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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Page 78
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Page 79
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Page 80
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals -- Russian Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10498.
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rJIABA 4 OBOPY~OBAHHE BUBAPHR IIPaBHJIBHO CTIP O eKTHP OBaHHEIU, XOP OIII O CKOHCTPY~P OB aHHEIU, rIocTpoeHH~In ~ co,~ep~amunc~ B ,~O~HOM COCTO~HHU BUBaPHU COCTaB~HeT Ba*HEIU 3~eMeHT rIPaB~BHOrO CO,~eP*aHH~ ~ ~CrIO~B30BaHH~ *HBOTHEIX 06~erHaeT 8~eKTHBHYIO, ~KOHOMHUHYIO ~ 6e30rIaCHYIO ~KC~YaTaU~IO (CM. rIP~. A: <<IlPOeKTHPOBaHHe ~ CTPOUTe~BCTBO rIoMemeHnn,~H CO,~eP*aHH~ *HBOTHEIX>>~. KOHCTPYKUH~ ~ Pa3MeP BUBaPH~ OrIPe,~e~HIOTCH MaC~Ta60M ncc~e,~osaTe~BcKon pa JOTEI C *HBOTHEIMU B ,~aHHOM HaY~HOM YTIPe)K,D;eHHU, B~OM co~ep~am~xc~ B HeM ~IBOTHEIX, ~3~eCK~M PaCTIO~O*eHHeM BUBaP~ rIO OTHOIIIeHlIlO K ~pyrUM 3~aH~M y~pe~eH~ ~ reOrpa~eCKOH 30HOH, r~e OHO HaXO~HTCH. ~pH HpaBH~BHOM HpOeKTHpOBaHHU ~ CTpOUTe~BCTBe HeO6XO~HMO yHUTEIBaTB MHeHHe COTpy~H~KOB, HMeIO~UX OHEIT pa60TEI H0 cTponTe~BcTsy ~ 3KcrI~yaTaL~n susapnes, a TaK*e peKoMeH~aL~n ero HOTeH~Ha~BHEIX no~B30saTe~en. ~O~e3HEIM MO*eT OKa3aTBCH KOM0BIOTepHOe MO~e~HpOBaHHe HOBBIX COOpy~eHHU ~ pa3Me~eHH~ *HBOTHEIX B K~eTKaX [Reynolds, Hughes, 1994~. Ilpu rIpoeKTuposaHnn ~ cTponTeJIBcTse susapu~ HeO6XO~HMO C06~IO~aTB COOTBeTCTByIO~He CTpOUTe~BHEIe CTaH~apTEI ~ HOpMaTHBBI, Hp~H~TEIe B ~aHHOM ~TaTe ~ ropo~e. Mo~y~BH~Ie KOHCTpyKunn (HaUpUMep H3rOTOB3IeHHEIe H0 3aKa3y Tpe~epLI ~n rOTOBBIe KOHCTpyK~) ~O~*HEI COOTBeTCTBOBaTB Tpe60BaHH~M, OHUCaHHEIM B HaCTOH~eH r~aBe. HeO6XO~HMBIM Tpe60BaHHeM obecne~eHn~ HpaBH~BHOrO co~ep~aHn~ *HBOTHEIX ~ OXpaHEI 3~0pOBB~ 06C~y*HBaIO~erO HepCOHa~a ~B~HeTCH oT~e~eHne rIoMemeHnn, r~e co~ep~aTcH *HBOTHEIe, OT C~y~e6HEIX HOMe~eHHU, HaUpUMep Ka6HHeTOB COTpy~H~KOB ~ KOH~epeH~-3a~0B. 3To Tpe60BaHlIe MO*HO BBIHO~HUTB, pa3MeCTHB ~BOTHEIX