Committee and Staff Biographies
Dr. Thomas E. Graedel (Chair) is a professor of industrial ecology at Yale University. He earned his Ph.D. in astrophysics in 1969 from the University of Michigan. His research interests include chemistry and physics of atmospheric gases and aerosols; effects of atmospheric contaminants on materials and electrical and mechanical equipment; and environmentally responsible industrial product and process design. His most recent research focuses on studies of the stocks and flows of materials in the industrialized society, especially in very large cities and in environmentally sensitive regions. This work explores aspects of resource availability, potential environmental impacts, opportunities for recycling and reuse, and resources policy initiatives. Dr. Graedel is a member of the NRC Committee on Material Flows Accounting of Natural Resources, Products, and Residuals and is a member of the National Academy of Engineering.
Dr. Linda Capuano is an independent consultant in business and technology strategy. Prior to this she was Corporate Vice President of Technology Strategy at Honeywell International, a $23 billion diversified technology and manufacturing leader, serving customers worldwide with services, building control, aerospace, automotive and specialty chemical products. Joining AlliedSignal in 1995, Dr. Capuano was the general manager of commercial air transport auxiliary power unit products, vice president of technology and innovation, vice president of strategic marketing and business development, and vice president of strategic marketing and business development. Previously, she was the vice president of operations and business development and part of the founding team of Conductus, a telecommunications superconductive electronics business in Sunnyvale, California. Dr. Capuano has also held product management positions in magnetic memory recording at IBM. She served on the Department of Energy Task Force on Alternative Futures for the DOE National Laboratories and as chair of the NRC’s Board on Assessment of NIST Programs. Dr. Capuano holds a B.S. in chemistry from State University of New York at Stony Brook, a B.S. in chemical engineering and an M.S. in chemistry from the University of Colorado, and an M.S. in engineering management and Ph.D. in materials science from Stanford University.
Dr. Elizabeth Chornesky is a freelance analyst and research associate at the University of California, Santa Cruz. For more than a decade, she has worked on integrating science into policies and practices related to the conservation of biological diversity and management of biological resources. Previously, as the director of stewardship and then director of conservation research at The Nature Conservancy, Dr. Chornesky oversaw the organization’s multi-million dollar research programs and led teams of extension scientists specializing in ecological management, monitoring, and restoration. Prior to that, she was a project director and analyst at the U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment, working on national assessments related to invasive species and pesticide alternatives. Her early career was as a research scientist in marine ecology and systematics at the Smithsonian Institution and Lehigh University. Dr. Chornesky has consulted for the National Commission on Science for Sustainable Forestry, the Union of Concerned Scientists, and the Wallace Institute for Alternative Agriculture. She also serves on several national committees, most recently a visioning initiative of the Ecological Society of America’s Governing Board and the NRC Committee on Opportunities in Agriculture. Dr. Chornesky holds a B.A. from Cornell University and a Ph.D. from the University of Texas at Austin.
Ms. Mary A. Gade is a partner in the environmental practice group in the law firm of Sonnenschein, Nath, and Rosenthal in Chicago, Illinois, where her work includes litigation, regulatory affairs, and compliance counseling. Before joining the firm, Ms. Gade was the director of the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency from 1991 to 1999. She supervised a staff of approximately 1,400 that enforced the environmental laws and regulations of the state, conducted hazardous waste cleanups, responded to environmental emergencies, maintained environmental laboratories, provided financial assistance to local governments for pollution control facilities, and encouraged and supported pollution prevention programs. She received her law degree in 1977 from Washington University School of Law in St. Louis, Missouri, and her undergraduate degree in
environmental studies and Italian from the University of Wisconsin, Madison. She has been a fellow of the National Academy of Public Administration since 1996.
