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D Biographies of Committee Members and Staff . Miriam E. John is vice president for the California Division at Sandia National Laboratories. The principal programs of the division, located in Livermore, California, include nuclear weapons stewardship; weapons demilitarization; chemical/biological weapons defense; combustion and materials research; ad- vanced lithography and Microsystems development; microchemical/-biological and remote laser-based chemical detection; and distributed, secure, advanced computational and information systems. Dr. John has served in a number of managerial and technical roles for the laboratory in various areas including new program development; nuclear weapons development; systems analysis; thermal analysis/fluid mechanics research and development; experimental and theoreti- cal studies in heterogeneous catalysis, thermodynamics, and multiphase reacting flow; and postdoctoral work in alternative energy concepts analysis and simula- tion. She has participated in numerous defense community efforts, including the Department of Defense's Threat Reduction Advisory Committee, the Defense Science Board's summer and task force studies, and the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board, as well as serving on the National Research Council's Board on Army Science and Technology. She is also a member of DOE's National Com- mission on Science and Security. Dr. John has served on the Advisory Board for the Department of Chemical Engineering at Princeton University and, more recently, on the Executive Advisory Committee for the National Science Foun- dation's Science and Technology Center for Environmentally Responsible Sol- vents and Processes at North Carolina State University/University of North Carolina. She is also a member of the Board of Directors of ANSER, Inc. She is currently a member of the Naval Studies Board. Dr. John was awarded her Ph.D. in chemical engineering from Princeton University in 1977. 166
~ - APPENDIX D 167 John B. Alexander is an independent consultant in matters relating to non-lethal weapons technology, intelligence, and special operations. Currently he serves as an advisor to the Commander in Chief, U.S. Special Operations Command. Dr. Alexander entered the U.S. Army as a private in 1956 and rose through the ranks, retiring as a colonel in 1988. During his military career, he held many key positions in special operations, intelligence, and research and development. From 1966 through early 1969, he commanded Special Forces "A" Teams in Vietnam and Thailand; his last military assignment was as director, Advanced Systems Concepts Office, U.S. Army Laboratory Command. Subsequent to his retirement from the Army, Dr. Alexander joined Los Alamos National Laboratory, where he developed the concept of non-lethal defense. In addition to serving on numerous government and scientific advisory boards, Dr. Alexander organized and chaired the first five major conferences on non-lethal warfare, served as a U.S. delegate to four NATO studies on the topic, and has written extensively in the field. As a member of the first Council on Foreign Relations non-lethal warfare study, he was instrumental in influencing the report that is credited with causing the De- partment of Defense to create a formal non-lethal weapons policy in July 1996. Additionally, he served for 5 years as a deputy sheriff in Dade County, Florida. Dr. Alexander received an M.A. from Pepperdine University and his Ph.D. from Walden University; he attended the Kennedy School of Government general officer program, National and International Security for Senior Executives, at Harvard University. ~ . Michael B. Berger is program director for energy and environment at the Logis- tics Management Institute (LMI), where he oversees research in fields of envi- ronment, energy management, and occupational health and safety. Mr. Berger has more than 15 years of experience performing and overseeing analyses related to national defense and federal management. Before joining LMI, he served in key staff positions at the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the U.S. Defense Conversion Commission, and the U.S. Congressional Budget Office (CBO). During his tenure at COO, he was responsible for analyzing budget requirements for the U.S. Navy that related to weapons procurement issues. The products of his work included testimony before congressional committees and CBO reports on long-range budget requirements for the entire U.S. Navy, and on combat logistics ships, amphibious warfare ships, and tactical aircraft. Mr. Berger re- ceived his master's degree in public policy from the University of California at Berkeley. Ruth A. David is president and chief executive officer at Analytic Services, Incorporated (ANSER), a not-for-profit public service research institute that pro- vides solutions to national and international issues. Her background is in intelli- gence, surveillance, and reconnaissance technologies. Before joining ANSER, she was deputy director for science and technology at the Central Intelligence