B OT~e~BHOM KOpHyCe, KpLI~e, aTa~e H~n KOMHaTe. ~pO~yMaHHOe H~aHUpOBaHHe H03BO~HeT pa3MeCTHTB BUBapHU pH~OM H~H B6~3H C Hay~HO-HCC~e~OBaTe~BCKOH JIa60paTopnen, pa3,~eJI~B UX 6ap~epaMn TurIa TaM6ypa, Kop~opa ~n aTa~a. *HBOTHEIX C~e,~yeT CO~ep~aTB B HOMe~eHH~X, Hpe~Ha3HaHeHHEIX H~H BE~e~eHHEIX ~H BTOH ~e~n, a He B ~a60paTOpHU H3 C006pa~eHHU y~o6CTBa. 77

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OLOPY~OBAH~E B~BAP~ . 79 CTIe~Ha~BHEIX KOpMOB, OCy~eCTB~eH~ 3KCHepUMeHTa~BHEIX Hpoue~yp, K~nHn~eCKOrO ~e~eH~ ~ '~narHocT~ecKnx ~a60paTOpH~IX r~poue,~yp; · lIpUCTIOC06~eH~ ~n o60py,~osaHne, Heo6xo,~uMoe HpH ~CHO~B3OBaHHU OHaCHEIX 6no~or~ecKnx, PICKAX ~n X~M~eCKHX MaTepHa~OB; · lIOMeILleHlISI ~~H HpHeMKH ~ XpaHeHH~ KOpMOB, HO~CTH~O~HEIX MaTepua~os, ~apMaKo~or~ecKnx r~per~apaTos, 6no~or~ecKnx ~ ,~pyrux paCXO~yeMBIX MaTepHa~OB; HOMe~eH~ ~H MOUKH ~ CTep~3a~H 060py~0BaH~ ~ paCXO~yeMBIX MaTepua~os, a TaK*e, B SaBUCHMOCTH OT 06~eMapa60TEI, HpUCHOCO6~eH~ ~ - ~ ~ ~ H MOUKH ~eTOK, DyTEMeH, CTe~HHOH HOCy~BI, CeTOK ~ KOHTe~HepOB H XpaHeHH~ OTXO~OB; C~HBHaH paKOB~Ha; aBTOK~aB ~H 06pa60TKH lIHCTpyMeHTOB, KOpMOB lI lIO~CT~O~HEIX MaTepHa~OB, a TaK*e oT~e~BH~Ie lIOMeILleH~ ~H XpaHeH~ rp~3Horo ~ HUCTOrO UHBeHTapH; · rIOMeILleHlIe ~H XpaHeHH~ OTXO~OB, no~e~am~x c*uraHn~o n~n ~HKB~a~H ~pyrUMU cuocobaMu; · lIOMeILleHlIe ~H XpaHeH~ HpH HH3KHX TeMUepaTypaX ~H ~HKBH~a~H TpylIOB; rIoMemeHne ,~ a,~M~HucTpaTusHoro rIepcoHa~a' a TaK*e ,~ 3aH~Tun oGy~eHn~ r~epcoHa~a; · ,~yIIIeBBIe, paKOBlIHEI, ~Ka~HK~, Tya~eTEI ~ KOMHaTEI OT~BIXa ~H rIepcoHa~a; r~pucr~oco6~eH~, obecr~e~nsa~omne 6e3or~acHocT~ r~oMemeHnn' Har~puMep K~IOHU Ha MarHUTHEIX KapTOUKaX, CHCTeMBI 8~eKTpOHHOrO Ha6~IO~eHH~ ~ asapunHon curHa~3aL~. . lIHCTPYK00H H0 CTPOUTE~bCTBY BUBAPHEB KopH,~opbI KOP~OPLI ~O~HEI 6BITB ~OCTaTO~HO ~HpOK~MU ~H 6eCHpe~TCTBeHHOrO rIpoxo'~a rIepcoHa~a ~,~OCTaBKH 060py,~0BaH~. ~H 6o~Bm~HcTBa COOpy~eHHn peKOMeH~yIOTCH KOp~OpLI ~Hp~HOH 6 - 8 ~yToB (1,8 - 2,4 M). KOHCTPYKU~ MecT coe'~nHeHH~ cTeH ~ rIo~a ~O~*Ha 06eCHeHUBaTB HpOCTOTy y60pKH. B