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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Theoretical Foundations for Decision Making in Engineering Design. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10566.
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THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS FOR DECISION MAKING IN ENGINEERING DESIGN

Committee on Theoretical Foundations for Decision Making in Engineering Design

Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Theoretical Foundations for Decision Making in Engineering Design. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10566.
×

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study by the Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design was conducted under grant no. NSF/DMI-9908549 from the National Science Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Theoretical Foundations for Decision Making in Engineering Design. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10566.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

National Academy of Sciences

National Academy of Engineering

Institute of Medicine

National Research Council

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm A.Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an advisor to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I.Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the-Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Wm A.Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Theoretical Foundations for Decision Making in Engineering Design. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10566.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Theoretical Foundations for Decision Making in Engineering Design. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10566.
×

COMMITTEE ON THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS FOR DECISION MAKING IN ENGINEERING DESIGN

ROBERT J.EAGAN (chair),

Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

BETH E.ALLEN,

University of Minnesota, Minneapolis

CORBETT D.CAUDILL,

GE Aircraft Engines, Cincinnati, Ohio

RONALD A.HOWARD,

Stanford University, Palo Alto, California

J.STUART HUNTER,

Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey

CHRISTOPHER L.MAGEE,

Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, Michigan

SIMON OSTRACH,

Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio

WILLIAM B.ROUSE,

Enterprise Support Systems, Norcross, Georgia

Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design Staff

CUNG VU, study director (until December 1, 2000)

ARUL MOZHI, study director (from December 1, 2000)

TONI MARECHAUX, board director

TERI THOROWGOOD, research associate

JUDY ESTEP, senior project assistant

Government Liaison

GEORGE HAZELRIGG,

National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Theoretical Foundations for Decision Making in Engineering Design. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10566.
×

BOARD ON MANUFACTURING AND ENGINEERING DESIGN

JOSEPH G.WIRTH (chair),

Raychem Corporation (retired), Mt. Shasta, California

F.PETER BOER,

Tiger Scientific, Inc., Boynton Beach, Florida

JOHN G.BOLLINGER,

University of Wisconsin, Madison

HARRY E.COOK,

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

PAMELA A.DREW,

The Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington

ROBERT EAGAN,

Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

EDITH M.FLANIGEN,

UOP Corporation (retired), White Plains, New York

JOHN W.GILLESPIE, JR.,

University of Delaware, Newark

JAMIE C.HSU,

General Motors Corporation, Warren, Michigan

RICHARD L.KEGG,

Milacron, Inc. (retired), Cincinnati, Ohio

JAY LEE,

United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, Connecticut

JAMES MATTICE,

Universal Technology Corporation, Dayton, Ohio

CAROLYN W.MEYERS,

North Carolina A&T University, Greensboro

JOE H.MIZE,

Oklahoma State University (retired), Stillwater

FRIEDRICH B.PRINZ,

Stanford University, Palo Alto, California

JAMES B.RICE, JR.,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

DALIBOR F.VRSALOVIC,

Intel Corporation, Santa Clara, California

JOEL SAMUEL YUDKEN,

AFL-CIO, Washington, D.C.

TONI MARECHAUX, director

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Theoretical Foundations for Decision Making in Engineering Design. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10566.
×

PREFACE

Design is a process by which human intellect, creativity, and passion are translated into useful artifacts. The practice of engineering design involves not only pure and applied sciences, behavioral and social sciences, and economics but also many aspects of business and law. A designer must work effectively with a team composed of members of different disciplines and make tens or even hundreds of decisions for simple products and thousands of decisions for complex products. Tools to aid designers extend from design guides and rules of thumb that capture experience to synthetic environments that allow the designer to fly through virtual models.

This study focuses on the development and use of tools and approaches for decision making in engineering design. It also examines the preparation that undergraduate students receive for applying decision analysis tools.

The Committee on Theoretical Foundations for Decision Making in Engineering Design reviewed some of the relevant literature and consulted experts to seek clarification as needed. In assessing commonly used design methodologies the committee also heard presentations about design engineering practices for a complex product (jet engine); management decisions for a commercial product (Chevrolet Corvette); and methods and tools used in risk analysis and design of a one-of-a-kind product (a space exploration vehicle).

The committee, though small, brought wide-ranging expertise in economics, decision theory, academic research, and industrial practice. This diversity was valuable in deliberations and instructive in the difficulties of communicating across disciplinary areas, especially in the study of decision analysis for engineering design.