Ms. Katharine L. Jacobs is a member of the faculty of the University of Arizona’s Soil, Water and Environmental Science Department. She is affiliated with the Water Resources Research Center, the Institute for the Study of the Planet Earth, and the NSF Center for Sustainability of Arid Region Hydrology and Riparian Areas (SAHRA). She was the director of the Tucson Active Management Area (AMA) of the Arizona Department of Water Resources from 1988 through 2001, and worked on statewide rural water resources issues and drought planning from 2002-2003. In 2001-2002 she worked at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration on the use of scientific information in policy and decision making. Ms. Jacobs earned her M.L.A. in environmental planning from the University of California, Berkeley. Her expertise is in groundwater management and developing practical, appropriate solutions to difficult public policy issues. She has been involved in all aspects of implementation of the Arizona 1980 Groundwater Management Act, including establishing water rights and permits; developing mandatory conservation requirements for municipal, agricultural, and industrial water users; developing plans for artificial recharge, and writing the Assured Water Supply Rules that require new subdivisions in AMAs to prove a 100 year supply of water. She served on the Synthesis Team for the U.S. National Assessment of the Consequences of Climate Variability and Change and two other NRC panels, Valuing Groundwater (1994) and Endangered Species on the Platte River (2003).
Dr. Anthony C. Janetos has been Vice President of the H. John Heinz Center for Science, Economics, and the Environment since March 2003; he joined the Center as a Senior Fellow in June 2002. Dr. Janetos also directs the Center’s Global Change program. Before coming to the Heinz Center, he served as Vice President for Science and Research at the World Resources Institute and Senior Scientist for the Land-Cover and Land-Use Change Program in NASA’s Office of Earth Science. He was also Program Scientist for NASA’s Landsat 7 mission. He was a co-chair of the U.S. National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change and an author of the IPCC Special Report on Land-Use Change and Forestry and the Global Biodiversity Assessment. Dr. Janetos has written and spoken widely to policy, business, and scientific audiences on the need for scientific input and scientific assessment in the policymaking process and about the need to understand the scientific, environmental, economic, and policy linkages among the major global environmental issues, and the importance of keeping basic human needs in the forefront of the thinking of the environmental community. Dr. Janetos graduated magna cum laude from Harvard College with a bachelor’s degree in biology and earned a master’s degree and a Ph.D. in biology from Princeton University.
Dr. Charles D. Kolstad is the Donald Bren Distinguished Professor of Environmental Economics and Policy at the University of California, Santa Barbara, where he is jointly appointed in the Department of Economics and the Bren School of Environmental Science and Management. For the decade prior to joining UCSB in 1993 he was on the faculty of the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. He has been a visiting professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Stanford, the Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium), and the New Economic School (Moscow). He received his Ph.D. from Stanford University (1982), his M.A. from the University of Rochester and his B.S. from Bates College. His research interests have been in the area of regulation, particularly environmental regulation. Recently he has also done work on environmental valuation theory in the role of information in environmental decision making and regulation, and the role of uncertainty and learning in controlling the precursors of climate change. His past work in energy markets has focused on coal and electricity markets, including the effect of air pollution regulation on these markets. Dr. Kolstad has served on several NRC committees, including the Committee on Building a Long-Term Environmental Quality Research and Development Program in the U.S. Department of Energy and the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems.
Dr. Diana M. Liverman joined the University of Oxford as the director of the Environmental Change Institute and professor of environmental science in the School of Geography and Environment in October 2003. Dr. Liverman previously served as the director of the Center for Latin American Studies, professor of geography and regional development, and a member of the Executive Committee of the Institute for the Study of Planet Earth (ISPE) at the University of Arizona. Dr. Liverman’s research examines the social causes and consequences of environmental change, especially in Latin America. She is currently working on the impacts of climate variability and change on agriculture and water resources, and on the anthropogenic causes of changes in land use and land cover, both with a regional focus on Mexico. She also studies environmental policy relating to the U.S.-Mexico border, the functioning of transnational research institutions, and the human dimensions of climate change and variation including climate impacts and the communication of climate information to stakeholders. Dr. Liverman received her Ph.D. from University of California, Los Angeles.
Dr. Jerry D. Mahlman is a senior research fellow at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colorado. He was the director of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in Princeton, New Jersey, for 16 years before his retirement in 2000. He was also a professor of atmospheric and oceanic sciences at Princeton University for 28 years. Much of Dr. Mahlman’s research career has been directed toward understanding the behavior of the stratosphere and troposphere. This has involved extensive mathematical modeling and diagnosis of the interactive chemical, radiative, dynamical, and transport aspects of the atmosphere, as well as their implications for climate and chemical change. Over the past decade he has played a central role in the interpretation of climate change to policy makers and affected communities. Dr. Mahlman has served on numerous committees and boards, including the NASA Advisory Council and the Board on Sustainable Development of the NRC. In 1994 he received the prestigious Carl-Gustaf Rossby Research Medal from the American Meteorological Society and the Presidential Distinguished Rank Award, the highest honor awarded to a federal employee. He received his Ph.D. from Colorado State University.