KOplI~OpaX, Be~y~Ux B noMe~eH~7 r~e co~ep~aTcH co6aKH ~n CB~HEH, a TaK*e B rIOMe~eH~, rIpe ~Ha3HalIeHHEIe =H MOnKH K~eTOK ~ ~pyrux rIpoLle'~yp ~ cBH3aHHEIx C BBICOK~M ypOBHeM IIIyMa, c~e~yeT ycTaHoBuTB ~BOnHEIe ~BepH ~n ~pyrne myMorIor~oTHTe~. TaM' r~e 3TO B03MO*HO, ~ocTyrI K BO~HEIM ~ KaHa3IlI3a~0HHEIM MarUCTpa~HM, 3~eKTp~eCK~M ~ ~pyrUM KOMMyH~Ka~HM ~O~*eH HpOXO~HTE Hepe3 HaHe~E y~paB~eHH~ ~n ~e~o6 B KopH~ope BHe rIoMe~eHHn' r~e co~ep~aTcH ~BoTHEIe. IIPH6OPLI rIo~apHon cHrHa~3a~n' OrHeTymuTe~n ~ Te~e~OHEI ~O~*HEI ycTaHaB~HBaTBcH B yr~y6~eH~x ~n Ha ~OCTaTOIIHOn BBICOTe, HT06BI H36e~aTB ux rIospe*~eHH~ rIpH rIepeHoce KpylIHOra6aplITHOrO o6 Opy~OBaH~. ~BepH B HOMe~eHMB ~R CO~ep~aHMB ~BOTHbIX Ilo coo6pa~eHU5IM 6e3oHacHocTH ~BepH ~O~*HEI OTKpLIBaTECH BHyTpE rIOMe~eHH~, r~e co~ep~aTcH *HBOTHEIe; O~HaKO, ec~n Bo3H~KHeT - ~ HeO DXO~HMOCTB OTKpLIBaHH~ ~BepeH B KOpH~Op, Hy*HO Hpe~yCMOTpeTB COOpy~eHHe TaM6ypa. C TOUKH 3peHH~ 6e3orIacHocTH ~ ~pyrux HpHHUH Hpe~HOUTeHHe C~e~yeT OT~aBaTB ~Bep~M CO CMOTpOBBIMU OKHaMH. O~HaKO

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OLOPY~OBAH~E B~BAP~ 83 *lIBOTHEIX, HpOBe~eHH~ 3KCHepUMeHTa~BHEIX Hpoue~yp ~ x~pyprn~ecKnx MaHHUy~SI~. KpoMe Toro, Hy*HO obecne~nT~ pery~uposaHne nepena~os B~eH~ B03~yXa B OHepa~HOHHOM evoke, HpO~e~ypHEIX, 30HaX CO~ep~aH~ ~ 06C~y*HBaHUSI *HBOTHEIX. HaUpUMep, B HOMe~eHH~X ~~H KapaHTHHHEIX MepOlIplISITlIlI, CO~ep~aHH~ ~ ~CHO~B30BaH~ *HBOTHEIX, HO~BepraIO~UXCH B03~eUCTBUIO OHaCHEIX MaTepHa~OB, ~n ~H pa3MemeH~ HpUMaTOB ~as~eHne B03~yXa ~O~HO 6BITB OTHOCHTe~BHO OTpH~aTe~BHEIM, TOr~a KaK B HOMe~eH~X ,~JI~ sLIrIoJIHeHnH x~pyprulIecKnx rIpoLle'~yp' xpaHeHnH cTepuJIsHoro 060py~0BaHH~ ~ CO~ep~aHH~ 6e3M~KpO6HEIX *HBOTHEIX ~aB~eHHe B03~yXa ~O~HO 6BITB oTHocHTe~BHo no~o*nTe~BHEIM C no~aHen oHH~eHHoro Bo3~yxa. IIO~ep~aHHe rpa~HeHTOB ~aB~eHH~ B03~yXa He ~B~HeTCH OCHOBHEIM H~H e~HHCTBeHHEIM MeTO~OM KOHTpO~H HepeKpeCTHOH KOHTaM~Ha~; 60~ee Toro7 Ha Hero He~B3H rIo~araTBc~ KaK Ha MeTO~ 3a~HTEI. HeMHOrHe CHCTeMBI pery~uposaH~ so3,~yxa CHa6*eHEI HeO6XO~HMBIMU 6~0KaMU