Robert J.Eagan, chair

Committee on Theoretical Foundations for Decision Making in Engineering Design

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Theoretical Foundations for Decision Making in Engineering Design. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10566.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Theoretical Foundations for Decision Making in Engineering Design. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10566.
×

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The Committee on Theoretical Foundations for Decision Making in Engineering Design would like to thank the following individuals for their presentations: Wm A.Wulf, National Academy of Engineering; Steve Barrager, independent consultant; David Halstead, GE Aircraft Engines; John Taylor, NASA; and Greg Wyss, Sandia National Laboratories. In addition, the committee acknowledges Karen Padilla, Sandia National Laboratories, for typing several editions of the manuscript.

This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets the institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The content of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Ernest R.Blood, Caterpillar Inc.; Clive L.Dym, Harvey Mudd College; Jay Lee, University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee; Steven C. Lu, University of Southern California; Farrok Mistree, Georgia Institute of Technology; and David J. Vander Veen, General Motors.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of the report was overseen by George Dieter, University of Maryland, appointed by the Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Theoretical Foundations for Decision Making in Engineering Design. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10566.
×
This page in the original is blank.
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Theoretical Foundations for Decision Making in Engineering Design. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10566.
×

CONTENTS

 

 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

 

1

1

 

INTRODUCTION

 

4

   

PRIOR STUDIES

 

4

   

THE CHANGING NATURE OF ENGINEERING DESIGN

 

5

   

CURRENT STUDY

 

6

   

REFERENCES

 

7

2

 

DECISION MAKING IN ENGINEERING DESIGN

 

8

3

 

BASIC TOOLS FOR APPLIED DECISION THEORY

 

12

   

THE DECISION BASIS

 

13

   

FRAMING

 

15

   

SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS

 

17

4

 

METHODS, THEORIES, AND TOOLS

 

20

   

CONCURRENT ENGINEERING

 

20

   

TOOLS TO OBTAIN STAKEHOLDER INPUT

 

22

   

The Pugh Method

 

22

   

Quality Function Deployment

 

22

   

Decision Matrix Techniques

 

24

   

Analytic Hierarchy Process

 

26

   

TOOLS AND METHODS TO ADDRESS VARIABILITY, QUALITY, AND UNCERTAINTY

 

27

   

Projected Latent Structure

 

29

   

Taguchi Method

 

29

   

Six Sigma

 

30

   

METHODS AND TOOLS FOR GENERATING ALTERNATIVES

 

30

   

Design Information Systems, Support Systems, And Environments

 

30

   

Triz

 

31

   

FORMAL METHODS FOR REPRESENTING DESIGN PROBLEMS

 

32

   

Engineering Design: A Synthesis Of Views

 

32

   

Suh’s Axiomatic Design

 

33

   

Yoshikawa’s General Design Theory

 

34

   

A Mathematical Framework For Engineering Design

 

35

   

DECISION MAKING IN MANAGEMENT SCIENCE AND ECONOMIC FIELDS

 

36

   

Decision Making In Economics

 

36

   

Game Theory

 

38

   

SUMMARY OF METHODS, THEORIES, AND TOOLS

 

38

   

REFERENCES

 

41

5

 

IMPLICATIONS FOR ENGINEERING DESIGN EDUCATION AND RESEARCH

 

44

 

 

APPENDIXES

 

47

   

A ACCREDITATION BOARD FOR ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY 2000

 

49

   

B INVITED SPEAKERS

 

52

   

C BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS

 

53

   

D COMMITTEE USAGE

 

55

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Theoretical Foundations for Decision Making in Engineering Design. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10566.
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FIGURES AND TABLES

FIGURES

2–1

 

Decision process in the context of business and Environment

 

8

2–2

 

Decisions framed in relevant context

 

9

3–1

 

The quality of a decision

 

13

3–2

 

The problem space for characterization and decision-making

 

14

3–3

 

The decision hierarchy

 

15

3–4

 

The decision process

 

16

3–5

 

Decision diagram

 

16

3–6

 

Decision diagram for design of a dual-sport motorcycle

 

18

3–7

 

Tornado diagram

 

18

3–8

 

The decision quality spider

 

19

4–1

 

The House of Quality

 

23

4–2

 

A cascade of evaluation matrices

 

24

4–3

 

General format of the decision matrix

 

25

4–4

 

Decision matrix for access door attachment

 

25

4–5

 

Decision making in the context of variation

 

28

4–6

 

Scope of artificial intelligence in design

 

31

TABLES

ES–1

 

Summary of Tools and Applications Examined

 

2

2–1

 

Framing a Decision in the Relevant Context

 

10

4–1

 

Comparison Between Concurrent Versus Linear (Serial) Engineering

 

21

4–2

 

Summary of Tools and Applications Examined

 

39

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Theoretical Foundations for Decision Making in Engineering Design. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10566.
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