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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Toxicologic Assessment of Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10578.
×

Toxicologic Assessment of Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8

Subcommittee on Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8

Committee on Toxicology

Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL of the National Academies

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Toxicologic Assessment of Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10578.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This project was supported by Contract No. DAMD17-99-C-9049 between the National Academy of Sciences and U.S. Department of Defense. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Toxicologic Assessment of Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10578.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Toxicologic Assessment of Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10578.
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SUBCOMMITTEE ON JET-PROPULSION FUEL 8

MELVIN E. ANDERSEN (Chair),

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado; currently at CIIT-Centers for Health Research, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina

JANET M. BENSON,

Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico

SCOTT W. BURCHIEL,

University of New Mexico, Albuquerque

RAKESH DIXIT,

Merck Research Laboratory, West Point, Pennsylvania

ROBERT G. FELDMAN,

Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts

SAM KACEW,

University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

NANCY I. KERKVLIET,

Oregon State University, Corvallis

MARTHA S. SANDY,

California Environmental Protection Agency, Oakland

WILLIAM M. VALENTINE,

Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee

Staff

ABIGAIL E. MITCHELL, Project Director

NORMAN GROSSBLATT, Senior Editor

KELLY CLARK, Assistant Editor

MIRSADA KARALIC-LONCAREVIC, Research Assistant

JESSICA BROCK, Senior Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Toxicologic Assessment of Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10578.
×

COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGY

BAILUS WALKER, JR. (Chair),

Howard University Medical Center and American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C.

MELVIN E. ANDERSEN,

Colorado State University, Fort Collins

EDWARD C. BISHOP,

Parsons Corporation, Fairfax, Virginia

GARY P. CARLSON,

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

JANICE E. CHAMBERS,

Mississippi State University, Mississippi State

LEONARD CHIAZZE, JR.,

Georgetown University, Washington, D.C.

JUDITH A. GRAHAM,

American Chemistry Council, Arlington, Virginia

SIDNEY GREEN,

Howard University, Washington, D.C.

MERYL KAROL,

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

STEPHEN U. LESTER,

Center for Health Environment and Justice, Falls Church, Virginia

DAVID H. MOORE,

Battelle Memorial Institute, Bel Air, Maryland

CALVIN C. WILLHITE,

State of California, Berkeley

Staff

KULBIR S. BAKSHI, Program Director

SUSAN N.J. MARTEL, Senior Program Officer

ABIGAIL E. MITCHELL, Program Officer

KELLY CLARK, Assistant Editor

AIDA NEEL, Senior Project Assistant

TAMARA DAWSON, Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Toxicologic Assessment of Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10578.
×

BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY1

GORDON ORIANS (Chair),

University of Washington, Seattle

JOHN DOULL (Vice Chair),

University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City

DAVID ALLEN,

University of Texas, Austin

THOMAS BURKE,

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

JUDITH C. CHOW,

Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada

CHRISTOPHER B. FIELD,

Carnegie Institute of Washington, Stanford, California

WILLIAM H. GLAZE,

University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

SHERRI W. GOODMAN,

Center for Naval Analyses, Alexandria, Virginia

DANIEL S. GREENBAUM,

Health Effects Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts

ROGENE HENDERSON,

Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico

CAROL HENRY,

American Chemistry Council, Arlington, Virginia

ROBERT HUGGETT,

Michigan State University, East Lansing

BARRY L. JOHNSON

Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia

JAMES H. JOHNSON,

Howard University, Washington, D.C.

JAMES A. MACMAHON,

Utah State University, Logan

PATRICK V. O’BRIEN,

Chevron Research and Technology, Richmond, California

DOROTHY E. PATTON,

International Life Sciences Institute, Washington, D.C.