168 r APPENDIX D Agency, where she had leadership responsibilities for supporting and improving the collection, processing, analysis, and dissemination of intelligence through the research, development, and application of technology. Previously, Dr. David served in several managerial positions at Sandia National Laboratories. Her technical experience includes digital and microprocessor-based system design, digital signal analysis, adaptive signal analysis, and systems engineering and integration. Dr. David is a member of the National Security Agency's Advisory Board, the Department of Energy's Nonproliferation and National Security Advi- sory Committee, the Defense Science Board, and the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence Technical Advisory Board; she is also a member of the Draper Cor- poration. She is currently a member of the Naval Studies Board. Dr. David was awarded her Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Stanford University in 1981. Clay E. Easterly is the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) leader for the Virtual Human Project. He was group leader of the Health Effects Group for the Chemical and Biological Physics Section at ORNL between 1987 and 2000, overseeing a research staff with formal training in toxicology, epidemiology, applied mathematics, physics, health physics, medical technology, ecology, and public health. A physicist by training, Dr. Easterly joined the ORNL technical staff in 1973, and since has maintained a long-term research focus in three pri- mary areas: tritium oxidation and exchange, fusion health and safety, and non- ionizing electromagnetic fields. In particular, Dr. Easterly's research interests include the use of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields for the development of alternatives to lethal forces. He has served on numerous scientific and technical advisory boards, including Non-Lethal Defense III, sponsored by the National Defense Industrial Association, of which he was co-chair. Dr. Easterly was awarded his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Tennessee. Milton Finger is retired deputy director, Department of Defense Programs Of- fice, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). He graduated from the University of California at Berkeley with a B.S. degree in 1957 and has spent his entire career at LLNL, starting as a staff chemist in the Chemistry and Mate- rials Science Division. Mr. Finger's areas of expertise are in defense science and technology; military operations and organization; technologies for peace opera- tions, law enforcement, and operations other than war; humanitarian demining and countermine technologies; conventional weapons systems, including the ar- eas of lethality and survivability; ordnance engineering; propellant chemistry; electronic combat; weapons effects; munitions target interactions; chemistry of explosives; hydrodynamics, detonation physics, explosives equations of state; explosives safety and initiation; high-speed optics and electronic diagnostics; computer simulation and prediction of high explosives performance; and intelli- gence assessments and emergency response teams. Mr. Finger is a lecturer on explosives to the San Francisco Bay Area Law Enforcement Community, Wash-
APPENDIX D 169 ington State University, and the Institute of American Bomb Technicians and Investigators. He is a member of several advisory boards, such as the U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board and the Defense Science Board. He served with the Weapons Panel of the Technology for Naval Forces study completed in 1997 by the Naval Studies Board. Charles A. Fowler, an independent consultant, is retired senior vice president at Mitre Corporation, a federally funded research and development center serving the government on issues relating to national security. Mr. Fowler, a member of the National Academy of Engineering, has an extensive background in electronic warfare, particularly in regard to military systems utilizing radar, sensor, and countermeasure technologies. Mr. Fowler began his career in 1942 as a staff member of the Radiation Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technol- ogy, where he participated in the development and testing of the ground con- trolled approach radar landing system. He later went on to engineering and management positions at the Raytheon Systems Company before joining Mitre in 1976. Mr. Fowler is a fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, as well as of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Mr. Fowler received his B.S. in electrical engineering from the University of Illinois in 1942. i .. x Charles Higgs is assistant leader for laser and sensor applications at the Lincoln Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT/LL). Research interests of Dr. Higgs, a physicist by training, include the application of lasers for non-lethal weapon technologies. At MIT/IL, he has conducted extensive re- search in laser radar for both imaging targets and atmospheric measurements, including the development of electro-optical systems, theoretical investigations of the basic physics of laser propagation, and experiments ranging from small- scale laboratory measurements to large-scale field measurements. Recent efforts include the use of adaptive optics for investigating atmospheric turbulence, and the employment of miniature sensors (i.e., microlasers) to measure environmen- tal pollutants and biological substances. Dr. Higgs was awarded his Ph.D. in physics from Rice University. Phil C. Houser is senior manager for advanced programs at Raytheon Company, Washington headquarters, where he provides technical and management support to the Office of the Secretary of Defense, Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Services on low observables and counter-low-observable technologies and systems. Be- fore joining Hughes Missile Systems Company (now Raytheon), Mr. Houser served as an F-16 instructor pilot and wing weapons officer in the U.S. Air Force. Since joining Raytheon as an engineer, he has held a wide range of management positions in the development and integration of advanced weapon and sensor systems. In addition to his professional accomplishments, Mr. Houser is a life