pery~uposa B~eHH~ H~n HpUCHOC06~eHH~MU ~H no~ep~aHn~ pa3HH~BI ~aB~eHH~ Me - ;y ~BepBMU ~H aHa~Or~HEIMU KOHCTpyK~M~, KOr~a OHU OTKpLIBaIOTCH Ha KOpOTKOe BpeMSI. ~H obecne~eHn~ 3a~HTEI HeO6XO~HMO ~CHO~B30BaTB 6~0~0r~eCKH 6e30HaCHEIe 60KCEI, TaM6ypLI ~H OTpa60TaHHOrO B03~yXa ~H ,~pyrne HpUCHoCo6~eH~, HeKOTOpLIe H3 KOTOpLIX OHUCaHEI B r~. 1. Ilpu ~CH0~30BaHHU pereHepupyeMoro so3~yxa c~e~yeT ~06HBaTECH Toro, HT06BI ero Ka~ecTso ~ Ko~ecTso cooTseTcTsosa~n peKoMeH~aun~M, H3~0*eHHEIM B r~. 2. CHoco6 ~ 8~eKTHBHOCTB 06pa60TKH B03~yXa ~O~HEI COOTBeTCTBOBaTB KOH~eHTpa~H ~ XapaKTepUCT~KaM KOHTaM~HaHTOB ~ pUCK KOTOpLIU OHU Hpe~CTaB~HIOT. 8~eKTp~eCTBO ~ ocsemeH~e 3~eKTpHHecKa51 CHCTeMa ~O~*Ha 6BITE 6e3oHacHoH ~ o6ecHeHUBaTE a~eKBaTHOe ocsemeHne, HMeTB ~OCTaTO~HOe KO~HeCTBO pO3eTOK ~ rapaHTuposaTB ,~ocTaTo~HyIo c~y ToKa,~ crIeuna~BHoro o60py,~osaHn~. Ha cJIylIan oTKJIIolIeHnH aJIeKTpulIecTsa Heo6xo~uMo rIpe~ycMoTpeTB a~BTepHaTHBHEIn ~n aBapHuHEIn nCTO~H~K 3~eKTpo3Heprnn ~R o6ecrIeHeH~ ~yHKunoHuposaH~ KpuT~ecKu sa*H~Ix c~cTeM (HarIpuMep, c~cTeM~I HVAC) n BcrIoMoraTe~BHEIx CHCTeM (HarIpuMep MOpO3~BH~KOB, BeHT~HpyeMBIX cTe~a~en ~ H30~HTOpOB B rIoMe~eHH~x'~H *HBOTHEIX, OrIepaLlHOHHEIX 6~oKax ~ ~pyrux Ba*HEIX 3oHax. ocBeTHTeJIBHaH apMaTypa' TaHMepLI, BBIKJIIolIaTeJIn ~ po3eTKH ~OJI*HEI 6BITB Ha~e*HO H30~HpOBaHEI, HT06BI He ~orIycTHTB rIpoH~KHoBeHH~ B HuX Bpe'~nTe~en. B noMe~eHusix BuBapHSI 06BI~HO ncrIo~B3yIoTcH 3ar~y6~eHHEIe 3KOHOM~HEIe ~yOpeC~eHTHEIe OCBeTHTe~. ~H obecne~eH~ HOCTO~HHOrO L~nK~a cseT—TeMHOTa c~e,~yeT rIpuMeH~T~ C~CTeMy ocsemeH~ c TauMepOM. ,~q rapaHTun perymqpHoro BK]IIOHeH~/BBI~IOHeH~ CBeTa c~e~yeT Hpe~yCMOTpeTB pery]ISIpHyIO HpOBepKy COCTO~HH~ TaHMepa ~ KOHTpO~HpyIO~UX ero c~cTeM. 3~eKTpHHeCKHe ~aMHOUKH H~H apMaTypa ~O~*HEI 6BITB 060py~0BaHEI 3a~HTHEIMU H~a~OHaM~, rapaHTHpyIO~HMU 6e30HaCHoCTB *HBOTHEIX ~ r~epcoHa~a. B 3oHax' r,~e ~acTo ncr~0~3yeTc~ so,~a, Har~puMep B HOMe~eH~X H MOUKH K~eTOK ~ 06pa60TKH aKBapHyMOB, HeO6XO~HMO ~CHO~B30BaTB BO~OHeUpOHH~aeMBIe BBI~IOHaTe~H, pO3eTKH ~ 3a3eM~eHH~Ie upep~IsaTe~.