Dr. Diane McKnight is professor of civil, environmental and architectural engineering at the University of Colorado. Dr. McKnight is also a fellow of the American Geophysical Union and past president of the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography. Her research focuses on interactions between hydrologic, chemical, and biological processes in controlling the dynamics in aquatic ecosystems. This research is carried out through field-scale experiments, modeling, and laboratory characterization of natural substrates. In addition, Dr. McKnight conducts research focusing on interactions between freshwater biota, trace metals, and natural organic material in diverse freshwater environments, including lakes and streams in the Colorado Rocky Mountains and in the McMurdo Dry Valleys in Antarctica. She also develops interactions with state and local groups involved in mine drainage and watershed issues in the Rocky Mountains. Dr. McKnight is a member of the NRC’s Water Science and Technology Board and is a former member of the Polar Research Board. She received her Ph.D. in environmental engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Dr. Michael J. Prather is professor and Kavli Chair in the Earth System Science Department at the University of California, Irvine. He received his Ph.D. in astronomy from Yale University. His research interests include the simulation of the physical, chemical, and biological processes that determine atmospheric composition and the development of detailed numerical models of photochemistry and atmospheric radiation, and global chemical transport models that describe ozone and other trace gases. Dr. Prather has played a significant role in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change second and third assessments and special report on aviation, and in the World Meteorological Organization’s Ozone Assessments (1985-1994). He is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union and a foreign member of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, and has served on several NRC committees, including the Panel on Climate Variability on Decade-to-Century Time Scales.
Dr. Eugene Rosa is professor of sociology and the Edward R. Meyer Distinguished Professor of Natural Resource and Environmental Policy in the Thomas S. Foley Institute for Public Policy and Public Service at Washington State University. Dr. Rosa received his Ph.D. in social science from the Maxwell Graduate School of Syracuse University and completed postdoctoral work at Stanford University and at the University of Michigan. His research program has focused on environmental topics—particularly energy, technology, and risk issues—with attention to theoretical, empirical, and policy issues. His current research is focused on two complementary topics: technological risk and global environmental change. The principal activities associated with the first topic are research and publications on risky technologies such as nuclear power and biotechnology. On the second topic his research and publications are devoted to specifying the anthropogenic (human) causes of greenhouse gases and ecological footprints, to the historical relationships between CO2 loads and societal well-being, to the history of social thought on climate change, and to testing theories of environmental impacts. He has served or currently serves on several NRC committees, including the Committee on the Staging of Nuclear Repositories, the National Board on Radioactive Waste Management, and the Committee on Metrics for Global Change Research.
Dr. William H. Schlesinger is James B. Duke professor of biogeochemistry, and Dean of the Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences at Duke University. Completing his A.B. at Dartmouth (1972), and Ph.D. at Cornell (1976), he joined the faculty at Duke in 1980. He is the author or coauthor of over 160 scientific papers and the widely-adopted textbook Biogeochemistry: An Analysis of Global Change (Academic Press, 2nd ed. 1997). He was elected a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1995 and The National Academy of Sciences in 2003. Currently, Dr. Schlesinger focuses his research on global change ecology. He is the co-principal investigator for the Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) Experiment in the Duke Forest—a project that aims to understand how an entire forest ecosystem (vegetation and soils) will respond to elevated CO2. He has also worked extensively in desert ecosystems and their response to global change—often leading to the degradation of soils and regional desertification. From 1991 to 2000, he served as
Principal Investigator for the NSF-sponsored program of Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) at the Jornada Basin in southern New Mexico. His past work has taken him to diverse habitats, ranging from Okefenokee Swamp in southern Georgia to the Mojave Desert of California. His research has been featured on NOVA, CNN, NPR, and on the pages of Discover, National Geographic, The New York Times, and Scientific American. Dr. Schlesinger has testified before U.S. House and Senate Committees on a variety of environmental issues, including preservation of desert habitats and global climate change. Schlesinger has been elected President of the Ecological Society of America for 2003-2004.
