BHO HpOBepeHHEIe pa~HOHEI HUTaHH~, B KOTOpLIX HTH~HpOBaHEI HpUMeCH KaK 6no~or~ecKoro, TaK ~ He6no~or~ecKoro IpOUCXO~eH~ ~ 3aperUCTpUpOBaHEI UX KOH~eHTpa~. ~O~B~HHCTBO CyXHX pa~HOHOB HUTaHH~ ~a60paTOpHEIX *HBOTHEIX, H3rOTOB~eHHEIX H3 HaTypa~BHEIX UHrpe~HeHTOB C ~06aB~eHHeM KOHCepBaHTOB, lIpH XpaHeHHU c C06~IO,~eHHeM HeO6XO~HMBIX HpaB~ MOryT ~CHO~B30BaTBCH HpH6~3HTe~BHo B TeHeHHe 6 Mec~ues co ~H~ H3rOTOB~eH~. O~HaKO BUTaM~H C, BXO~H B COCTaB KOpMa, 06BI~HO COXpaHReTCH B TeHeHHe Bcero 3 Mec~ues. IlpUMeHeHHe CTa6~3HpOBaHHEIX ~OpM BUTaM~Ha C MO*eT yBe~HTB CpOK

44 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL ro,~HocTn KopMa. Ilpu Heo6xo,~uMocTn cKapM~nsaH~ paunoHa, co,~ep~amero BUTaM~H C C HpOCpOHeHH~M CpOKOM rO~HOCTH, ~BOTH~M, Hy~alO~HMCH B rIocTy~eHnn 3Toro suTaM~Ha c rInmen, c~e,~yeT,~asaTB cooTseTcTsy~omne 06aBKH. XpaHeHHe KOpMa B XO~O~BH~KaX HO3BO~HeT COXpaHUTB era lIlITaTe3IBHylO ~eHHOCTB ~ HpO~HTB CpOK rO~HOCTH; O~HaKO ~~HTe~BHOCTB XpaHeH~ c~e,~yeT COKpaTHTB ~0 M~HUMa~BHOrO HpaKT~eCKH ~e~ecoo6pasHoro rIepno,~a speMeHn, ylInT~Isa~ rIpu 3TOM peKOMeH~a~H H3rOTOBUTe~. OHH~eHHMe pa~HOHM C X~MHHeCKH OUpe~e~eHH~M COCTaBOM HaCTO OKa3MBaIOTCH MeHee CTa6~BH~M~, HeM pa~HOHM, COCTaB~eHHMe H3 HaTypa~BH~Ix rIpo,~yKTos, a CpOK lIX rO~HOCTH OKa3BIBaeTCH, KaK HpaB~O MeH~me 6 Mec~ues [Fullerton et al., 1982~; TaKne paunoH~I c~e,~yeT xpaHu rIpu TeMrIepaType He s~IIIIe 4 °C (39 °F). Pa~HOHEI, HO~BeprHyTEIe 06pa60TKe B aBTOK~aBe, Tpe6yIOT ~ _ cooTseTcTsyIomen ,~opa JOTKH lIO KOH~eHTpa~H HUTaTe~BHEIX Be~eCTB, THUy UHrpe~HeHTOB ~ MeTO~aM HpHrOTOB~eH~ ~H TOrO, HTO6BI OHU He yTpaT~H CBOUX HUTaTe~BHEIX CBOUCTB noc~e cTep~3aunn [Wostman, 1975 ~ . Ha TaKnx paunoHax 06~3aTe~BHo Hy)KHO CTaBUTB ~aTy aBTO~aB~pOBaH~ ~ ~CHO~B30BaTB UX B MaKCHMa~BHO KOpOTKHe CpOKH. 06~eHHEIe KOpMa MO*HO paCCMaTpUBaTB KaK aJIBTepHaTHBy aBTO~aB~pOBaHHEIM pa~HOHaM. K°HCTPYKU~ lI pa3Me~eHHe KOpMyIIIeK,~OJI*HEI o6ecHeHUBaTB y'~o6HEIU ,~OCTyrI K KOpMy ~ CBO,~nTB '~o M~HuMyMa B03MO*HOCTB ero 3arpH3HeH~ MOIIOn ~eKa~HMH. IlpH rpyrIrIosoM co'~ep~aHHn *HBOTHEIX Heo6xo'~HMo 06eCTIeHUTB ~OCTaTO~HOe HpOCTpaHCTBO ~ ~OCTaTO~HOe KO~eCTBO KOpMy~eK, HTO6BI H36e~aTB conepHHHecTBa 3a ~OCTyn K HuM ~ ~aTB BceM *HBOTHEIM B03MO*HOCTB rIo~y~aTB KOpM, oco6eHHo ec~n ero KO~eCTBO orpaH~nsaeTcH yC~OBH~Mn 3KcrIepuMeHTa H~n yxo,~a 3a *HBOTHEIMH. KoHTenHepLI C XpaHR~HMCH B HuX KOpMOM He~B3H rIepeHocHTB lIepe3 30HEI, oT~aIo~HecH rIOBBIIIIeHHEIM puCKOM KOHTaM~HaLlHH; rIpH 3TOM KOHTenHepLI Hy*HO peryMqpHO HUCTHTB ~ HO~BepraTB CaHUTapHOH 06pa60TKe. IIOKa3aHO, HTO yMepeHHOe OrpaH~eHHe HO K~HH~eCK~M HOKa3aH~M ~H Ha OCHOBaHlIlI yC3IOBlIlI co,~ep~aHn~ Ka3IOplIlIHOCTlI KOpMa lI KO3IlIIIeCTBa rIoTpe6~HeMoro 6e~Ka rIpuBo'~nT K yBe~eHnIo rIpo'~o~nTe~BHocTH ~3Hn ~ CHlI*eHlIIO HaCTOTEI pa3BUT~ O*HpeHH~, pa3MHO*eHH~ ~ 3abo~esaHn~ paKOM y *HBOTHEIX MHorux B~,~OB [Ames et al., 1993; Keenan et al., 1994~. TaKoro po,~a orpaHHHeH~ MO*HO ,~06nTBCH rIyTeM yMeHBmeH~ B pa~HoHe o6MeHHon 3Heprnn' KOHLleHTpaLlHn 6eJIKoB ~JIn TOrO ~ ,~pyroro BMeCTe, ~JIn rIyTeM pery~HposaH~ KO~eCTBa KOpMa ~n HaCTOTEI KOpM~eH~. BBI60P crIoco6a OrpaH~eH~ HOTpe6~eHUSI Ka~OpHU 3aBUCHT OT B~a ~BOTHEIX ~ B~eT Ha uX ~3HoJIor~ecKylo a'~arITaLlHIo, a TaK*e H3MeHReT MeTa6oJI~ecKne peaKLlHn [Leveille, Hanson, 1966~. HH3KoKaJIopHuHaH ,~HeTa ~sJI~eTcH paCTIpOCTpaHeHHOlI lIpaKTlIKOlI lIplI ~HTe~BHOM CO~ep~aHHU *HBOTHEIX HeKOTOpLIX B~OB, HaUpUMep OUpe~e~eHHEIX BH~OB rpLI3yHOB ~ KpO~HKOB, IplI lIX lIO~rOTOBKe K HeKOTOpLIM ~HH~eCK~M ~ X~pypr~eCK~M HpO~e~ypaM. ,~IS[ HeKOTOpLIX B~OB ~BOTHEIX (HaUpUMep HpUMaTOB) ~ B OUpe~e~eHHEIX CHTya~X n3MeHeHne C6a~aHCHpOBaHHEIX H0 HUTaTe~BHOH ~eHHOCTH pa~HOHOB ~ KOpM~eHHe UX <<BKyCHOCTHMH>>, B TOM ~nc~e cse~Mn osomaMn, orIpas,~aHo, rIocKo~BKy crIocodcTsyeT ux 6~arorIo~y~nIo. O~HaKO K H3MeHeHUIO pa~HOHOB C~e~yeT HO~XO~HTB C 60~B~on OCTOpO*HOCTBIO. Pa~HOH ~O~*eH 6BITB XOpO~O C6a~aHCHpOBaH HO HUTaTe~BHEIM Be~eCTBaM; MHOrOKpaTHO ~OKa3aHO, HTO MHOrHe *HBOTHEIe, HMeH B03MO*HOCTB BBI60pa, Hpe~HOHUTaIOT