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OLOPY~OBAH~E B~BAP~ . 85 paCTIO3IO*eHlIe 30HLI OTHOCIITe3IBHO HOMe~eHHU ~~H CO~ep~aHH ~BOTH~X, Hepepa60TKH OTXO~OB ~ XpaHeH~ MaTepHa~OB; · y~O6CTBO ~OCTyHa, B~IOHaH ~BepH ~OCTaTO~HOH ~Hp~HM ~~ ~OCTaBKH 060py~0BaH~; · ~OCTaTO~HOe MeCTO ~~H yCTaHOBKH ~ 06pa60TKH 060py~0BaH~; _ ~ · B03MO*HOCTB Je30HaCHOH ~HKBH~a~H HO~CTH~O~HEIX MaTepHa~OB rIpe,~mecTsyIomen MOUKe 06pa60TKH 060py~0BaH~; · OpraHH3a~H HOTOKOB, 06eCHeHUBalO~aH pa3~e~EHOe HepeMe~eHHe ~BOTH~X ~ 060py~0BaHH~ Me~y HUCT~MU ~ rpH3H~MU 30HaMH; · HpH HeO6XO~HMOCTH H30~ CTeH ~ HOTO~KOB; · CHlI*eHlIe ypOBHSI IIIyMa; . - ~ ~ ~ - 0 ~ecrIelIeHne rop~en ~ XO~O,~HOH BO,~OH, BO,~HEIM {IaPOM, CTOKaMU B rIO~y lI 3JIeKTp~IeCTBOM; · BeHTlIJISI~H, BK~IOHaH yCTaHOBKy BeHTH~HOHHEIX KaHa~OB ~ o6ecrIeHeHHe yc~oBHn ,~H c6poca Bo'~HHoro rIapa ~ ra3oB' ncrIo~3yeMBIx HpH CaHUTapHOH o6pa60TKe. IIOMEIL\EHlIlI ,1;JIlI ACEIITtI'IECKOlI XIlPYPrilil KOHCTPYKUH~ OrIePaU~OHHOrO 6~0Ka,~O~*Ha COOTBeTCTBOBaTB B~,~Y OTIePUPYeMBIX *HBOTHEIX ~ C~O*HOCTH BBITIO~HHeMBIX X~PYPrUlIeCKHX r~poue,~yp [Hessler, 1991; CM. TaK*e r~pH~. A: <<IlPOeKTHPOBaHHe ~ CTpOUTe~BCTBO BUBapHeB>>~. ~H BBIHO~HeHH~ 60~B~HHCTBa x~pypr~ecKnx MaHurIyJI~LlHn Ha rpLI3yHax orIepaLlHoHHaH Mo~eT 6BITB He60JIBIIIOH ~ lIpOCTOH {IO KOHCTPYKLIHU, HaTIPUMeP, CTIeLIHaJIBHO BBI~eJIeHHOe {IOMe~eHHe B ~a6opaTopHH' KOTOpOe o6c~y*HBaeTcH TaK~M o6pa3oM' HT06BI CBeCTH '~o M~HuMyMa KoHTaM~Ha~HIo rIoMe~eHH~ BO BpeM~ orIepa~. pa3Me C~O*HOCTB KOHCTpyK~n orIepa~HoHHon 06BI~HO Bo3pacTaIoT rIo Mepe yBe~HlIeH~ KO~HIIeCTBa ~BOTHEIX, ux pa3MepoB ~ C~O*HOCTH BBIrIO~HReMBIX MaHurIy~7 HarIpuMep' rIpH BBIrIo~HeHHn 6o~B~oro Huc~a x~pypr~ecKHx rIpoLle'~yp Ha rpLI3yHax7 Heo6xo~HMocTH rIpuMeHeHH~ OC06BIX crIoco6oB ~nKCaLlHn ~BOTHEIX, OrIepaLlHOHHEIX CTO~OB C r~paB~eCK~M rIpuBo'~oM, CTOKOB B rIoJIy rIpH pa6oTe C ceJIBcKoxo3~ncTBeHHEIMn ~BOTHEIMn, a TaK*e rIpH BBIrIOJIHeHHn rIpoLle'~yp' Tpe6yIo~nx ylIaCTH~ 60JIBIII~X rIo COCTaBy xlIpypRnHecKHx 6pHra~ lI BcTIoMoraTeJIBHoro o6opy~oBaHH5l, '~JIH KOTOpLIX Hy*HO MHOrO MeCTa. PaCHO~O*eHHe OHepa~HOHHOrO 6~0Ka H0 OTHO~eHUIO K HarHOCT~eCKOH ~a60paTopun, peHTreHOBCKOMy Ka6HHeTy, HOMe~eHUIO ~H CO~ep~aHH~ *HBOTHEIX, Ka6HHeTaM 06C~y*HBaIO~erO HepCOHa~a ~ T.