Dr. David L. Skole is a professor of geography and the director of the Center for Global Change and Earth Observations at Michigan State University. He received a Ph.D. in natural resources from the University of New Hampshire. His research interests are in the role of land-use and land-cover change and its relation to global change and sustainable development. Much of his work involves remote sensing at continental scales in the tropical and temperate zones, including assessments of the rates and geographic patterns of tropical forest conversion and fragmentation. His research incorporates geographical information and geospatial information technologies in numerical models of natural and managed landscape change and its effect on biodiversity and biogeochemistry. Dr. Skole is past chair of the IGBP-IHDP Core Project on Land Use and Cover Change. He currently serves as chair of the Forest Cover Characteristics and Changes Implementation team of the United Nations Global Terrestrial Observing System program on Global Observations of Land Cover Dynamics, and has served on several advisory committees at federal agencies and the aerospace and geographic information system industries in the United States. Dr. Skole is currently the chair of the U.S. National Science Foundation Advisory Committee on Environmental Research and Education and a member of NASA’s Landsat 7 science team.
Dr. Andrew R. Solow is a senior scientist and the director of the Marine Policy Center at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. His research interests include environmental and ecological statistics, time series analysis, spatial statistics, and applied Bayesian methods. His recent work has focused on population modeling with an emphasis on capturing the population effects of environmental variability. Dr. Solow is a former member of the NRC’s Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources and the Committee on Fifty Years of Ocean Discovery at the National Science Foundation. Dr. Solow earned his Ph.D. in geostatistics from Stanford University.
Dr. Robert A. Weller received his Ph.D. in 1978 from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. He is the director of the Cooperative Institute for Climate and Ocean Research at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; he has worked at WHOI since 1979. His research is on atmospheric forcing (wind stress and buoyancy flux), surface waves on the upper ocean, prediction of upper ocean variability, and the ocean’s role in climate. He serves as the Secretary of the Navy Chair in Oceanography. He has been on multiple mooring deployment cruises and has practical experience with ocean observation instruments. Dr. Weller is currently serving on the NRC Committee on Utilization of Environmental Satellite Data: A Vision for 2010 and Beyond and the NRC Committee on Implementation of a Seafloor Observatory Network for Oceanographic Research.
Dr. Steve Wittrig is director of the Clean Energy: Facing the Future Program for BP, a program to invest $10 million in Chinese universities to develop and prove clean energy technologies for China and the rest of the world. He worked on the BP/Amoco merger, considering gas-to-liquids strategy and chemical technology strategy and implementation; and on special assignments for Amoco including leading the strategy development team for a program to convert gas to liquids and oxygenates. In prior assignments with Amoco, he managed the engineering and process evaluation group for new product development in chemicals; led a team developing new reactor technology for methane conversion to syngas; and worked with Amoco Oil on coal liquefaction, refinery research, and pollution control. He has a B.S. from the University of Illinois, Urbana, and a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the California Institute of Technology.
National Research Council Staff
Dr. Amanda Staudt is a senior program officer with the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate of the National Academies. She received an A.B. in environmental engineering and sciences and a Ph.D. in atmospheric sciences from Harvard University. Her doctorate research involved developing a global three-dimensional chemical transport model to investigate how long-range transport of continental pollutants affects the chemical composition of the remote tropical Pacific troposphere. Since joining the National Academies in 2001, Dr. Staudt has worked on studies addressing weather research needs for surface transportation, climate forcings, air quality management in the United States, research priorities for airborne particulate matter, the NARSTO Assessment of the Atmospheric Science on Particulate Matter, carbon monoxide episodes in
meteorological and topographical problem areas, and weather forecasting for aviation traffic flow management. She also is the study director for the longstanding Climate Research Committee.
Dr. Gregory H. Symmes serves as associate executive director of the Division on Earth and Life Studies (DELS) of the National Academies, where he is responsible for managing the review of over 70 reports each year and coordinating the National Academies’ global change activities, among other management duties. Prior to the formation of DELS in January 2001, he served as associate executive director of the National Academies’ Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources. In addition to his division-level management responsibilities, Dr. Symmes has directed National Academies studies in the following areas of science policy: peer review processes and science and technology needs for the Department of Energy’s radioactive waste management efforts; regulation of hardrock mining on federal lands; and competitive research within the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Before joining the NRC in 1995, Dr. Symmes served as a research assistant professor and postdoctoral associate in the Department of Earth and Space Sciences at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. He received his Ph.D. in geology from the Johns Hopkins University and his B.A. summa cum laude in geology from Amherst College.