YC:11OBE! CO~EP~H~^BOTHL~ 45 Hecda~aHcuposaHHun paunoH ~ r~pno6peTa~oT ns6uTo~Hy~o Maccy sa c~eT HOe~aHH~ B~COKO8HepreTHUH~X KOpMOB C HH3K~M CO~ep~aHHeM beta [Moore, 1987~. Heo6xo~uMo csecTn no M~HUMyMa pe3KHe H3MeHeHH~ B panache HUTaH~ (KOTOp~X Tpy~HO H36e~aTB HpH OT~eMe OT MaTep~HCKOrO MO3IOKa), lIOCKO3IBKy OHM MOryT HpUBeCTH K HH~eBapUTe~BHEIM ~ MeTa60~eCK~M Hapy~eH~M; r~o,~o6Hme Hapy~eH~ OTMeHalOTCH y BCe~H~X OTOSI,D;H~X ~BOTH~X, HO came scero scTpe~a~oTc~ y Tpaso~Hux [Eadie, Mann, 1970~. Bogota B 06~H~X yC~OB~X BOTHER ~O~*HM HMeTB ~OCTyD K HeSarpH3HeHHOH HUTBeBOH BO~e B COOTBeTCTBHU C UX UH~HBH~ya~BH~MU HoTpe6HoCTHMH. KaHeCTBO BO~M ~ OUpe~e~eHHe, ~B~HeTCH ~H BO~a HUTBeBOH, MO*eT BapB~pOBaTB B 3aBUCHMOCTH OT MeCTHOCTH [Homberger et al., 1993~. C~e~yeT lIpOBO~HTB HepHo~ecKylo HpOBepKy Be~nHM pH, ~ecTKocTn ~ M~Kpo6Hon H~H X~MHHeCKOH SarpH3HeHHOCTH BO~M C TeM, HTo6M rapaHTHpOBaTB ee r~pneM~eMoe Ka~ecTso, ocobeHHo, ec~n oHa ncr~o~BayeTc~ B ~KCHepUMeHTaX, B KOTOp~X KOMHOHeHTM BO~M, 06~HHo BCTpeHalO~HeCH B ~aHHOH MeCTHOCTH, MOryT OKaSaTB B~HHe Ha HO~eHHMe peSy~BTaTM. Bo~y MO*HO 06pa6aT~BaTB lIJIlI OIIlIILlaTB ~H MaKCHMa~BHO B03MO*HOrO H~n HO~HOrO y~a~eHn~ sarp~sH~om~x rIpuMecen' ecJIn rIpOTOKOJI ~KCHepUMeHTa Tpe6yeT ~CHO~B30BaH~ BO~M C B~COKOH CTeHeHBlO HUCTOTM. BM60P CHoC060B OHUCTKH BO~M ~O~*eH 6MTB T~aTe~BHO HpO~yMaH, TaK KaK MHOrHe MeTO~M 06pa60TKH BO~BI MOryT BBI3BIBaTB ~3~0~0r~eCKHe H3MeHeH~, H3MeHeH~ M~KpO~OpLI H B~HSITB Ha pe3y~BTaTEI 3KCHepUMeHTOB [Fidler, 1977; Hall et al., 1980; Hermann et al., 1982; Homberger et al., 1993~. Har~puMep, x~opuposaHne BO~BI MO*eT OKa3aTBCH HpHeM~eMBIM ~H O~HUX BH~OB ~ TOKCHUHEIM ~H ~pyrux B~OB ~IBOTHEIX (B HaCTHOCTH, ~H BO~HEIX ~BOTHEIX). Pa3~HEIe THHEI HO~OK, HaUpUMep Tpy6KH ~ aBTOMaT~eCKHe HO~K~, C~e~yeT HpOBep~TE e~e~HeBHO C TeM, HT06BI 06eCHeHUTE UX Ha~e~a~ee COCTOS[HHe, HUCTOTy ~ ~yHK~HOHUpOBaHHe. ~HOr~a *HBOTHEIX Hp~XO~HTCH 06y~aTB HO~B30BaTBCH aBTOMaT~eCK~MU HO~KaMH. ~yTEMU C BO~OH ~me MeH~TB, a He 3arIo~H~TB BO~On rIoBTopHo H3-3a rIoTeHLlHa~BHon B03MO*HOCTH rIepeKpecTHon M~Kpo6Ho~or~ecKon KOHTaM~Ha~; O~HaKO, ec~n 6yTEMn 3arIo~H~IoTcH rIoBTopHo, Hy*HO c~e~nTB 3a TeM, HT06BI Ka*~aH H3 HuX cTaBH~acB B Ty ~e K~eTKy7 C KOTOpOn oHa 6BI~a cH~Ta. *HBoTHEIe 7 co~ep~a~HecH Ha OTKpLITOM Bo3~yxe' MOryT HMeTB ~orIoJIHuTeJIBHEIn ~OCTyrI K Bo~e, HarIpuMep, B py~Be ~n JIy~ax' o6pa3oBaBIII~xcH rIocJIe c~EHoro '~o~. Heo6xo~HMo rIpe~rIp~H~TB orIpe~e~eHHEIe MepLI ~ y6e~nTBcH B TOM, HTO TaKHe ~orIo~HuTe~BHEIe nCTO~H~KH BO~BI He rIpe~cTaB~HIoT co60n KaKon-~6o orIacHocTH, HO B 06BI~HEIX CHTya~X ~ocTyrI K HuM ncK~IoHaTB He c~e~yeT. IIO~CTH~ IIO~CT~ ~H *HBOTHOrO ~B~eTCH KOHTpO~HpyeMBIM ~aKTOpOM OKpy~aIO~eH Cpe~BI, KOTOpLIU MO*eT B~TB KaK Ha 3KCHepUMeHTa~BHEIe ~aHHEIe, TaK ~ Ha cocTo~Hne ~soTHoro. IlocJIe KoHcyJIBTaL~n c nccJIe~osaTeJI~Mn seTep~Hap H MeHe,~Kep ~O~eH H0~06paTB COOTBeTCTByIO~H HO~CT~O~HEIU MaTepHa~. He Cy~eCTByeT ~,~eaJIBHOrO lIO,~CT~OIIHOrO MaTepHaJIa, KOTOpLIU 6BI~ 6BI HpHrO~eH ~ KaKoro-~60 B~a ~BOTHEIX HpH ~I06BIX yC~OB~X CO~ep~aH~ ~IlI lIpOBe~eHH~ 3KCHepUMeHTa; TO~HO TaK ~e He cymecTsyeT n~ea~BHoro

46 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL~ lIO~CTH~O~HOrO MaTepHa~a ~~H BCeX BLOB *HBOTHEIX (HaUpUMep, ~~H *lIBOTHLIX HeKOTOpLIX BLOB peKOMeH~yeTCH MaTepHa~, o6~er~aIomun HM pestle HOp). HeKOTOpMe aBTOpM [Gibson et al., 1987; Jones, 1977; Kraft, 1980; Trigpen et al., 1989; Weichbrod et al., 1986] r~pe~cTasu~n or~ncaHne ~e~aTe~BH~X XapaKTepUCT~K ~ MeTO~OB O~eHKH KaHeCTBa HO~CT~a. ~aCTO lICTIO3IB3yeTCH HO~CTH~, H3rOTOB~eHHMU Ha M~rKon ~pesec~Hu; o~HaKo HpUMeHeHHe Heo6pa60TaHH~X CTpy~eK ~ OHH~OK He peKOMeH~yeTCH HpH BLITIO3IHeHlIlI OlIpe~e~eHH~X ~CC~e~OBaHHU, TaK KaK OHS MOryT OKa3aTB Bee Ha MeTa60~3M *HBOTH~X [Vesell, 1967; Vesell et