ANN POWERS,

Pace University School of Law, White Plains, New York

LOUISE M. RYAN,

Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts

JONATHAN M. SAMET,

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

KIRK SMITH,

University of California, Berkeley

LISA SPEER,

Natural Resources Defense Council, New York, New York

G. DAVID TILMAN,

University of Minnesota, St. Paul

CHRIS G. WHIPPLE,

Environ Incorporated, Emeryville, California

LAUREN A. ZEISE,

California Environmental Protection Agency, Oakland

Senior Staff

JAMES J. REISA, Director

DAVID J. POLICANSKY, Associate Director and Senior Program Director for Applied Ecology

RAYMOND A. WASSEL, Senior Program Director for Environmental Sciences and Engineering

KULBIR BAKSHI, Program Director for the Committee on Toxicology

ROBERTA M. WEDGE, Program Director for Risk Analysis

K. JOHN HOLMES, Senior Staff Officer

SUSAN N.J. MARTEL, Senior Staff Officer

SUZANNE VAN DRUNICK, Senior Staff Officer

RUTH E. CROSSGROVE, Managing Editor

1  

This study was planned, overseen, and supported by the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology.

Page viii Cite
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OTHER REPORTS OF THE BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY

Estimating the Public Health Benefits of Proposed Air Pollution Regulations (2002)

Biosolids Applied to Land: Advancing Standards and Practices (2002)

Ecological Dynamics on Yellowstone’s Northern Range (2002)

The Airliner Cabin Environment and Health of Passengers and Crew (2002)

Arsenic in Drinking Water: 2001 Update (2001)

Evaluating Vehicle Emissions Inspection and Maintenance Programs (2001)

Compensating for Wetland Losses Under the Clean Water Act (2001)

A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments (2001)

Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals (2 reports; 2000, 2002)

Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury (2000)

Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2000)

Scientific Frontiers in Developmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment (2000)

Ecological Indicators for the Nation (2000)

Modeling Mobile-Source Emissions (2000)

Waste Incineration and Public Health (1999)

Hormonally Active Agents in the Environment (1999)

Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter (3 reports, 1998-2001)

Ozone-Forming Potential of Reformulated Gasoline (1999)

Arsenic in Drinking Water (1999)

The National Research Council’s Committee on Toxicology: The First 50 Years (1997)

Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet (1996)

Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest (1996)

Science and the Endangered Species Act (1995)

Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries (1995)

Biologic Markers (5 reports, 1989-1995)

Review of EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (3 reports, 1994-1995)

Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment (1994)

Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993)

Dolphins and the Tuna Industry (1992)

Science and the National Parks (1992)

Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants (1991)

Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution (1991)

Decline of the Sea Turtles (1990)

Copies of these reports may be ordered from The National Academies Press

(800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313

www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Toxicologic Assessment of Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10578.
×

OTHER REPORTS OF THE COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGY

Review of Submarine Escape Action Levels for Selected Chemicals (2002)

Standing Operating Procedures for Developing Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Chemicals (2001)

Evaluating Chemical and Other Agent Exposures for Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity (2001)

Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Contaminants, Volume 1 (2000), Volume 2 (2002)

Review of the US Navy’s Human Health Risk Assessment of the Naval Air Facility at Atsugi, Japan (2000)

Methods for Developing Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines (2000)

Review of the U.S. Navy Environmental Health Center’s Health-Hazard Assessment Process (2000)

Review of the U.S. Navy's Exposure Standard for Manufactured Vitreous Fibers (2000)

Re-Evaluation of Drinking-Water Guidelines for Diisopropyl Methylphosphonate (2000)

Submarine Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Hydrofluorocarbons: HFC-236fa, HFC-23, and HFC-404a (2000)

Review of the U.S. Army’s Health Risk Assessments for Oral Exposure to Six Chemical-Warfare Agents (1999)

Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants, Volume 1(1997), Volume 2 (1999), Volume 3 (1999)

Assessment of Exposure-Response Functions for Rocket-Emission Toxicants (1998)

Toxicity of Alternatives to Chlorofluorocarbons: HFC-134a and HCFC-123 (1996)

Permissible Exposure Levels for Selected Military Fuel Vapors (1996)

Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants, Volume 1

(1994), Volume 2 (1996), Volume 3 (1996), Volume 4 (2000)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Toxicologic Assessment of Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10578.
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Preface

In the 1980s, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) selected jet-propulsion fuel 8 (JP-8) as its primary fuel. JP-8 is widely used by the military not only for aircraft, but also for ground vehicles and other equipment, such as generators, cooking stoves, and tent heaters. Military personnel can be exposed to JP-8 vapors and aerosols during a number of operational scenarios, including aircraft refueling and maintenance. To protect the health of its personnel, DOD recommended an interim permissible exposure level (PEL) of 350 mg/m3.