70 APPENDIX D member of the National Defense Industrial Association and an active member of the Association of Old Crows, American Defense Preparedness Association, and the Air Force Association. Mr. Houser earned his B.S. in electrical engineering at the U.S. Air Force Academy. John W. Hutchinson is Gordon McKay Professor of Applied Mechanics at Harvard University. A member of the National Academy of Sciences and Na- tional Academy of Engineering, Dr. Hutchinson is a theoretician in the area of solid and structural mechanics, working broadly on problems arising within elasticity, plasticity, stability, and fracture. His major research contributions concern the buckling of shell structures, nonlinear fracture mechanics, and the micromechanics of polycrystalline materials and composites. In recent years, however, Dr. Hutchinson's primary research emphasis has been on the mechan- ics and micromechanics of thin films, coatings, and multilayers. Dr. Hutchinson has served on numerous scientific and advisory boards; he currently serves on the National Research Council's U.S. National Committee on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics. Dr. Hutchinson received his B.S. in applied mechanics from Lehigh University in 1960 and his M.S. and Ph.D. from Harvard Univer- sity in 1961 and 1963, respectively. Albert I. King is distinguished professor of mechanical engineering and director of the Bioengineering Center at Wayne State University. He also serves as adjunct professor of orthopedics and is an associate in neurosurgery. A member of the National Academy of Engineering, Dr. King has expertise in understanding the mechanism, response, and tolerance of the human body to normal and trau- matic loading. His research interests are in areas primarily relating to trauma biomechanics, such as the effects resulting from automotive collisions. In addi- tion, his research interests have included the computer modeling of the brain's response to blunt head impact, as well as the thoracic response to impact from non-lethal weapons. His professional society memberships include those in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (fellow), the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (associate member), the American Society of Biomechan- ics (member), and the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine (member). Dr. King was awarded his Ph.D. from Wayne State University. Annette J. Krygiel is an independent consultant. She recently completed an assignment as a visiting fellow at the Institute for National Strategic Studies at the National Defense University, where she wrote a book on large-scale system integration. Dr. Krygiel's expertise is in the management of large-scale systems, particularly in regard to software development. Before being appointed to the Institute for National Strategic Studies, she was director of the Central Imagery Office (CIO), a Department of Defense combat support agency. She remained the director for 27 months, until CIO joined the National Imagery and Mapping
APPENDIX D s .. . 171 Agency in October 1996. Dr. Krygiel began her career at the Defense Mapping Agency, where she held various positions such as chief scientist. She has been a participant in National Research Council studies, including that of the Panel on Distributed Geolibraries: Spatial Information Resources and the Committee on Network-Centric Naval Forces. She is currently a member of the Naval Studies Board. Dr. Krygiel was awarded her Ph.D. in computer science from Washing- ton University at St. Louis. James W. Meyer is retired senior vice president, director of research and develop- ment/chief technical officer at the Eastman Kodak Company. Dr. Meyer is a chem- ist by training, and his career at Kodak included research on novel color imaging systems, fundamental studies of image structure and color reproduction, and pio- neering work on one-time-use cameras. In addition, he led laboratory efforts in optical and magnetic recording technologies, electronic materials, and novel manu- facturing technology. Since retiring from Kodak in 1998, Dr. Meyer created and has led the Technical Advisory Group for the Rochester Museum and Science Center. In addition to serving as chairman of the board of trustees for the Rochester Museum and Science Center, he is a member of the American Chemical Society, the Ameri- can Association for the Advancement of Science, the Society for Imaging Science and Technology, and the Materials Research Institute. Dr. Meyer holds a B.S. degree in chemistry from the University of Wisconsin and a Ph.D. in physical organic chemistry from the California Institute of Technology. He did postdoctoral work in metal-organic chemistry at Stanford University. Robert B. Oakley is distinguished visiting fellow at the Institute for National Strategic Studies at the National Defense University, where he has been since 1995. Ambassador Oakley retired from the U.S. Foreign Service in 1991, after 34 years of service. His principal assignments included Khartoum, Sudan, fol- lowed by the Office of United Nations Political Affairs of the Department of State; subsequent posts included Abidjan, Ivory Coast; Saigon, Vietnam; Paris, France; the U.S. Mission to the United Nations; and Beirut, Lebanon. Ambassa- dor Oakley became Deputy to the Assistant Secretary of State for East Asia and Pacific Affairs in January 1977, and was then posted to Zaire in November 1979, and later to Somalia, as the U.S. ambassador. He was appointed director of the State Department Office of Combating Terrorism in 1984. Before joining the National Security Council staff as assistant to the president for the Middle East and South Asia in January 1987, Ambassador Oakley became a fellow at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace from September to December 1986. After his retirement as ambassador to Pakistan in September 1991, he became associated with the U.S. Institute of Peace as a coordinator of the Special Pro- gram in Middle East Peacekeeping and Conflict Resolution. He is currently a member of the Naval Studies Board. Ambassador Oakley earned a B.A. in philosophy and history from Princeton University in 1952.