al., 1973, 1976~. He peKoMeH~yeTcH ncrIoJIB3osaTB Ke~posyIo CTpy*Ky n3-3a sLI~eJIeHnH ap OMaTlIII e CKlIX yr:Ies o~op o~ OB, KOTOpLIe CTHMy~HpyIOT M~Kp O C OMHEIe ~epMeHTEI rIeHeHn ~ o6~a~aloT ~nToToKc~ecK~M ~encTBueM [Torronen et al., 1989; Weichbrod et al., 1986, 1988~; eCTB ~aHHEIe, HTO OHn TaK*e yBe~HBaIoT HacToTy 3a6o~eBaHH~ paKoM [Jacobs, Dieter, 1978; Vlahakis, 1977~. Ilpe,~sapuTe~Ha~ TepMu~ecKa~ o6pa60TKa HO~CTH~O~HOrO MaTepua~a rIpuBo'~nT K lIOHlI*eHlIIO KOH~eHTpa~H apOMaTHHeCKHX yr~eBO~OpO~OB MO*eT rIoMoUB B pemeHHn ~aHHOn rIpo6~eMBI. IlpH 3aKyrIKe rIo~cT~o~Horo MaTepua~a c~e,~yeT ylIlITEIBaTB MeTO~BI HpOH3BO~CTBa, MOHUTOp~H XpaHeH~, ncrIo~B3yeMBIe ero rIOCTaB~nKaMH. ~TO6BI 06eCHeHUTB COXpaHHOCTB KaHeCTBa ~ CBeCTH ~O M~HUMyMa B03MO*HOCTB KOHTaM~HaLlHn rIo'~cTH~olIHEIx MaTepHa~OB, ux c~e~yeT TpaHCTIOpTHpOBaTB lI XpaHUTB He Ha lIO.lIy, a Ha lIO=OHaX, lIOJIKaX ~n TeJIe*KaX. IlpH aBTOK~aB~pOBaHHU HO~CT~O~HEIU MaTepHa~ MO*eT a6Cop6HpoBaTB B~ary, B pe3y~ETaTe Hero yMeHEmaeTcH ero rIor~oTHTe~EHaH crIoco6HocTE ~ yC~HBaeTCSI pOCT M~KpOOpraHH3MOB. IIO8TOMY HeO6XO~HMO Hpe~yCMOTpeTB TaTo~Hoe BpeMR ~H Cy~KH ~ co6~Io~aTE rIpaB~a ero xpaHeH~. KO~eCTBO HO~CT~O~HOrO MaTepHa~a ~O~HO 6BITB ~OCTaTO~HEIM, HTO6BI *lIBOTHEIe OCTaBa~HCB CyX~MU B HpOMe~yTKaX Me~y CMeHaMU ~eTOK, a B c~y~ae Me~KHX ~a60paTOpHEIX ~BOTHEIX HeO6XO~HMO C~e~HTB 3a TeM, HTO6BI IO~CT~ He conp~Kaca~cH C nO~KaMn ~ BO~a He nona~a~a B ~eTKy. CaH~TapHS! CaHUTapHEIe MepOUp~T~, T.e. no~ep~aHne yC~oBHU, obecne~nsa~om~x HopMa3IBHoe 3~oposBe' BK~IoHaIoT CMeHy Ho'~cT~olIHoro MaTepua~a (no Mepe Ha~06HoCTH), ybopKy ~ ~e3HH~eK~HIO. upH ybopKe y~a~HIOTCH H36BITO~HEIe Ko~ecTBa rpH3n ~ Mycopa' a B pe3y~ETaTe ~e3nH~eKLlHn cHH*aloTcH ~n JIlIKB~lIpyIOTCH HeUpHeM~eMBIe KOH~eHTpa~H M~KpOOpraHH3MOB. ~aCTOTa ~ UHTeHCHBHOCTB HpOBe~eH~ ybopKu ~ ~e3nH~eKunn 3aBUCHT OT Tpe60BaHHU, Hpe~HB~HeMBIX K 3~0pOBOn cpe~e o6nTaHH~ *HBoTHoro C ylIeToM ero HopMa~EHoro rIoBe~eHH~ ~ ~3Ho~orulIecKHx xapaKTepucT~K. MeTO ~BI ~ IIaCTOTa BBIrIOJIHeHH~ CaHuTapHEIX rIpoLle'~yp BapB~pyIoT B 3aBlICIIMOCTlI OT MHOrlIX ~aKTOpOB, B TOM Huc~e OT THna, ~3~ecKHx CBOnCTB lI o6~eMa KJIeTKlI lIJIlI BOJIBepa; TlITIa, KOJIlIIIeCTBa, pa3Mepos' so3pacTa lI pelIpO~yKTHBHOrO CTaTyCa *HBOTHEIX; HpUMeHeHH~ ~ THDa HO~CT~O~HOrO MaTeplIa3Ia; TeMlIepaTypLI ~ OTHOCHTe~BHOH B~a*HOCTH; HpUpO~BI ~B~eHHU, Tpe6yIO~UX lIpOBe,~eHH~ CaHlITapHEIX MepOUpH~THH; HOpMa~BHEIX ~3~0~0rHHeCKHX ~ HOBe~eHHeCKHX XapaKTepUCT~K *HBOTHEIX; CKOpOCTH 3arp~3HeHn~ HOBepXHOCTeH K~eTKH H~n so~Bepa. H eKOTOpLIe CHCTeMBI CO~ep~aHH~ ~BOTHEIX ~H HpOTOKO~BI HpOBe~eHH~ 3KCHepUMeHTOB MOryT Tpe60BaTB BBIHO~HeHH~ OCO6BIX Hpo~e~yp, HanpuMep co~ep~aHH~ *HBOTHEIX

YC:11OBE! CO~EP~H~^BOTHL~ 47 B aCelITWIeCKlIX yC3IOB~X NISI lI3MeHeH~ IIaCTOTEI CMeHEI HO~CT~KH. B susapu~x Hereby ncrIo~B30saTB semecTsa, MacKupyIomne 3arIax~ ~IBOTHEIX, TaK KaK OHM He MOryT 3aMeHUTB COOTBeTCTByIO~erO BBIHO~HeH~ caHuTapH~Ix rIpoL~e,~yp ~n obecrIelIeH~ a,~eKsaTHon seHT~L~. C ,~pyron CTOpOHEI, HpH SIX HpUMeHeHHU ~BOTHEIe ~CHEITEIBaIOT B03~eUCTBUe ~eTy~UX COe~HHeHHU, KOTOpLIe MOryT HpUBeCTH K H3MeHeHUIO OCHOBHEIX ~0~0r~ecKnx ~ MeTabo~ecKnx r~poucccos. C~eua nodcmu~a r ~ ~ ; arpSI3HeHHEIU HO~CT~O~HEIU MaTepHa~ c~e~yeT y~a~HTE ~ 3aMeH~TE CBe*HM HO Mepe HeO6XO~HMOCTH ~H TOrO, HTO6BI *HBOTHEIe OCTaBa~HCB HUCTEIMU ~ CyX~MH. ~aCTOTa CMeHEI OUpe~e~HeTCH HpO~eCCHOHa~BHEIM OHEITOM 06C~y*HBaIO~erO HepCOHa~a, KOTOpLIU KOHCy~BTHpyeTCH C 3KCTIeplIMeHTaTOpOM, lI 3aBlICIIT OT TaKlIX ~aKTOpOB, KaK KO~eCTBO ~ pa3MepLI *HBOTHEIX B HepBHUHOM Orpa*~eHHU, pa3MepLI Orpa*~eHH~, 06~eM BE~e~HeMOH MOHU ~ ~eKa~H, BHe~HHU BH~ HO~CT~a ~ CO~ep~aHHe B HeM s~arn, yc~osu~ 3KcrIepuMeHTa, HarIpuMep x~pyprulIecKne orIepaL~n n~n OC~a6~eHHe *HBOTHOrO, KOTOpLIe MOryT BBI3BaTB OrpaH~eHHe HO~B~HOCTH *nsoTHoro ~ ero ~OCTyD B He3arpH3HeHHEIe MOHOH ~ ~eKa~HMU yHaCTKH K~eTKn. He cymecTsyeT TO~HOrO or~pe,~e~eH~ M~HuMa~HOn ~aCTOT~I CMeH~I HO~CT~a, O~HaKO 06BI~HO OHa KO~e6~eTCH B upe~e~ax OT e~e~HeBHOH ~0 e~eHe,~e~BHon. B HeKoTop~Ix c~y~a~x, HarIpuMep Ha orIpe,~e~eHH~Ix 3TarIax '~opo,~osoro ~n rIoc~epo,~osoro rIepno,~os, Kor,~a,~ ycrIeIIIHoro rIpoL~ecca pa3MHO*eHlISI ~epOMOHEI Kpa~He HeO6XO~HMBI, ~acTa~ CMeHa HO~CTH~a rIpOTlIBOlIOKa3aHa, lIHOr~a 3TO OUpe~e~eTCH 3a~aHaMU 3KCHepUMeHTa. Y60p~ca u desuu~e~cu,u~ nepeu~ub~x oapa~cdenuu ~aCTaH 06pa60TKa BO~OH ~ HepHO~eCKOe ~CH0~30BaHHe ~eTepreHTOB lIJIlI ~e3HH~HpyIO~UX HpeHapaTOB 06BI~HO OKa3BIBaeTCH ~OCTaTO~HEIM ~H HO~ep~aHH~ HOBepXHOCTeH B 3arOHaX H~H BO~BepaX HUCTEIMH. ~pH HeO6XO~HMOCTH y60pKH HpO~yKTOB *~3He~e~Te~BHOCTH *HBOTHEIX CTpyeH BO~BI ee Hy*HO HpOBO~HTB, H0 Kpa~HeH Mepe, O~HH pa3 B ~eHB. ~pH 3TOM *HBOTHEIe ~O~*HEI OCTaBaTBCH CyX~MH. BpeMR y60pKH 3arOHa ~H BO~Bepa ~O~*HO BBI6HpaTBCH C yUeTOM HOpMa~BHEIX HOBe~eHHeCKHX ~3~0~0rHHeCKHX HpO~eCCOB y *HBOTHEIX; TaK, HaUpUMep, ~e~y~O~HO- 060~0HHEIU pe~eKC y HeKOTOpLIX *HBOTHEIX BBI3BIBaeT ~e~eKa~HIO BCKOpe rIoc~e rIpneMa KopMa. ~aCTOTa CaHUTapHOH 06pa60TKH ~eTOK, cTe~a~en ~ BCHOMOraTe~BHOrO 060py~0BaH~, HaUpUMep KOpMy~eK ~ HO~OK, OUpe~e~HeTCH ~0 HeKOTOpOH CTelIeHlI TlITIOM lICTIO3IB3yeMBIX K~eTOK ~ Hp~H~TEIMU MeTO~aMU yxo~a 3a ~IBOTHEIM~, B~IOHaIO~HMU pery~pHyIO py~HyIO ~H aBTOMaT~eCKyIO CMeHy lIO~CT~a, pery~HpHoe HpOMBIBaHHe CTpyeH BO~BI HO~OHOB ~ ~CHO~B30BaHHe K]IeTOK C lIpOBOJIOIIHEIM ~H Hep~OpUpOBaHHEIM HO~OM. B 06~eM, ~eTKH COIIyTCTByIO~ee 060py~0BaHHe ~O~HEI HO~BepraTBCH CaHUTapHOH 06pa60TKe He pe~e o,~Horo pa3a B ~Be He~e~. ~eTKH CO C~O~HEIM HO~OM, 6yTEMU C BO~OH ~ Tpy6KH-Ho~KH 06~Ho Tpe6yIOT CaHUTapHOH 06pa60TKH H0 Kpa~HeH Mepe pa3 B He~e~IO. HeKOTOpLIe BH~BI ~eTOK ~ CTe~a~eH MO*HO HUCTHTB ~n ,~e3nH~uposaT~ pe~e; Har~puMep' 60~ne K~eTKu c o~eH~ He60~uM

48 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL~ KO3IlIIIeCTBOM *lIBOTHEIX, B KOTOpLIX HpOBO~HTCH HaCTaH CMeHa HO~CT~a; K~eTK~, B KOTOpLIX *HBOTHEIe CO~ep~aTCH B rHOT06~0T~eCKHX yC~OB~X C IaCTOlI CMeHOlI lIO~CT~a; UH~HBH~ya~BHO BeHT~HpyeMBIe ~eTKH ~ duets, CHO~B3yeMBIe Ho CHe~Ha~BHOMy Ha3HaHeHUIO. ~ Hao60poT, B OUpe~e~eHHEIX CIITya~X, HaUpUMep HpH CO~ep~aHHU ~BOTHEIX B M~KpOH30~HTOpaX ~H B K~eTKaX C 60~B~HM KO~eCTBOM ~BOTHEIX, CaHUTapHyIO 06pa60TKy C~e~yeT lIpOBO~HTE ~ame. KP°~HKH ~ HeKOTOpLIe rpLI3yHEI, B HaCTHOCTH MOpCKHe CB~HKH ~ XOMSIK~, s~I,~e~IoT Mo~y, co,~ep~amyIo 6e~Ku ~ M~Hepa~BH~Ie semecTsa B BBICOKOH KOH~eHTpa~. M~Hepa~BHEIe ~ OpraHHHeCKHe COe~HHeHH~ H3 MOHU 3TUX ~IBOTHEIX HaCTO OCe~aIOT Ha HOBepXHOCT~X ~eTOK, H03TOMy ~eTKH C~e~yeT HOe~BaDUTe~BHO 06Da6aTEIBaTB DaCTBODaMU K~C~OTEI. a 3aTeM nnoM~IsaTB . . BO~OH. IlepBHUHEIe Orpa*~eHH~ MO*HO ~e3HH~HpOBaTB X~MHHeCK~MU COe,~nHeHn~Mn, rop~lIen BO~OH ~H TeM ~ ~pyrUM BMeCTe. BpeMR ~ yC~OB~ 06pa60TKH ~O~*HEI 6BITB ~OCTaTO~HEIM~, HT06BI y6HTB BereTaTHBHEIe ~OpMBI 06BI~HEIX 6aKTepun ~ ~pyrux M~KpOOpraHH3MOB, KOTOpLIe MOryT 6BITB yHWITO*eHEI HpH CaHUTapHOH o6pa6oTKe. IIPH ncHoJIB3oBaHHU TOJIBKO rop~en BO,~BI '~e3nH~HpyIo~n 3 ~eKT OKa3BIBaeT KoM6nHupoBaHHoe Bo3~encTBue TeMrIepaTypLI ~ BpeMeHn, B TelIeHHe KOTOpOrO ,~aHHaH TeMrIepaTypa,~enCTByeT Ha HOBepXHOCTB upe~MeTa (KyMy~HTHBHEIU TeH~OBOH ~aKTOp). TaKon KyMy~HTHBHEIn TerI~OBOn C JaKTOp MO*HO rIo~ylInTB7 ec~n rIo'~BepraTB M~KpOOpraHH3MBI Bo3~encTBuIo ~60 oHeHB BBICOKHX TeMrIepaTyp B TeHeHHe KOpOTKHX rIpOMe~yTKOB BpeMeHn, JIn60 Bo3~encTBuIo 6oJIee HH3KHX TeMrIepaTyp B TelIeHHe 6oJIee rIpO~O~Te~EHEIX HepHO~OB BpeMeHU [Wardrip et al., 19941. ,~e3nH~eKu~ oKa3~IsaeTc~ ~ocTaTo~Ho 3~eKTusHon rIpu MonKe rIo~acK~BaHHn BO,~On, HarpeTon'~o 143 - 180 °F ~n s~Ime. Tpa~noHHoe TpebosaHne ncrIoJIs3osaTs WI~ orIoJIacKusaH~ so~y c TeMrIepaTypon 82,2 °C (180 °F) OTHOCIITCSI K BO~e B pe3epByApe ~H B Tpy60HpoBo~e. X~M~eCKHe MOIO~He ~ ~e3HH~HpyIO~He Cpe~CTBa HOBBI~aIOT 3~eKTHBHOCTB o6pa6oTKH ropHHen BO~OH, HO Tpe6yIOT T~aTe~BHOrO OHO~aCK~BaHH rIoBepxHocTen rIepe'~ HOBTOpHEIM ~CHO~B30BaHHeM 060py~0BaHHH. py~HaH MonKa ~ ,~e3nH~eK~ K~eToK ~ ,~pyroro o6opy'~oBaH~ rop~en BO~OH C MOIO~HMU ~ ~e3HH~HpyIO~HMU Cpe~CTBaMU MO*eT 6BITB 3~eKTHBHOH, HO Tpe6yeT BHUMaTe~BHOrO OTHO~eHH~ K ~eTa~HM. OC06eHHO Ba*HO 6BITB yBepeHHEIMU B TOM, HTO HOBepXHOCTH T~aTe~BHO OHH~eHEI OT c~e'~oB x~MHHecKHx coe'~nHeHHH7 a o6c~y*nsalo~Hn rIepcoHa~ o6ecrIeHeH Heo6xo'~HMBIMn cpe'~cTBaMH7 3a~aIo~HMn ero OT rIorIa'~aH~ rop~en BO~BI ~IlI lICTIO3IB3yeMBIX X~M~eCKHX Be~eCTB. ~yTEI~H C BO~OH, paCHpe~e~HTe~BHEIe Tpy6K~, Hpo6K~, KOpMy~KH ,~pyrne MeJIKne'~eTaJIn o6opy'~oBaHH~ cJIe'~yeT rIpoMBIBaTE'~eTepreHTaMn, ropHlIen BO~OH ~, ec~n B03MO*HO, X~MHHeCK~MU HpeHapaTaMU ~H yHWITO*eH~ MlIKpOOpraHlI3MOB. IlpH ~CHO~B30BaHHU CHCTeMBI aBTOMaT~eCKHX HO~OK peKOMeH~yeTCH lIpe~yCMOTpeTB cHoco6 y~a~eH~ M~KpOOpraHH3MOB ~ MyCOpa, KOTOpLIe MOryT B HUX HaKa~HBaTBCH. TaK~M CHoC060M MO*eT 6BITB pery~pHaH 06pa60TKa 60~B~HMU 06~eMaMU BO~BI ~H ~CHO~B30BaHHe COOTBeTCTByIO~UX X~M~eCKHX COe~HHeHHU C HOC~e~yIO~HM T~aTe~BHEIM OHO~aCK~BaHHeM. TaK*e xopomo ce6~ 3apeKOMeH~OBa~H 3aMKHyTEIe CHCTeMBI C HOCTO~HHOH pe~HpKy~HeH BO~BI, B KOTOpLIX ~CHO~B3yIOTCH ~BTpLI, y~BTpa~HO~eTOBBIe ~aMHEI ~ ~pyrne

YC:11OBE! CO~EP~H~^BOTHL~ 49 HpUCHOCO6~eH~ ~~H CTep~3a~H ~HpKy~HpylO~eH BOOM. USE 60~HHCTBa BLOB 060py~0BaH~, ~cHo~3yeMoro HpH co~ep~aHHU *HBOTH~X, HpHeM~eMMMU CHUTalOTCH 06~HHMe Metal y60pKH ~ HI. O~HaKO HpH Hasten HaTOreHH~X M~KpOOpraHH3MOB ~n HpH CO~ep~aHHU *HBOTH~X C OUpe~e~eHHOH M~KpO~OpOH ~H OC~a6~eHH~M HMMyHUTeTOM MO*eT BO3H~KHyTB HeO6XO~HMOCTB B CTep~3a~H ~eTOK ~ ,~pyroro o6opy'~osaHnH Locke ero OHUCTKH ~ ~e3HH~eK~. 06eCHeHeHHe 6e30TIaCHOCTH ~ 8~eKTHBHOCTH CTepH~3aTOpOB TpebyeT ux pery~pHon Ka~6pOBKH ~ HpOBepKH. Y60p~ca u desuu~e~cu,u~ emopu~ub~x oapa~cdenuu Bce HacTH BuBap~, B TOM Locke rIoMemeH~, rue Haxo,~Tc~ *nsoTHme, BCTIOMOraTe3IBHEIe HOMe~eH~ (TaKHe KaK c~a~cKne HOMe~eH~, MOe~HEIe H 06pa60TKH K~eTOK, KOpH~OpLI ~ HpO~e~ypHEIe), Tpe6yIOT pery~HpHOH y60pKH lo, B 3aBUCHMOCTH OT 06CToSITe~BCTB, ~e3HH~eK~H C HaCTOTOH, orIpe,~e~eMon xapaKTepoM lICrIO3IB30BaH~ TaKHX noMemeHnn ~ HpUpO~OH OX BepOSITHOlI KOHTaMlIHa~. tIHBeHTapB, ncrIo~B3yeMBIn rIpH y6opKe' ,~O~*eH 6BITB 3aKperI~eH 3a orIpe,~e~eHHEIMn rIoMemeHn~M~' ~ ero He C~e'~yeT rIepeHOCHTE H3 o,~Horo HOMe~eH~ B ,~pyroe, HTO6BI H36e~aTB pUCKa KOHTaM~Ha~. CaM UHBeHTapB C~e~yeT pery~HpHO HUCTHTB; HpHHeM OH ~O~*eH 6BITB H3rOTOB~eH H3 KOppO3~0HHO-yCTOHHUBBIX MaTepHa~OB. 03HO~eHHEIe UHCTpyMeHTEI Heo6xo'~HMo pery~HpHo 3aMeH~TB Ha HOBBIe. Bce nHCTpyMeHTEI c~e'~yeT CO~ep~aTB B yC~OBH~X, yCKOpHIO~UX UX Cy~Ky ~ HpeH~TCTByIO~UX KOHTaMlIHa~. Ou,eu~ca a¢¢e~cmuenocmu canumapub~x ~eponpu~muu pOBepKa 3~eKTHBHOCTH CaHUTapHEIX MepOUpH~THU ~O~*Ha lIpOBO~HTBCH B COOTBeTCTBHU C ~CHO~B3yeMBIMU HpO~eCCaMU ~ MaTepHa~aM~, HO~e~a~HMU 06pa60TKe; OHa MO*eT BK~IOHaTB BH3ya~BHEIU OCMOTp MaTepHa~OB, KOHTpO~B TeMUepaTypLI BO~BI H~H M~KpO6~0~0rHHeCKHU MOHUTOp~Hr. t,IHTeHcHBHocTB 3aHaXoB' BBI~e~HeMBIX ~BOTHEIMn, B HepByIO olIepe'~B aMMnaKa, He cJIe~yeT rIpuMeH~TB B KalIeCTBe e~nHCTBeHHOrO KpuTep~ O~eHKH a~eKTHBHOCTH CaHuTapHEIX rIpo~e~yp. pemeHHe o6 H3MeHeHHn IaCTOTEI CMeHEI rIO~CTHJIa B KJIeTKe ~JIn IIaCTOTEI MOnKH KJIeTKH ~OJI*HO OCHOBBIBaTBCH Ha TaKHX noKa3aTe~x, KaK KOH~eHTpa~H aMM~aKa, BHe~HHU B~ K~eTK~, COCTO~HHe rIO~CT~a, a TaK*e Ko~HlIecTBo ~ pa3MepLI *HBOTHEIX B'~aHHon K~eTKe. J]HKBM~a~R O~O~OB o6~mHEIe7 6Ho~or~ecKne ~ orIacHEIe OTXO~BI C~e~yeT pery~HpHO y~a~HTE ~ yHn~To~aTB c ncrIo~B30saHneM 6e3orIacH~Ix MeTo,~os [NSC, 1979~. cy~ecTByeT HecKo~BKo BapHaHTOB a~eKTHBHOrO y~a~eHH~ OTXO~OB. KOHTpaKTEI C HMeIOIL\HMn JIHLleH3HIO KOMMeplIeCKlIMn ~HpMaMn, CHe~Ha~3HpyIO~HMUCH Ha Hepepa60TKe OTXO~OB, 06BI~HO ~B~HIOTCH HeKOTOpOlI rapaHTlIelI pery3I5IpHoro y~a~eHH~ OTXO~OB C HpUMeHeHHeM 6e30HaCHEIX MeTO~OB. C*HraTB OTXO~BI Ha MeCTe MO*HO TO~BKO HpH pa3peIIIeHlIlI ~e~epa~BHEIM~, Hp~H~TEIM ~TaTOM ~ MeCTHEIMU 3aKOHaMH.