The Air Force requested that the National Research Council (NRC) review the available toxicologic, epidemiologic, and other relevant data on JP-8 and evaluate independently the scientific basis of the DOD’s interim PEL of 350 mg/m3 for JP-8. The NRC assigned this project to the Committee on Toxicology (COT), which assembled the Subcommittee on Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8 to prepare this report.

We thank the following Air Force personnel for providing valuable background information to the subcommittee: Brian Blazicko, Roger Gibson, John Hinz, David Mattie, James McDougal, and Richard Stotts. We also wish to express our gratitude to Geraldine Grant (George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia), David Harris (University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona), Glenn Ritchie (Geo-Centers, Inc., Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio), Mark Smulson (Georgetown University, Washington, D.C.), Steve Ullrich (M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas), Russell White (Chevron Research

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Toxicologic Assessment of Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10578.
×

and Technology Company, Richmond, California), and Mark Witten (University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona) for providing background information to the subcommittee. We also thank Stephen Channel (U.S. Air Force), Thomas Neal (U.S. Air Force), and Kenneth Still (U.S. Navy) for their support of this project.

This report has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid, critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following for their review of this report: Edward Bishop, Parsons Engineering Sciences, Inc., Fairfax, Virginia; Judith Graham, American Chemistry Council, Arlington, Virginia; Karl Kelsey, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Carole Kimmel, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.; Kannan Krishnan, University of Montreal, Quebec, Canada; David Lawrence, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York; Judith MacGregor, Toxicology Consulting Services, Arnold, Maryland; Ceinwen Schreiner, C & C Consulting in Toxicology, Meadowbrook, Pennsylvania; and Bailus Walker, Jr., Howard University Medical Center, Washington, D.C.

Although the reviewers provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the report’s conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Dean Carter, University of Arizona, Tucson, who was appointed by the NRC to ensure that an independent examination of this report was conducted in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of the report rests entirely with the subcommittee and the institution.

We are also grateful for the assistance of members of the NRC staff in the preparation of this report. The subcommittee acknowledges Abigail Mitchell, project director, and Kulbir Bakshi, program director of the Committee on Toxicology. Other staff members contributing to this report were James Reisa, director of the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology; Jessica Brock, senior project assistant; Norman Grossblatt, editor; and Kelly Clark, assistant editor.

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×

Finally, we thank all members of the subcommittee for their expertise and dedicated effort throughout the study.

Melvin E. Andersen, PhD

Chair, Subcommittee on

Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8

Bailus Walker, Jr., PhD, MPH

Chair, Committee on Toxicology

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Toxicologic Assessment of Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10578.
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3

 

Toxicokinetics and Toxicodynamics of Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8

 

29

   

Benzene

 

30

   

Alkylbenzenes

 

30

   

C9-C13 Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons

 

31

   

Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models of Benzene, Nonane, and C9-C12 or C9-C17 Aliphatic Hydrocarbons

 

32

   

Toxicokinetics-Related Interactions Among Hydrocarbon Fuel Components

 

35

   

Toxicokinetic-Related Individual Susceptibility Factors

 

36

   

References

 

37

4

 

Effects of Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8 on the Respiratory Tract

 

41

   

Effects of Exposure to Jet Fuels and Kerosene in Humans

 

41

   

Effects of Exposure to Jet Fuels and Kerosene in Experimental Animals

 

45

   

Effects of In Vitro Exposure to JP-8

 

52

   

Conclusions and Recommendations

 

53

   

References

 

54

5

 

Effects of Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8 on the Nervous System