~. ~O~*HO paCCMaTpUBaTBCH B 06~eM KOHTeKCTe C~O*HOCTH X~pyprHHeCKOH lIpOrpaMMBI. OHepa~HOHHEIU 6~0K ~O~*eH HaXO~HTBCH Ha ~OCTaTO~HOM paCCTOS[HHU OT ,~pyrux 30H C TeM, HT06BI CBeCTH ~0 M~HUMyMa HepeMe~eHHe rIepcoHa~a ~, cooTseTcTseHHo, orIacHocTB KoHTaM~Haunn [Humphreys, 1993~. HTpa~30BaHHEIe OHepa~HOHHEIe 6~0KH 06~a~aIOT Ba*HEIMU HpeHMy- CTBaM~, HOCKO~BKy OHU H03BO~HIOT C3KOHOMUTB Ha 060py~0BaHHU, IOMeILleH~X lI lIepCOHa3Ie, COKpaTlITB ~a~BHOCTB TpaHCHOpTHpOBKH ~BOTHEIX JIerlInTE rIpo~eccuoHaJILHoe Ha6JIlo~eHne ~ o6cJIy*nsaHne KaK orIepa~HoHHEIx 6~0KoB, TaK ~ BBIrIo~HReMBIx TaM rIpo~e~yp. IlpUMeHUTe~BHO K 60~B~HHCTBy X~pyprHHeCKHX HpOrpaMM ~yHK~- oHa~BHEIMn KOMrIOHeHTaMn acerIT~ecKHx orIepaLlHn SIB~RIOTCH X~pypr~eCKOe 06eCHeHeHHe, Hpe~OHepa~HOHHaH HO~rOTOBKa *HBOTHEIX, HO~rOTOBKa

86 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL rIepcoHaJIa orIepaL~noHHoro 6JIOKa (x~pypr~ecKa~ o6pa60TKa pyK' HaTIplIMep), 06Pa60TKa OTIePaU~OHHOH ~ TIOC~eOTIePaU~OHHOe BOCCTaHOB~eHHe ~BOTH~X. KOHCTPYKU~ TIOMe~eHHU, B KOTOP~X OCY~eCTB~IOTCH BTH ~YHKUHU, ,~O~Ha rapaHTuposaT~ Mae r~epeMemeHn~ ~~o,~en ~ o60py,~osaHn Pa3,~eJIeHHe HeX~PYPr~eCKHX, HO CBH3aHH~X C orIepaL~nen MaHur~yJI~L~n, x~pypr~ecKnx rIpoL~e,~yp B OrIepaLlHOHHOH. TaKOe pa3,~eJIeHHe JIy~IIIe scero ,~OCTHraeTCH C TIOMOmBlO ~nHeCKHX 6aPBePOB [AORN, 1982], HO MO*eT obecr~e~nsaTBc~ ~ ~OCTaTO~H~M paCCTO~HHeM Me~y pa~H~MU 30HaMU ~n ,~OCTaTO~HuM BpeMeHeM, rIosBo~Io~HM rIpOBeCTH y6opKy ~ ,~esuH~eK~IO TIOMe~eHHH. II3BeCTHO, HTO KO~HeCTBO 06C~Y*HBaJO~erO TIePCOHa~a ~ cTerIeHB ero aKTHBHOCTH HarIp~Mylo CBHaaHM C ypOBHeM 6aKTepHa~BHon SarpH3HeHHOCTH ~ HaCTOTOH BO3H~KHOBeHH~ noc~eonepaunoHHon paHeBOH nH~eKLlHn [Fitzgerald ,1979~. IlepeMe~eHHe BHyTpH OlIepaLlHOHHOH MO*HO yMeHBmuTB, yCTaHOBuB TaM o6sopHoe OKHO, CHCTeMy CBHan (HarIpuMep, BHyTpeHHee rIeperosopHoe yCTpOlICTBO) lI pa~HOHa~BHylO CHCTeMy ~sepen. Ilpu HpOeKTHpOBaHHU or~epaunoHHoro 6~oKa r~epsocTer~eHHoe sHa~eHne cJIe~yeT rIp~asaTB KOHTpOJIIO ypoBHR KOHTaMlIHa~Hn ~ rIpOCTOTe ero y6opKn. BHyTpeHHHe rIoBepxHocTH ~O~*HM 6MTB H3rOTOB~eHM H3 MOHO~nTHuX s~aroHer~poHnuaeM~x MaTepHa~OB. YCTaHOBKa BeHT~q~HOHHOH CHCTeMM, H0 KOTOpOn rIo~aeTcH oT~BTpoBaHHMn BO3~yx rIo'~ rIo~o~Te~BHuM ~aB~eHHeM, MO*eT yMeHBmuTB puCK rIoc~eorIepaUnoHHon nH~eKUnn [Ayscue, 1986; Bartley, 1993; Bourdillon, 1946; Schonholtz, 19761. CTerIeHBPUCKaMO*HOTaK*e yMeHEmuTE 6~aro~apH