50 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL B crIeuna~BHo oTBe~eHHux MecTax no BCeH TeppUTOpHU BUBap~ ~O~*HM 6MTB paCCTaB~eHM HpaBH~BHO MapKUpOBaHHMe KOHTe~HepM ~~H c60pa OTXO~OB. KOHTe~HepM ~O~*HM 6MTB repMeTHUH~MU ~ CHa6*eHM H~OTHO HO~OrHaHH~MU KpM~KaMH. PeKOMeH~yeTCH ~CHO~B3OBaTB O~HOpa3OBMe BCTaB3ISIeMBIe BHyTpB HaKeTEI ~ pery~HpHO MBITB eMKOCTH ~~H MyCOp ~OHO~HUTe~BHEIU UHBeHTapB. Ha TeppUTOpHU ~O~*Ha 6BITB CHe~Ha~BHO BEl,D;e3IeHHaH IIJIOILla~Ka ~H XpaHeH~ OTXO~OB, r~e c~e~yeT upuMeH~TB MepLI 60pB6BI C HaCeKOMBIMU ~ ~pyrUMU Bpe~HTe~MH. Ec~n ~o yH~TO*eH~ OTXO~BI ~O~*HEI XpaHUTBCH HpH HH3KHX TeMUepaTypaX, TO ~H 3TOrO Hy*HO BE~e~HTB CTIe~Ha~BHEIU XO~O~BH~K, MOpO3~BH~K H~H XO~O~HyIO KOMHaTy C COOTBeTCTByIO~eH MapKUpOBKOH. OHaCHEIe OTXO~BI ~O~*HEI 06~3aTe~BHo HO~BepraTBCH Hpe~BapUTe~BHOH 06pa60TKe HyTeM CTep~3a~H, y~a~KH UX B ~OHO~HUTe~BHyIO 3a~HTHyIO Tapy ~n rIpuMeHeHH~ ,~pyrux crIoco6oB 6e3orIacHoro BBIBo3a C TeppuTOpHn [US EPA, 1986~. Pa~HOaKTHBHEIe OTXO~BI ~O~*HEI XpaHUTBCH B cooTBeTcTByIo~HM o6pa3oM rIpOMapKupOBaHHEIX KOHTenHepaX. IlpoLle'~ypa ux yHlIIITO*eHlISI ~O~*Ha CTpOrO COr~aCOBBIBaTBCH CO cneuna~ncTaMn no pa~Ha~HOHHOH 6e30HaCHoCTH C C06~IO~eHHeM ~e~epa~BHEIX ~ Hp~H~TEIX IIITaTOM lIHCTpyK~. ~e~epa~BHoe HpaBUTe~BCTBO ~ 60~B~HHCTBo ~TaTOB ~ MyHuLlurIaJInTeTOB HMeIoT nHCTpyKLlHn, peryJInpyIo~He rIpOLle,~ypLI yHHUTO*eHUSI OHaCHEIX OTXO~OB. Y~pe*~eHH~ 06~3aHEI C06~IO~aTB UHCTpyK~H, KaCaIO~HeCH HpUMeHeH~ (CM. r~. l) ~ yHHUTo~eHH~ onacHEIx BeILleCTB. 3apa~eHHEIe TpyHEI *HBOTHEIX MO*HO C*HraTB Ha MeCTe ~H Hepe~aBaTB HMeIO~eH CTIeLlHaJIBHyIO JI~LleH3HIO ~HpMe. ~pO~e~ypLI yHaKOBK~, MapKlIpOBKlI, TpaHCTIOpTlIpOBKlI lI XpaHeHlISI TaKlIX OTXO~OB ~O~*HEI COOTBeTCTBOBaTB Tpe60BaH~M H0 oxpaHe Tpy~a ~ TeXH~Ke 6e30HaCHoCTH. OlIaCHEIe OTXO~BI, OTHOCH~HeCH K KaTerOpHU TOKCHHeCKHX, KaHLlepOreHHEIX, ropIolI~x' e,~KHX, BBICOKOpeaKLlHOHHEIX ~ rIpolI~x HeCTOnKHX ~ - COe~HHeHHU, ~O~*HEI XpaHUTBCH B COOTBeTCTByIO~HM O Jpa30M MapKUpOBaHHEIX KOHTe~HepaX ~ yH~TO*aTBCH C C06~IO~eHHeM peKOMeH~a~H crIeuna~ncTos rIo oxpaHe Tpy,~a ~ TexH~Ke 6e3orIacHocTu. B HeKoTop~Ix c~y~a~x pa3pe~aeTCSI yTpaM60BBIBaHHe ~H HepeMe~HBaHHe TaKHX OTXO~OB. liopbba c Bpe~HTe~RMM IlpH CO~ep~aHHU *HBOTHEIX Ba*Hoe 3HaHeHHe HpH~aeTcH pea~3aunn rIporpaMM, HarIpasJIeHH~Ix Ha rIpo~nJIaKT~Ky, 60pB6y ~JIn yHnIITo~eHne pa3JI~Horo po,~a spe'~nTeJIen. Ilpu BTOM CJIe'~yeT Hp~ep*HBaTECH HpaBlIJIEHO COCTaB3IeHHOrO lI 3a~0KyMeHTHpOBaHHOrO rpa~HKa KOHTpO~H ~ MOHUTOp~Hra. I,I~ea~EHaH HporpaMMa Hpe~Ho~araeT HeB03MO*HOCTE 3aHeceHH~ Hapa3HToB B BlIBaplIlI lI lIX BBIXO~ 3a ero Hpe~e~BI. ~pH co~ep~aHHn *HBOTHEIX B 3arOHaX Ha OTKpLITOM B03~yXe C~e~yeT yHUTEIBaTB HeO6XO~HMOCTB yCTpaHeHH~ ~H CBe~eH~ ~0 M~HUMyMa HOTeH~Ha~BHOrO pUCKa, CBH3aHHOrO C Bpe~HTe~HMU lI XlIIL\HlIKaMlI. IleCTlI~BI MOryT OKa3BIBaTB TOKCHHeCKOe ~eUCTBUe Ha 3KCTIeplIMeHTa3IBHEIX ~BOTHEIX ~ Me~aTB BBIHO~HeHUIO 3KCHepUMeHTa~BHEIX rIpoLle'~yp [Ohio Cooperative Extension Service, 1987a,b], rI03TOMy ux cJIe'~yeT lIplIMeHSITB Ha 3aHUMaeMOH *HBOTHEIMU TeppUTOpHU TO~BKO B c~yHae Heo6xo'~HMocTH. Ilepe,~ rIpuMeHeHHeM rIecTHun'~os c~e'~yeT lIpOKOHCyJIBTHpOBaTBCH CO CHe~Ha~HCTaM~, pa60TaIO~HMU C *HBOTHEIM~, KOTOpLIe MOryT 6BITB HO~BeprHyTEI UX B03~eUCTBUIO. C~y~an upuMeHeHn~

YC:11OBE! CO~EP~H~^BOTHL~ 51 lIeCTlI~OB ~O~*HM perUCTpUpOBaTBCH ~ COr~aCOB~BaTBCH C a~M~HUCTpa~HeH BUBapHSI. MOTOR HpUMeHeHH~ COB ~O~*HM COOTBeTCTBOBaTB ~e~epa~BH~M, Hp~H~T~M ~TaTOM ~ MeCTH~M SaKOHaM. Bo Bcox BO3MO*H~X coax r~pe~r~o~TeHne c~e~yeT oT~asaTB HeToKc~ecK~M cpe~cTsaM 60pB6m c sped, HarIpuMep, peryJI~TopaMpocTaHaceKoM~x [Donahue etal., 1989; Garg, Donahue 1989; King, Bennett, 1989] ~ HeToKcu~ecK~M coed (TaK~M KaK aMOp~HMU c~nKare~B). upH ~CHO~B3OBaHHU ~OBy~eK c~e~yeT IplIMeHSITB ryMaHHMe MOTORS: ~OBy~KH ~~H OT~OBa *HB~X Bpe~HTe~eH O~*HM HpOBep~TBCH C ~OCTaTO~HOH HaCTOTOH, a nonMaHHux speed c~e,~yeT rIo,~sepraT~ 3nTaHa3~. yxo'~ 3a iK~BOTHbIMM B aBapH~HbIX CHTya~RX, B BbIXO~HbIe II IIpa3~H~HbIe OHM yxo'~ 3a *HBOTHEIMn ,~O~*eH ocy~ecTB~HTBcH KBa~HpOBaHHEIM rIepCOHa~OM e~e,~HeBHO, B TOM lInc~e rIo BBIXO,~HEIM ~ rIpa3~H~HEIM OHM, C Debbie COXpaHeHH~ 3,~0pOBB~ *HBOTHEIX ~ y,~OB~eTBOpeHH~ Tpe6oBaHH~M rIpoBe'~eH~ Hay~HEIX nCC~e,~OBaHHH. Troche OKOH~aH~ pa60Hero ,~HR, a TaK*e rIo BBIXO,~HEIM ~ rIpa3~H~HEIM'~H~M Heo6xo'~HMo rIpe'~ycMoTpeTB B03MO*HOCTB o6ecrIeHeH~ ~BOTHEIX CKOpOH BeTep~HapHOH rIoMo~BIo. IIPTI B03HlIKHOBeHlIlI aBaplIlIHEIX CHTya~H COTpy~H~KH C~y*6BI 6e3orIacHocTH y~pe*~eHHH' rIo~apHEIe H~n rIo~nH ,~O~*HEI HMeTB B03MO*HOCTB cBH3aTBcH C ~HLlaMn, OTBeTCTBeHHEIMn 3a co'~ep~aHHe ~BOTHEIX. 