72 APPENDIX D Steven H. Scott is manager for the Access Delay Technology Department at Sandia National Laboratories, where he oversees research, engineering develop- ment, and the application of barrier designs and activated dispensable materials for access delay applications. Mr. Scott's expertise is in non-lethal technologies and their applications. His current research interests include the physical charac- terization, security effectiveness, material longevity, and toxicology and environ- mental analyses of activated dispensable materials, including those developed and used for safeguard applications (i.e., polyurethane foams, sticky thermoplas- tic foams, stabilized aqueous foams, chemical smoke, pyrotechnic smoke, en- tanglements and deployable barriers, and chemical irritants). Mr. Scott received his master's degree in nuclear engineering from the University of Michigan. William M. Tolles is retired associate director of research for strategic planning at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), Washington, D.C. Currently an inde- pendent consultant and an advisor to academic research centers internationally, Dr. Tolles has expertise in state of the science and technology assessments in nanostructured materials. A chemist by training, he joined the faculty of the Naval Postgraduate School in 1962; he later served there as an assistant, associ- ate, and full professor of chemistry (1962-1984~. He also served as the dean of research and dean of science and engineering (1977-1984) at the Naval Post- graduate School before being appointed superintendent of the Chemistry Divi- sion at NRL in Washington, D.C. In 1989 he assumed his position at NRL, until his retirement in 1995. Dr. Tolles's research interests include nanoscience, microelectromechanical systems, nonlinear optical spectroscopy, microwave properties of materials, molecular spectroscopy, molecular orbital calculations, microwave spectroscopy, and electron spin resonance. Dr. Tolles was awarded his Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of California at Berkeley. Paul K. Van Riper retired from the U.S. Marine Corps as a lieutenant general in 1997, after 41 years of active and reserve service. He is currently a private consultant and a member of several defense-related advisory boards, participat- ing in a wide array of defense and security-related seminars, conferences, and studies. General Van Riper's long and distinguished military career included command of ground combat units; he is familiar with all aspects of Marine Corps operations. Several of his career highlights include being the first president of the Marine Corps University; Deputy Commander for Training and Education; As- sistant Chief of Staff, Command, Control, Communications, and Computers; Director of Intelligence, Headquarters Marine Corps; and Commanding General, Second Marine Division. Before his retirement, General Van Riper served as Commanding General, Marine Corps Combat Development Command. He was also a member of the Naval Studies Board. General Van Riper graduated from California State University with a B.A. degree, entered the 34th Officer Candi- date Course, and was commissioned a second lieutenant in 1963. General Van
APPENDIX D 173 Riper is also a graduate of the College of Naval Command and Staff at the Naval War College and the Army War College. Staff Charles F. Draper is a senior program officer at the National Research Council's (NRC's) Naval Studies Board. Before joining the NRC in 1997, Dr. Draper was the lead mechanical engineer at S.T. Research Corporation, where he provided technical and program management support for satellite earth station and small satellite design. He received his Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Vander- bilt University in 1995; his doctoral research was conducted at the Naval Re- search Laboratory, where he used an atomic force microscope to measure the nanomechanical properties of thin film materials. In parallel with his duties as a graduate student, Dr. Draper was a mechanical engineer with Geo-Centers, In- corporated, working onsite at NRL on the development of an underwater x-ray . backscattering tomography system used for the non-destructive evaluation of U.S. Navy sonar domes on surface ships. Ronald D. Taylor has been the director of the Naval Studies Board of the Na- tional Research Council (NRC) since 1995. He joined the NRC in 1990 as a program officer with the Board on Physics and Astronomy and in 1994 he be- came associate director of the Naval Studies Board. During his tenure at the NRC, Or. Taylor has overseen the initiation and production of more than 40 studies focused on the application of science and technology to problems of national interest. Many of these studies address national security and national defense issues. From 1984 to 1990, Dr. Taylor was a research staff scientist with Berkeley Research Associates, working onsite at the Naval Research Laboratory on projects related to the development and application of charged particle beams. Before 1984, he held both teaching and research positions in several academic institutions, including those of assistant professor of physics at Villanova Univer- sity, research associate in chemistry at the University of Toronto, and instructor of physics at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. Dr. Taylor holds a B.S. in physics from Johns Hopkins University, and an M.S. and a Ph.D. in physics from the College of William and Mary. In addition to science policy, Dr. Taylor's scientific and technical expertise is in the areas of atomic and molecular collision theory, chemical dynamics, and atomic processes in plasmas. He has authored or co-authored nearly 30 professional scientific papers or technical reports and given more than two dozen contributed or invited papers at scientific meetings.