rIpaBH~EHoMy pa3Me~eHHIo rIo~alo~nx BO3~y BuTH*HuX KaHa~OB ~ rIo~60py CKOpOCTH ~BH*eHH~ BO3~y~Hux rIOTOKOB B rIoMemeHHe ~ H3 Hero [Ayliffe, 1991; Bartley, 1993; Holton, Ridgway, 1993; Humphreys, 19931. ,~H 06~erHeHH~ Y60PKH OrIePaU~OHHOH TaM C~e,~YeT ycTaHaB~HBaTB KaK MO*HO MeHBme CTaUnOHapHOn ar~rIapaTypM [SChOnhO1tZ' 1976; UFAW, 19891. ,~pyrne Tpe6oBaH~ K OrIepaUnOHHOMy 6~0Ky BK~IOHalOT o60py,~osaHne X~pypr~ecK~Mn JIaMrIaM~, 06eCTIelI~BalO~HMU a~eKBaTHylO ocBe~eHHocTB [Ayscue, 1 986i, ,~OCTaTO~H~M KO~HeCTBOM 8~eKTPHHeCKHX pO3eTOK ~H HO~K~IOHeHH~ BCHOMOraTe~BHOrO 060py~0BaHH~ ~ CHCTeMOH y,~a~eHn~ OTpa60TaHH~X ra30s. BcrIoMoraTe~EHoe rIoMe~eHHe orIepaUnoHHoro 6~oKa rIpe~Ha3HaHaeTcH ~H MOnKH ~ cTepH~3aLInn nHCTpyMeHTOB, a TaK*e '~H XpaHeHH~ nHCTpyMeHTOB ~ pacxo~yeM~x MaTepHaJIOB. O6MlIHO B 3TOM rIOMe~eHHn yCTaHaB~HBalOTCH aBTOK~aBM. Bo MHOruX c~yHa~x B rIoMe~eHHn '~H rIo'~roToBKH ~BOTHuX ~e~aTe~BHo HMeTB 60~B~Y]O PaKOB~HY, HTO 06~erHaeT 06pa60TKy *HBOTHOrO ~ or~epaunoHHoro no~s~. Heo6xo,~uMo BM~e~HTB rIOMe~eHHe '~H rIepcoHa~a orIepaUnoHHoro 6~oKa7 r~e OH Mor 6M rIepeo'~eBaTBcH B OlIepaLlHOHHyIO o,~e;K,D;y, ~ KoMHaTy co IIIKa~lInKaMn,~JI~ XPaHeH~ O,~e)K,D;BI ~ T.TI. ,~JI~ XlIpyprOB Hy)KHO BBI~e~HTB MeCTO, r~e OHU MOr~H 6BI MBITBCH, 060py~0BaHHoe CHe~Ha~BHEIMU HpUCHOCO6~eH~MU [Knecht et al., 19 8 1 ] . C ~e~BIo YMeHB~eH~ BO3MO*HOCTH KOHTaM~HaUHU OrIePaU~OHHOH aDpO30~HM~, 06pa3yIO~HMUCH lIpH MBITBe pyK, noMemeHne ~H HO~rOTOBKH X~PYPrOB ,~O~*HO HaXO,~HTBCH BHe OTIePaLIHOHHOH. IlaPaMeTPLI CPe,~BI B 30He ,~JI~ {IOCJIeOTIePaLIHOHHOrO co'~ep~aH~oJI*HEI Y,~OB~eTBOP~TB rIOTPe6HOCTHM *HBOTHEIX B COCTO~HHU HaPKO3a ~ B rIepno,~ soccTaHos~eH~ rIoc~e orIepaLInn; rIpu 3TOM OHa ~O~*Ha PaCrIO~araTBCH TaK~M 06Pa30M, HTO6BI o6ecrIeHuTB Ha6~Io~eHHe 3a ~BOTHEIM B 3TOT rIepHo~ BpeMeHH. c~e~yeT paccMoTpeTB B03MO*HOCTB o6ecrIeHeHH~ 3~eKTpHHecKoro ~

OLOPY~OBAH~E B~BAP~ 87 MexaH~ecKoro MoHuTop~Hra ~ BcrIoMoraTe~BHoro o6opy'~oBaH~. TurI K~eTOK ~ BCHOMOraTe~BHOrO 060py~0BaHH~ OUpe~e~HeTCH BROOM *HBOTH~X ~ xapaKTepoM surIoJIH~eM~x rIpoL~e,~yp; rIpu ATOM OHlI ~O~*HM KOHCTpylIpOBaTBCH TaK~M o6pa3oM, ~To6m obecne~nTB y~O6CTBO FIX CaHUTapHOH 06pa60TKlI lI lIO~ep*Ky ~3~0~0rHHeCKHX ~yHK~H, B nepsyIo o~epe~B TepMopery~n ~ ,~uxaHn~. B 3aBUCHMOCTH OT 06CTOSITe~BCTB 30Ha ~~H rI o Cole orI epaL~noHHoro B O CCTaHOB3IeHlISI C e3IBCKOX03~HCTB eHH~X *HB OTH~X MO*eT 6MTB MO~HpOBaHa ~H OTCyTCTBOBaTB Boo6~e; TeM He MeH HeO6XO~HMO Hp~H~TB Meow, HTo6M CBeCTH NO M~HUMyMa pUCK TpaBM~pOBaH~ BBI3~0paB~HBaIO~UX ~BOTHEIX. JIlITEPATYPA AORN (Association of Operating Room Nurses). 