3Ty 3a,~a~y MO*HO o6~erHuTB' BBIBeCHB B BuBapHn peKOMeH,~a~n rIo rIoBe'~eHnIo B aBaplIlIHEIX CHTya~X, CHUCKH OTBeTCTBeHHEIX ~ ~ HeO6XO,~HMBIe HOMepa Te~e~OHOB H~n rIepe'~aB ux B OT,~e~ C~y*6BI 6e3orIacHocTH H~n Te~e~OHHEIn ~eHTp. Ha B~,~HOM MeCTe ,~O~*HEI 6BITB BBIBeIIIeHEI peKOMeH,~aLlHn rIO rIoBe'~eHnIo B aBapHuHEIX CHTyaLlH~X B crIeLlHaJILHEIx rIoMe~eH~x ~n rIpH ocy~ecTBJIeHHn OC06BIX orIepaLlHH. IlJIaH MeporIpH~THn Ha cJIylIan HaBo'~HeHHH7 rIo~apa, B3pLIBa ~ T.~., rIpe'~Ha3HalIeHHEIn ,~H crIaceHH~ KaK rIepcoHa~a' TaK ~ *HBOTHEIX, COCTaBJIHeTCH KaK HacTB o6~en rIporpaMMBI o6ecrIeHeHH~ 6e3orIacHocTH BuBapHH. A'~M~HucTpaTop BuBapH~ H~n BeTep~Hap, oTBeHaIo~n 3a co'~ep~aHHe ~BOTHEIX B HeM, ,~OJI*eH BXO,~nTB B COCTaB cooTBeTcTByIo~en KOMuCCHn rIo 6e3orIacHocTH' C03,~aHHOn rIpH y~pe;K,D;eHHH. OH (oHa) ,~O~*eH 6BITB <<o~Ha~BHEIM OTBeTCTBeHHEIM ~OM>> ~ y~acTBoBaTB B MeporIp~T~x, rIpoBo'~HMBIx B c~y~ae 6e,~CTBHn ~ aBapHuHEIX CHTya~n [Casper, 1991~. IIO,~;EP)KAHlIE IIOIIYJIlIL\lIlI *lIBOTHbIX |!l~eHTH{P~Ka~R ~ per~cTpau~ K Cpe~CTBaM ~eHTH~HKa~H ~BOTHEIX OTHOCHTCH Ta6~KH ~ KapToUKn7 rIp~Kpe~eHHEIe K'~Bep~M KOMHaT, rIO~KaM ~ K~eTKaM, B 3aroHax ~ CTO~aX, C 3aTInCaHHOn lIJIn HaHeCeHHOn IIITplIX-KO,~OM nH~OpMaLlHen; OIIIenH~K~, XOMyTEI, ~aCTHHKH ~ Hp~BIKH; ~BeTHEIe ~THa; HaCeUKH ~ Ha~eUKH Ha y~ax; TaTy~pOBKH; HO~KO*HEIe Hepe~aTH~KH ~ XO~O~HEIe K~eHMa. AM0yTa~H rIa~BLleB KaK MeTO~ ~eHTH~HKa~H Me~KHX rpLI3yHOB MO*eT HpUMeH~TBCH TOJIBKO TOr~a, KOr~a ~CHO~B30BaHHe ~I06BIX ~pyrux MeTo~os nH~ns~ya~BHon ~eHTu~nKaL~n oKa3~IsaeTc~ Heso3Mo*H~IM; rIp~eM ero MO*HO BBIHO~H~TB TO~BKO Ha He3pe~0pO~aIO~UXCH HOBOpO~eHHEIX. B KapTax Heo6xo~uMo

52 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL~ yKa3BIBaTB ~CTO~H~K HO~y~eH~ *HBOTHOrO, ~HHUIO ~H CTOK, ~aM~H Me CTOHaXO)K,D;eHlIe lICTIO3IHlITe3IelI 3KCTIeplIMeHTa, CO OTB eTCTByIO~He PATTI ~ HOMep ~KCHepUMeHTa~BHOrO HpOTOKO~a, echo BTO B03MO*HO. PerUCTpa~H *lIBOTHEIX HO~e3Ha ~ MO*eT pa3~HaTBCH HO ~OpMe — OT OrpaHHHeHHOH UH~OpMa~H Ha KapTOUKaX H~eHTH~HKa~H SO HO~pO6HEIX 3aHUceH HO Ka - ;OMy ~IBOTHOMy, BBe~eHHEIX B KOM0BIOTep. LteHHyIo HOMONYM MOryT TaK*e oKa3aTB K~HH~eCKHe 3aHUcH o6 oT'~e~BHEIx *HBOTHEIX, oco6eHHo rIpH rIpoBe'~eHHn nCC~e,~OBaHHn Ha co6aKax' KO~KaX, rIpuMaTax ~ ce~BcKoxo3~ncTBeHHEIx *HBOTHEIX. TaKne 3arIncH ,~O~*HEI BK]IIOHaTB COOTBeTCTByIO~He ~HH~eCKHe ~ ~narHocT~ecKne ~aHHEIe, PATTI nHOKyJI~LlHn, orIncaHHe x~pyprulIecKHx rIpoLle'~yp ~ see rIoc~eorIepa~HoHHoro rIepHo,~a, a TaK*e nH~opMa~Io o6 ncrIo~3osaHHn BOTHEIX B aKcrIepuMeHTe. ocHoBHEIe '~eMorpa~ecKne CBe,~eH~ ~ nCTOpHU 6o~e3Hn rIoBBImaIoT ~eHHocTB oT'~e~BHEIx *HBOTHEIX B CMBIC~e ux lICTIO3IB30BaH~ ~~H passe ~ ~CC~e~OBaHHH; TaKaH UH~OpMa~ gotcha 6BITB ~erKo '~ocTyrIHa nCC~e,~OBaTe~HM, BeTep~HapaM ~ rIepcoHa~y' yxa*HBaIo~eMy 3a *HBOTHEIMH. 3arIncH rIo ~CTOpHU BBIpa~HBaHH~ ~ crIapuBaH~' a TaK*e o6 oco6eHHocT~x rIoBe'~eH~ ~BOTHEIX rIo~e3HEI rIpH pa6oTe co MHornMn B~aMn ~BOTHEIX, OCO6eHHO HpUMaTaMU [NRC, 1979ai. ~ypHaJIBI, co,~ep~a~He OCHOBHEIe XapaKTepuCT~KH *HBOTHEIX, HMeIoT 6oJIBIIIoe 3HalIeHHe ,~JI~ co'~ep~aH~ KOJIOHHn KpyrIHEIX *HBOTHEIX C 60JIBIIIOn rIpo'~o~nTe~BHocTBIo *~3Hn ~ ,~O~*HEI BecTHcB oT'~e~BHo rIo Ka;K,D;OMy *HBOTHOMy [Dyke, 1993; NRC, 1979ai. TaKne ~ypHaJIBI IIaCTO BKJIIolIaIoT nH~opMaLlHIo O B~,~e *HBOTHOrO, ero ~,~eHTH~nKaTOp, ~,~eHTH~nKaTOp lIpOlI3BO~HTe~H, H~eHTH~HKaTOp MaTepH, H0~, ~aTy pO*~eHH~ H~n HpH06peTeHUSI, ~CTO~H~K, ~aTy CMepTH ~ yH~TO*eH~. TaKaH UH~OpMa~ ~ _ ~ ~ OIIeHB Ba*Ha,~H reHeTHIIeCKOH pa0OTEI ~ KOHe~HOH ~CTOpHHeCKOH O~eHKH KOJIOHlIlI ~IBOTHEIX. ~pH HepeBO~e *HBOTHEIX H3 O~HOrO UHCTHTyTa B ~pyron HeO6XO~HMO Hepe~aBaTB ~ COOTBeTCTByIO~yIO UH~OpMa~HIO O HUX. [eHeT~Ka ~ HOMeHK~aTypa FeHeT~ecKne XapaKTeplICTlIKlI lIMelOT sa*Hoe 3Ha~eHne ~H ce~eKunn ~ Be~eHH~ *HBOTHEIX HpH UX ~CHO~B30BaHHU B KO~OHH~X pa3BO~KH ~ 6~0Me~HHCKHX ~CC~e~OBaHH~X (CM. HpH~. A). ~aHHEIe O pO~OC~OBHOH lI03BOJISlIOT HpaB~BHo Ho'~6HpaTB HapLI ~BOTHEIX ~H HO~eHH~ HOTOMCTBa H~n oT6HpaTB 3KcrIepuMeHTa~BHEIx *HBOTHEIX, He ~B~HIO~nXCH pO,~CTBeHH~KaMn ~n C HeyCTaHOB~eHHEIM pO,~CTBOM. AyT6pe'~HEIe *HBOTHEIe mnpOKO ncrIo~B3yIoTcH B 6~0Me,~nHCKHX nCC~e,~OBaHH~X. tIcxo'~HEIe rIorIy~o~*HEI 6BITB'~ocTaTo~Ho 60~BmuMn, HTO 6BI O 6 e crIeHuBaTB '~nTe~BHyIo reTep OreHHO CTB ~CHO~B3yeMBIX ~H pa3Be'~eHH~ KO~OHHn *HBOTHEIX. '~H o6~erHeHH~ rIp~Moro CpaBHeHH~ aKcrIepuMeHTaJIBHEIx ,~aHHEIX, rIOJIy~eHHEIX Ha ayT6pe,~HEIX ~BOTHEIX, CJIe,~yeT lICTIO3IB30BaTB reHeT~ecKne MeTO~BI, n03so~Iomne COXpaH~TB reHeT~eCKyIO H3MeHlInBocTB ~ ypaBHoBeIIInBaTB rIpe'~cTaBuTeJIBcTBo nCXO,~HEIX oco6en KoJIoHHn [HarIpuMep' Lacy, 1989; Poiley, 1960; Williams-Blangero, 1993~. teHeTHHeCKyIO H3MeHHUBOCTB MO*HO KOHTpO~HpOBaTB, HpUMeHH~ KOMrI~OTepHOe Mo~eJInposaHne, 6~0X~MnIIeCKne MapKep~I, MapKep~I ,~HK, lIMMyHO3IOrlIIIeCKlIe MapKepLI ~n KO~HeCTBeHHEIU reHeTu~ecKnn aHa~3 rn~ecKnx r~epeMeHH~Ix [MacCluer et al., 1986; Williams-Blangero, 1993~.

YC:11OBE! CO~EP~H~^BOTHL~ 53 tIH6pe~HMe ~nHHn *HBOTHuX pa3~HHux BLOB, r~aBHuM o6pa3oM rpM3yHoB, BuBe~eHM ~~R peIIIeH~ crIeLlH~ecKHx 3KcrIepuMeHTa~EHux safari ~ Festing, 1979; Gill, 1 980l . tOM03HrOTHOCTB 3TUX *HBOTHuX noBMmaeT B O CrIp 0~3B O LIMO CTB ~ COrIO CTaBuMO CTB HeKOTOpLIX 3KcrIepuMeHTa~BHEIx ~aHHEIX. oHeHB Ba*HO ocy~ecTB~HTB rIepHo~HecKnn KOHTpO~B roMo3HroTHocTH nH6pe~HEIX *HBOTHEIX [Festing, 1982; Hedrich, 1990~. pa3pa6oTaHEI HeKOTOpLIe MeTO~nKH KOHTpO~H, OCHOBaHHEIe Ha rIpuMeHeHHn HMMyHo~or~ecKHx7 6Hox~M~ecKHx ~ Mo~eKymqpHEIx MeTo'~oB ~ Cramer, 19 8 3; Groen, 1977; Hoffman et al., 1980; Russell et al., 1993~. C He~Io cBe~eHH~ ~o MlIHlIMyMa reHeTHIIeCKOH KOHTaMlIHa~HH, ODyC~OB~eHHOH MyTa~HHMU ~ 0~60HHEIM CHapUBaHHeM, HeO6XO~HMO pa3pa60TaTB Ha~e*HEIe CHCTeMBI pa3Be~eH~ *HBOTHEIX [Green, 1981; Kempthorne, 1957~. TpaHCreHHEIe *HBOTHEIe 06~a~aIOT M~HUMyM O~HUM TpaHCreHOM; CaUT lIHTerpa~H 3TOrO TpaHCreHa ~ KO~eCTBO UHTerpUpOBaHHEIX KOHHU He BCer~a HO,D;,D;aIOTCH KOHTpO~IO. ~HTerpUpOBaHHEIe reHEI MOryT B3aHMO~eUCTBOBaTB C ~OHOBBIMU reHaMU ~ ~aKTOpaMU OKpy~aIO~eH Cpe~BI B 3aBUCHMOCTH, IaCTlIIIHO, OT CaIITa lIHTerpa~H, H03TOMy Ka~Oe TpaHCreHHOe *HBOTHOe MO*HO paCCMaTplIBaTB KaK yH~Ka~BHEIU ~CTO~H~K reHeTHHeCKOH nH~opMaunn. Heo6xo~uMo rIpe~rIp~HuMaTB ycu~ c ~e~BIo coxpaHeHn~ TaKOrO lICTOIIHlIKa lIplI lIOMOILllI CTaH~apTHEIX reHeTHHeCKHX Hpoue~yp, BK~IOHalOILlUX Be,~eHHe HO~pO6HEIX 3anucen no pO~OCJIOBHOH, ~ reHeT~ecKoro MOHlITOplIHra, rIo3so~qIomero lIpOBepSITB Ha~ne ~ 3HrOTHOCTB TpaHCreHOB. KpHoKoHcepBa~HIo orI~o~oTBopeHHEIx 3M6pH0HoB, HH~eK~eTOK H~n CTIepMaT030~0B TaK*e c~e,~yeT paCCMaTplIBaTB KaK MeTO~ upe~y~pe~eH~ 3aBlICIIMBIX OT BpeMeHU H3MeHeHHU B TpaHcreHax H~n c~yHanHon nOTepH KOJIOHHH. Ba*Hoe 3Ha~eHne r~p~aeTc~ T~aTe~EHOH perucTpaunn c ~CH0~30BaHHeM CTaH~apTHOn HOMeHK~aTypLI, ecJIn OHa HMeeTCH, KaK JInHHn ~ Cy6JInHHn, TaK HeTHIIeCKHX XapaKTepuCT~K *HBOTHEIX, ncrIo~B3yeMBIx B ncc~e~osaTe~BcKon rIporpaMMe [NRC, 1979bj. B HeCKO~BKHX Hy6~HKa~X MO*HO HanTH rIpaBH~a' rIp~H~TEIe Me*~yHapO~HEIMn KOMuCCH~Mn rIo yHH~HpOBaHHOn HOMeHK~aType ayT6pe~HEIX rpLI3yHOB ~ KpO~nKOB ~ Festing et al., 1972i, nH6pe~HEIX KpLIC [Festing, Staats, 1973; Gill, 1984; NRC, 1992ai, nH6pe~H~Ix M~Imen [International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomen- clature for Mice, 1981a,b,c] lI IpaHCreHHEIX ~BOTHEIX [NRC, 1992bJ. JIlITEPATYPA Ames, B. N., M. K. Shigenaga, and T. M. Hagen. 1993. Review: Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:7915-7922. Anzaldo, A. J., P. C. Harrison, G. L. Riskowski, L. A. Sebek, R-G. Maghirang, and H. W. Gonyou.1994. Increasing welfare of laboratory rats with the help of spatially enhanced cages. AWIC Newsl. 5~3~: 1-2,5. Armario, A., J. M. Castellanos, and J. Balasch. 1985. Chronic noise stress and insulin se- cretion in male rats. Physiol. Behav. 34:359-361. ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc.~.1992. Chapter 25: Air Cleaners for Particulate Contaminants. In 1992 ASHRAE Handbook: HVAC Systems and Equipment, I-P edition. Atlanta: ASHRAE. ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc.~. 1993. Chapter 9: Environmental Control for Animals and Plants. In 1993 ASHRAE Handbook: Fundamentals, l-P edition. Atlanta: ASHRAE. AWIC (Animal Welfare Information Center). 1992. Environmental enrichment informa-

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