 

56

   

Summary of Studies Discussed in the 1996 National Research Council Report

 

56

   

Effects of Exposure to JP-8 in Humans

 

57

   

Effects of Exposure to JP-8 in Experimental Animals

 

61

   

Conclusions and Recommendations

 

67

   

References

 

68

6

 

Effects of Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8 on the Immune System

 

71

   

Immunosuppressive Effects of JP-8

 

71

   

Allergic Potential of JP-8

 

81

   

Autoimmune Effects of JP-8

 

82

   

Conclusions and Recommendations

 

82

   

References

 

83

7

 

Effects of Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8 on the Liver

 

86

   

Summary of Studies Discussed in the 1996 National Research Council Report

 

86

   

Effects of Exposure to JP-8 in Humans

 

88

   

Effects of Exposure to JP-8 in Experimental Animals

 

91

   

Effects of In Vitro Exposure to JP-8

 

97

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Toxicologic Assessment of Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10578.
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Conclusions and Recommendations

 

97

   

References

 

98

8

 

Effects of Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8 on the Kidney

 

101

   

Summary of Studies Discussed in the 1996 National Research Council Report

 

101

   

Effects of Exposure to JP-8 in Humans

 

102

   

Effects of Exposure to JP-8 in Experimental Animals

 

106

   

Conclusions and Recommendations

 

110

   

References

 

111

9

 

Effects of Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8 on Reproduction and Development

 

113

   

Effects of Exposure to JP-8 in Humans

 

113

   

Effects of Exposure to JP-8 in Experimental Animals

 

114

   

Conclusions and Recommendations

 

120

   

References

 

121

10

 

Effects of Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8 on the Cardiovascular System

 

123

   

Summary of Studies Discussed in the 1996 National Research Council Report

 

123

   

Effects of Exposure to Jet Fuels in Humans

 

126

   

Effects of Exposure to JP-8 and Kerosene in Experimental Animals

 

127

   

Conclusions and Recommendations

 

128

   

References

 

128

11

 

Genotoxic Effects of Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8

 

130

   

Summary of Studies Discussed in the 1996 National Research Council Report

 

130

   

Genotoxicity in Humans

 

134

   

Genotoxicity Studies in Bacteria, Yeast, and Mammalian Cells In Vitro

 

135

   

In Vivo Genotoxicity Studies in Animals

 

136

   

Conclusions and Recommendations

 

137

   

References

 

138

12

 

Carcinogenic Effects of Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8

 

141

   

Summary of Studies Discussed in the 1996 National Research Council Report

 

141

   

Carcinogenicity Studies in Humans

 

148

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Toxicologic Assessment of Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10578.
×

Abbreviations


ACGIH

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists

ATSDR

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry


COT

Committee on Toxicology

CNS

central nervous system


DFM

diesel fuel marine

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

DOD

U.S. Department of Defense


FOB

functional observation battery


HDS

hydrodesulfurized


IARC

International Agency for Research on Cancer


JP-8

jet-propulsion fuel 8


LDH

lactate dehydrogenase


MDF

middle distillate fraction

MMAD

mass mean aerodynamic diameter

MN

micronucleus


NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

NIOSH

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

NOAEL

no-observed-adverse-effect level

NRC

National Research Council

NTP

National Toxicology Program

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Toxicologic Assessment of Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10578.
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OR

odds ratio


PEL

permissible exposure level

PB-PK model

physiologically based pharmacokinetic model


RD50

respiratory depression in 50% of the animals tested

REL

recommended exposure limit


SCE

sister chromatid exchange


TOMM

test of memory and motivation

TWA

time-weighted average


UDS

unscheduled DNA synthesis

USAF

U.S. Air Force

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2003. Toxicologic Assessment of Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10578.
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Toxicologic Assessment of Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8

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This report provides a critical review of toxicologic, epidemiologic, and other relevant data on jet-propulsion fuel 8, a type of fuel in wide use by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), and an evaluation of the scientific basis of DOD’s interim permissible exposure level of 350 mg/m3

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