1982. Recommended practices for traffic patterns in the surgical suite. Assoc. Oper. Room Nurs. J. 15~4~: 750-758. ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inch. 1993. Chapter 24: Weather Data. In: 1993 ASHRAE Handbook: Fundamen- tals, I-P edition. Atlanta: ASHRAE. Ayliffe, G. A. J. 1991. Role of environment of the operating suite in surgical wound infec- tion. Rev. of Infec. Dis. 13(Suppl 10~: S800-S804. Ayscue, D.1986. Operating room design: Accommodating lasers. Assoc. Oper. Room Nurs. J. 41: 1278-1285. Bartley, J. M.1993. Environmentalcontrol: Operating room air quality. Today's O.R. Nurse 15~5~: 11-18. Bourdillon, R. B. 1946. Air hygiene in dressing-rooms for burns or major wounds. The Lancet: 601-605. Fitzgerald, R. H. 1979. Microbiologic environment of the conventional operating room. Arch. Surg. 114: 772-775. Gorton, R. L. and E. L. Besch. 1974. Air temperature and humidity response to cleaning water loads in laboratory animal storage facilities. ASHRAE Trans. 80:37-52. Hessler, J. R. 1991. Facilities to support research. Pp. 34-55 in Handbook of Facility Plan- ning. Vol. 2: Laboratory Animal Facilties, T. Ruys, ed. New York: Van Nostrand. 422 PP. Holton, J. and G. L. Ridgway. 1993. Commissioning operating theatres. J. Hosp. Infec. 23: 153-160. Humphreys, H. 1993. Infection control and the design of a new operating theatre suite. J. Hosp. Infec. 23: 61-70. Knecht, C. D., A. R. Allen, D. J. Williams, and J. H. Johnson. 1981. Fundamental Tech- niques in Veterinary Surgery, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders. Reynolds, S. D. and H. Hughes. 1994. Design and optimization of airflow patterns. Lab. Anim. 23~9~: 46-49. Schonholtz, G. J.1976. Maintenance of aseptic barriers in the conventional operating room. J. Bone and Joint Surg. 58-A(4~: 439-445. UFAW (Universities Federation forAnimalWelfare).1989. Guidelines on the Care of Labo- ratory Animals and Their Use for Scientific Purposes: III Surgical Procedures. Herts, UK: UFAW.

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